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PUBLICATION 



,e magazine for T lis 80 






How You Can Join 
The Network Natio 






July 1982\ 

USA $2.95 (UKal.aot 



T 





Dosplus shifts into overdrive for business. 

And shifts your sales into high gear 



DOSPLUS MEANS INCREASED BUSINESS 

We pioneered the first Model I double density system that was 
written from the ground up as a double density system. We 
pioneered Automatic Density Recognition and Automatic Track 
Count support. We pioneered the first after-market Model II! 
system. We pioneered the first Model III hard disk system written 
from the ground up to operate the Winchester technology hard 
drives. We have been, and intend to remain, at the very fore-front 
of the industry. And along the way we've earned a reputation for 
quality, dependable software 

What this all means to you can best be summed up with 

one word . . . PROFIT. 

Become a DOSPLUS distributor or dealer now and get a 

piece of the action. 

DOSPLUS means increased business. High demand. 

Solid profit. When you're dealing DOSPLUS you're doing 

business with a dependable supplier with a quality product 

to sell. Our bad apple rate is less than 1% of our total 

shipments and our ability to meet delivery dates is just as 

impressive. 

As a DOSPLUS dealer or distributor you'll also enjoy 

complete marketing support through our multi-publication 

advertising campaign. 

DOSPLUS. A PROVEN PROFIT MAKER. 

Current DOSPLUS operating systems: 

Dosplus 3.4— The flagship of the Micro-Systems line Our 
current "end-user" DOS. Contains all of the new advanced DOS 
features and the expanded Disk BASIC. Comes with 200+ page 
user's manual that includes technical reference section. ,. 



Dosplus 4.0 — Our hard disk operating system. An operat- 
ing system designed from the ground up for hard disk opera- 
tion. Contains all of the powerful Dosplus 3.4 features plus 
the power of hard disk operation. Has the ability to use the 
hard disk as the system drive. Also includes 200+ page 
manual with technical reference section. 

Dosplus 3.3 — Our OEM DOS. Limited features and 
documentation but maximum value. Dependable and easy to 
use. Pricing according to quantity. Significant discounts are 
available. Comes with easy reading 50 page users guide without 
technical reference section. 

T DOS — Our "kernel'" system. For software publishers who 
need to distribute on a Disk Operating System but don't need the 
inflated cost. Royalty payments of only $2 per copy. System 
functions such as Dosplus 3.3 does. Includes a Backup, Format, 
and single drive copy utility. Supplied with TBASIC 1.4 Call or 
write for information on licensing your program for distribution on 
T DOS. Already used by many of the major publishing houses and 
popular authors. 

Soon to be released business software: 

MICRO CASH RETAIL BUSINESS PACKAGE 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 2.0 WITH 

MANUFACTURING INVENTORY 

For further information on these two business 

software packages, contact 

Micro Systems Software. 
r\S<hrmiir (Outside of Fla.) 

[XllDI I t\ 00»PLU» tlrw in c 

W^S^0M MM Flr«t In th» Induatl 




ffl/croSrsrems 

SOt TU/ctf &>r,c ■ 

lo^d.iitinn in lh. Tandy Lm. 
984S Fun, ion Stroal 
Hollywood, TV 33023 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-327-8724 

FOR VT&A/1*A8TEf*OlARGE. C O D ORDERS 
TOLL FREE LINES WILL ACCEPT ORDERS ONLY) 
Fo» Appacanona and Technical infwmatron 
tall 13051 983-3390 or drop us a cer3 

Dealers inqmnas invtiea 



So Far, So Good... 




Your Model III is a fine computer. 

So why settle for less than 

a fine disk storage system? 

A fast, reliable disk storage system — no other 
device is so vital to the satisfactory performance of 
your computer. At Percom we build quality, high- 
performance disk drive systems. From gold-plated 
connector contacts to goldcad metal chassis 
structures. From proven design through 100% 
reliability testing. Percom disk systems are the 
standard by which others are judged — the industry's 
"gold standard," in a sense. And since Percom is the 
largest independent manufacturer of disk systems 
for microcomputers, you get Percom quality 
at very competitive prices. Add-on drives for 
TRS-80* computers start as low as $399. 
Complete first-drive systems for the Model III 
start at only $599. Put a quality Percom mini-disk 
storage system in your Model III. And save. 



#1 For Your Model III 

Percom TFD drives for your TRS-80* Model III computer are available in 
40- and 80-track versions with single or dual heads. Single-head 40-track 
drives store 180 Kbytes; dual-head 40-track drives store 360 Kbytes. 
Eighty-track drives store slightly over twice these amounts. Of course 
these are formatted capacities. The Percom Model III controller handles 
up to four drives so it's possible to access almost three million bytes of 
on-line program and data files. You get Percom's OS-80/III Basic 
language DOS with each first-drive system, and your first drive may be 
either internal (add-in) or external (add-on). Percom TFD drives work with 
Model III TRSDOS and other Model III disk-operating systems. First-drive 
systems are pre-assembled. Installation is accomplished with simple tools. 

#1 For Your Model I, Too 

Percom TFD add-on drives for the TRS-80* Model I computer are 
available with the same features and the same quality control measures 
as TFD Model III drives. As for Model III drives, all Percom Model I drives 
are double-density rated. Install Percom's popular DOUBLER II in your 
Model I Expansion Interface and upgrade your Model I to provide the 
same storage capacity as the Model III. 

Watch for Announcement of Percom's Low-Cost 
Hard Disk System for the Model III! 

To order, or for the name of your authorized Percom retailer, 
call toll free 1-800-527-1222. 



The Drive People 
You get more out of 
Percom disk systems. 
Expect it! 





PERCOM DATA COMPANY. INC. 

1 1 220 Pagemill Road • Dallas. Texas 75243 
(214)340-7081 



PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 

'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Radio Shack Corporation which has no relationship to 

Percom Data Company, Inc. 

PERCOM, DOUBLER II and OS-80TII are trademarks of Percom Data Company, Inc. 



Yes... I'd like to know more about 
the best for my TRS-80 computer. 
Send me free literature about 
quality Percom products. 

□ MODEL I LI MODEL III 

Send to 

PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC Dept. 8-M 

1 1220 Pagemill Road, Dallas, TX, 75243 



STREET 



CITY 



ainic 

ZIP PHONE NUMBER Jf 




Contents 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smythe 

ASSISTANT TO PRESIDENT 

Matt Smith 

GENERAL MANAGER 

Debra Boudrieau 

ASSISTANT PUBLISHER 

Jeff DeTray 

COMPTROLLER 

Roger Murphy 

CIRCULATION 

Patricia Ferrante, Circulation Manager; 

Ginnie Boudrieau, Bulk Sales Manager 

ADVERTISING, 603-924-7138 

David Schissler, Advertising Manager; Hal 

Stephens, Susan Martin, Piergiorgio 

Saluti: Sales; Penny Brooks: Ad 

Coordinator. 

New England Advertising Representative: 

John A. Garland, Garland Associates, Inc., 

Box 314 SHS, Duxbury, MA 02332 

617-934-6464 

PRODUCTION 

Nancy Salmon, Manager; Michael Murphy, 

Assistant. Frances Benton, Betty Butler, 

Theresa Ostebo, Scott Philbrick, Dianne 

Ritson, Deborah Stone, Irene Vail; Ad 

Coordinators: David Wozmak, Judy 

Wimberly; Advertising Production: Steve 

Baldwin, Fiona Davies, Bruce Hedin, Jane 

Preston 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Sandra Dukette, Bryan Hastings, John R. 

Schweigert, Thomas Villeneuve, Robert M. 

Villeneuve 

TYPESETTING 

Melody Bedell, Sara Bedell. Debbie 

Davidson, Michele DesRochers, Jennifer 

Fay, Anne Rocchio, Ellen Schwartz, Lisa 

Steiner, Karen Stewart 

DESIGN 

Denzel Dyer, Howard Happ, Laurie 

MacMillan, Joyce Pillarella, Diana Shonk, 

Susan Stevens, Donna Wohlfarth 



80 Micro (ISSN -0199-67891 is published 12 limes a year By 
1001001 inc , 80 Pine SI . Peterborough. NM 03458 Phone: 
603-924.9471 Second class postage paid at Peterborough. NH. 
and additional mailing ollices. Subscription rates in u S are 
$25 lor one year and $53 lor three years in Canada. 
$27 97— one year only. U.S. lunds. Canadian distributor Micro 
Dislnbuting. 409 Queen Si West. Toronto. Ontario Canada 
M5V 2A5 BC Canadian distributor: Giaymar Data Services 
Ltd.. »4 258 E 1st Ave . Vancouver BC V5T IA6 Foreign sub- 
scriptions (surface mail). $44 97-one year only. U.8. lunds 
drawn on a u S. bank. Foreign subscriptions lair mail), please 
Inquire. In South Alnca conlacl 80 Micro. P.O. Bo. 782815. 
Sandlon. South Alnca 2146 All U.S. and Canadian subscription 
correspondence should be addressed lo 80 Micro. Subscription 
Department. PO Bo. 98i. Farmingdale. NY 11737 Please in- 
clude your address label with any correspondence Postmas- 
ter: Send lorm -3579 to 80 Micro. Subscription Services. P.O. 
Box 981. Farmingdale. NY 11737 



Paia Audited Circulati 



Manuscripts are welcome al 80 Micro We will consider publica- 
tion ol any TRS-80 oriented material Guidelines lor budding au- 
thors are available Please send a sell addressed envelope and 
ask lor "How lo Write lor 80 Micro " 80 Micro is published month- 
ly by 1001001 inc . a subsidiary ol Wayne Green inc. Entire con- 
tents copyright 1 982 Wayne Green Inc No pari or this publication 
may De reprinted, or reproduced by any means, without prior writ 
ten permission from the publisher All programs are published lor 
9 only. All rights reserved 



Cover Design by Alex Stevens 

•TRS-80. Scripsit and THSDOS are trade- 
marks of Tandy Corp. 



Data Communications-— TRS-80 Style 



82 



by Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 

In a muddle over giving your 80 telecommunications capability? Author Derfler 
will tell you why you might want data communications for your micro and how 
you go about doing it. 



Breaker 19 



96 



by David D. Busch 

After getting an eyeful of "Hi there, I'm new! How do you work this, anyway?" on 
CompuServe's CB simulator, 80 Micro's KTI Inc. expert thought it was time to 
explain a few things to a few people. 



For the Novice— Part I 



148 



by Jay Chidsey 

If you're new at computing or have been beeping for six months or so, author 
Chidsey has prepared a six-part series to help you over the rough spots. In this 
installment, he talks about memory— high and low. 



106 




Spiromania— Partll 

by Jake Commander 

In May's 80 Micro, Jake showed you some eye- 
catching color graphics. Now in a reprise, he'll 
tell you how to firm up your graphics tech- 
nique and do some wowing of your own. 

Ohio Electronic News Experiment 

100 

by Jay Chidsey 

In the Ohio hamlet of Tiffiny, a small-town paper 
has entered the micro age. Learn how the staff 
puts out the video equivalent of a 150-page 
newspaper every day. 



DEPARTMENTS 

6 Remarks Wayne Green 386 

8 Proof Notes 387 

10 Input 388 

22 Aid 406 

26 Debug 412 

30 80 Accountant Michael Tannenbaum 428 

34 Soft Bits Roger Fuller 430 

44 Reviews 436 

74 Commander 80 Jake Commander 438 

78 Kitchen Table Software David Busch 

376 Money DOS J.M. Keynes *on Load 80 tape 



Reader Service 

Calendar 

News 

Feedback Loop Terry Kepner 

Copernica Mathematica Bruce Douglass 

Education 80 Earl R. Savage 

Medical Opinion Philip R. Mills, M.D. 

RELOAD 80 

New Products 



4 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



June/July 1982 Issue #30 



BUSINESS 

*248 Survey 

Telemarketing for your micro. Roger Wells 

EDUCATION 

254 CIE— Computers in Education 

How everything got up to date in CSD 22. 
Stephen Radin 
*326 OJT 

A program for rolling your own. Frank Tymon 
352 Do Not Pass 

Learn road signs with the Color Computer. 
James W. Wood 

GAME 

227 Fortran Puzzler 

What are the 57th St. Whiz Kids saying? 
Richard A. Yehle 
*330 You Light Up My Grid 

Tic-tac-beep. David R. McGlumphy 

GENERAL 

184 Print That Index 

An addendum to Klungle's index. Carl Everett 
*272 Propagation Prediction 

For computerists who are HAMs. John D. Chipman 
284 BBS Primer 

Bulletin boards from the word go. Sfeve Wright 
296 Hoodwinking TRSDOS 

Model II printing prestidigitation. Linda Anderson 
*300 Portal to Portal Report 

Let your 80 help you play the airline travel incentive 

game. J. M. Keneipp 
306 Play a Trick on Profile 

PRORAN also runs. Bryan Scott 
320 Program Begat Son of Program Begat . . . 

A self-producing program for the mother in your 80. 

Kenneth Christensen and Craig Sater 
344 Expand it— Burn it in 

48K easy as pie. Colin Alexander 
*348 A Gentle Reminder 

Your 80 can be a tough taskmaster. Jeff Rosen 
358 Phonfind 

Sorting business from pleasure. Robert Eldridge 

HARDWARE 

128 Bare Bones Communicator 

Skeleton talk from your cassette port. Bob Hart 

229 Modem Auto-Answer 

Hello, Don's away; would you like to speak to his com- 
puter? Don Westbrook 

310 Sixteen Channel A/D Board 

Building on Fortna's Interrupt Mode IVi. David Haan 

374 Singer Printer Interface 

Slow, but better than dot matrix. 
Don DeJarnette and R. Mailhot 

HOME/HOBBY 

160 Telephone Dialer 

Lazy fingers. Jim Hickey 

PERSONALITY 

174 Bob Rosen— A Colorful Success Story 

How Connection-80 was born in Woodhaven, NY. 
Kerry Leichtman 



REVIEW 

116 Color Computer Utilities 

When you want to go beyond Basic programming with 

your color machine. Scott Norman 
122 PUI-80 

Throwing some water on a mainframe witch. 

Thomas W. Parsons 
150 Data Base Managers— Part II 

Three for the load. Wynne Keller 
162 MMSFORTH 

New power for your 80. Nicholas Spies 
262 Dialog 

55 million records and not a song among them. 

Alan Neibauer 
266 Extended Color Basic 

Explaining its functions. Franklyn D. Miller 
280 Statistical Analyses Analyzed 

Radio Shack vs Ecosoft. L. H. Zincone 
338 It's in the Mail 

Three software packages for the small businessman. 

Wynne Keller 

SERIES 

176 Do-It- Your self Data Base— Part I 

A tape version for 50 records. Karl Townsend 
186 Technological Destiny— Part III 

Easy COMS, easy goes. Gary Dilllio 
362 Programming Pitch II 

Correcting a mix-up from last month. Merton L. Davis 

TECHNIQUE 

298 The STRINGS's the Thing 

Liberal use can conserve memory. Tim Knight 
308 The PEEK of Its Career 

Looking at that function for the Model II. 

C. David Wilson 
350 ROM Breakout! 

How to modify the Basic interpreter's functions. 

J. C. Sprott 

TUTORIAL 

192 DiGraph Digressions 

Never get lost again with this path-tracing program. 
Len Gorney 
'232 Stepwise Refinement 

Keep your programs from looking like a spiral staircase. 
S. Boasso 

UTILITY 

172 Half Duplexer 

Odeledee-O! Richard C. McGarvey 
194 Basic Translator 

Transforming dialects of Basic. Howard E. Miller 
*288 Lost and Found 

Disk directory for the Model III. 

Robert Athanasiou and William Athanasiou 
318 Horizontal Scrolling 

When you want more than getting down. G. M. Foley 
324 Basic Communication 

A terminal program in a language we all understand. 

Richard C. McGarvey 
334 16, 10, 2, or 8— Which Base Do We Appreciate? 

Let your 80 run your bases. Karl Sarnow 
346 DATAGEN 

Let your Color Computer turn machine code into Basic. 

John Heusinkveld 

80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 5 



BO REMARKS 



by Wayne Green 



"The Model 16 looks as 

if it is going to be a 

good system." 



The Model 16. . . 
A Debacle 

The coming "dump" of the Mode! II at 
$3,000 may unsettle Shackies a bit. It 
certainly will hammer home the idea that 
the Shack is going to make the Model 16 
stick, whether you like it or not. 

It's my understanding that the initial 
bugs in the 16 have been repaired and that 
production is proceeding. The 16 will run 
the Mil. But for Mil owners, the future ap- 
pears to be more ominous . . . and perhaps 
even the lower price for the system during 
bargain month is not enough. 

Think about it. With the Mil out of 
business, even the tiny amount of support 
that system got from the Shack seems 
destined to shrivel up. Thus, Mil owners 
are faced with owning an orphan. The 
small base of systems that have been sold 
is not large enough to encourage software 
and accessory firms to go out of their way 
to support it. The Shack isn't known for 
openness with its sales figures, so it's 
anyone's guess as to Mil sales. I'd esti- 
mate maybe 50,000 systems sold to date. 

The MM would have done a lot better if 
the Shack hadn't had to turn most of their 
efforts toward keeping the Model III 
afloat. With the Federal Communications 
Commission putting the Model I out of 
business, they had to get the Model III run- 
ning and supported. This seems to have 
put such a strain on the Shack that they 
were unable to do much for any other of 
their products, such as the Pocket 
Computer and Color Computer (Coco). 

Now I'm told that the M16 will have a lit- 
tle software support for the 16-bit function 
for perhaps a year. It'll run the Mil stuff, 
and there will be a Cobol compiler and an 
assembler, but Basic is still not even in 
sight. That's a kick in the head. The Model 
II was supposed to be designed for busi- 
ness applications. Most of the software 
written for it is for business. Writers of ver- 
tical programs have often chosen the Mil 
since it does support 8-inch disks, which 
are needed for even a small business. But 
this brings up some serious problems, 
now that the M16 is in view. 

A good accounting package that sells 
for $1,500 to $2,000 and runs on the Mil 



will usually sell a computer and the soft- 
ware at the same time. Few businesses 
are sitting around with a MM on a desk 
waiting for software to be written, so it's 
natural to expect to sell both the com- 
puter and the software at the same time: a 
turnkey system. 

But with the prospects of a much faster 
computer system once system and appli- 
cations software for the M16 is available, I 
wonder how many firms will go for a M16 
with Mil software. . .even though it runs 
well? And without Basic and other needed 
systems software for the M16, will we see 
much activity from outside support firms 
for the M16? The Shack may be able to 
pull this one off, but I think they are going 
to have to invest a lot of time and money 
to do it. 

Of course this slowness on the part of 
Shack with the M16 support may be an- 
other golden opportunity for entrepren- 
eurs. With the help of this magazine to 
reach the customers, we may see another 
multi-million dollar support industry build- 
ing up around the M16. . .with none of the 
products being sold by Shack, as usual. 

The M16 looks as if it is going to be a 
good system. The price is not out of line 
with the Mil when you consider that the 
M16 comes with more memory, double- 
density disks and so on. The price is posi- 
tively cheap for businesses when you con- 
sider what a workhorse it may become. 

One hopes that Shack has done a bit 
more engineering on this latest entry. The 
failure record for the Mil has been sad 
with service a major problem. Indeed, any 
business should consider buying two sys- 
tems when they computerize so that they 
will be reasonably sure that one will al- 
ways be on hand and working. Repairs 
that go on into weeks can bring a busi- 
ness to a halt fast if a spare system isn't 
available. 

One possibility comes to mind. With the 
uncertainty over the M16, will we see a 
shift toward Mill sales and the use of hard 
disk systems for them? The hard disk cer- 
tainly overcomes the drawbacks of the 
smaller floppy disks, though we're still 
hung up waiting for the invention of an in- 
expensive back-up system. 

Smaller businesses seldom have the 



need for the extra speed of the M16. And 
there is no good reason to throw away the 
program base of thousands of programs 
written for the Ml and Mill systems. Re- 
member that one of the main problems 
with the Mil was its incompatibility with 
Ml and Mill software. One wonders what 
went through the corporate minds at 
Shack when they decided not to make the 
Mil upward compatible. Will a Model II pull 
a big price 10 years from now as a 
museum piece? It may turn into a totally 
forgotten computer. . .sort of like a DC-2 
airplane. ■ 

Asian Tour 

Every fall there is a tour of Asia that is 
designed to coincide with a series of 
electronics shows in Tokyo, Seoul, Taipei 
and Hong Kong. These shows focus on 
consumer electronics, so they have a 
good deal of microcomputer exhibits. 

Hundreds upon hundreds of Asian 
firms— small ones— would like to import 
American products. . .or would like to 
make assemblies for our products. . .or 
sell their equipment to use. These firms 
have few other ways to make contact with 
smaller American firms than through 
shows such as these. They are looking for 
you. 

I've been on two of these tours already 
and found each one invaluable in making 
contacts. They were also a lot of fun. I en- 
joy eating Japanese, Chinese, and even 
Chinese Chinese. You do get a lot of fan- 
tastic food on these trips. You also stay in 
the best hotels. 

With the American dollar improving, 
there are some travel bargains to be had. 
The whole trip to Asia for about three 
weeks costs only around $2,500. This year 
one part of the group will be going on to a 
visit to Peking and then around the world 
to an electronics show in Munich. . .cost 
is only around $3,500. 

Sherry and I missed the 1981 tour be- 
cause we were getting Desktop Comput- 
ing started and couldn't get away at the 
critical time. We made the 1979 and 1980 
tours and are planning on the 1982 tour. 

Continues on page 8 



6 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



m 



aaia»» op 



A GALAXY of features jnakes the LH\ 
remarkable, computer. As you explore the 
LNW80, you will find the most complete, 
powerful, ready to run, feature-packed per- 
sonal and business computer ever made intp 
one compact solid unit. 




-,.' CONSTRUCTION - Instrumenta- 
tion quality construction sets LNW80 com; 
puters apart from all the rest. Integrated into 
the sleek solid steel case of the LNW80 is a 
professional 74-key expanded keyboard that 
includes a twelve key numeric keypad. 

HIG.H RESOLUTION GRAPHICS* COLOR- 

The stunning 480 X 1 92 resolution gives you 
"/ total display control - in color or black and 
white. The choice of display formats is yours; 
80, 64, 40 and 32 columns by 24 or 1 6 lines in - 
any* combination of eight colors. 

. PERFORMANCE - Lift-off with- a 4M Hz Z80A 
CPU for twice the performance. The LNW80 
'""'♦performs all computers in its class. 



MODEL I COMPATIBILITY - The LNW8 

fully hardware and software compatible wi... 
the Model I. Select from a universe.of hardware 
accessories and software - from VisiCalc® to 
space games, your LNW80 will launch you 
into a new world of computing. 

FULLY LOAQED - A full payload includes 
on-board singfe and double density disk 
controller for 5 W' and 8" single or double 
sided disk drives. RS232C communications 
port, cassette and parallel printer interfaces 
are standard features and ready to go. All 
memory is fully installed - 48K RAM, ? 16K 
graphics RAM and 12K ROM complete with 
Microsoft BASIC. 




price won't send you into 



LNW Research Corp. 



...2620 WALNUT Tustin. CA. $680 
(714). 641-8850 (714) 



Monitor and 
TM Personal £ 



MANAGING EDITOR 

Eric Maloney 

SENIOR COPY EDITOR 

Michael Nadeau 

NEWS EDITOR 

John P. Mello Jr. 

REVIEW EDITOR 

Janet Fiderio 

NEW PRODUCTS EDITOR 

Steven Frann 

EDITORS 

Lynn Rognsvoog, Carolyn Nolan, 

Kerry Leichtman, Caron Taylor 

TECHNICAL CONSULTANT 
Jake Commander 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Dennis Kitsz (Contributing Editor) 

G. Michael Vose (Features, Editor) 

Art Huston (Editor) 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 

Susan Gross 

LAYOUT EDITORS 

Joan Ahern, Bob Dukette, 

Sue Hays, Anne Vadeboncoeur 

PROOFREADERS 

Peter Bjornsen, Patrice Laughner, 

Louis Marini 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 

Pat Graham, Nancy Noyd 



Subscriptions: 

Problems with Subscriptions: Send a 
description of the problem and your 
current and/or most recent address to: 
80 Micro, Subscription Department, 
PO Box 981, Farmingdale, NY 11737. 
Change of Address: Send old label or 
copy of old address and new address 
to 80 Micro, PO Box 981, Farmingdale, 
NY 11737. Please give eight weeks ad- 
vance notice. 

Microfilm: This publication is available 
in microform from University Micro- 
films International. United States ad- 
dress: 300 North Zeeb Road, Dept. P.R., 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106. Foreign address: 
18 Bedford Row, Dept. P.R., London, 
WC1R4EJ, England. 
Dealers: Contact Ginny Boudrieau, 
Bulk Sales Manager, 80 Micro, Pine St., 
Peterborough, NH 03458. (800)258-5473. 



Proof Notes 

the editors 

look at the issues 



Hello; I'm Joe's modem. 
Before I came along, Joe's TRS-80 was 
a boring machine. He would sit for long 
hours entering programs from 80 Micro, and 
what did he have in the end? Another way to 
balance his checkbook or perhaps a patch 
for Scripsit. That is not the type of stuff that 
gets MY transistors hot. 

Oh; I suppose those programs have a pur- 
pose, and Joe is happy with them. But Joe 
didn't know what he was missing until his 
buddies in the computer club told him 
about me. 

"Get a modem, Joe. It will add a new di- 
mension to personal computing," they said. 
Joe was skeptical at first, but when he saw 
how inexpensive I was, he decided to check 
me out. 

I've served Joe well since then, and he 
will be the first to tell you that. I give Joe ac- 
cess to information he might otherwise 
never be able to get. The other night he was 
"talking" to some fellow computerists on 
CompuServe (using me of course), and one 
of them had the answer to a tough interfac- 
ing problem Joe had. He also learned of a 
great buy on a used printer when he ac- 
cessed the local bulletin board last week. 

Joe is an up-and-coming businessman as 
well; so he appreciates the stock reports 
and business news, often updated by the 
hour, that I allow him to see. Sure, he pays 
for this information, but it's a worthwhile 
investment. 

I also provide computing power Joe 
thought was beyond his reach. Through 
some commercial data bases, Joe can write 
programs larger than his TRS-80 allows and 
often in something other than Basic or ma- 
chine language. He downloads programs 
from bulletin boards, some of which have 
saved him from buying commercial soft- 
ware. He has also up-loaded some of his 
own programming creations in the spirit of 
hobbyist cooperation. 



Yep, I think I've done Joe a lot of good. He 
sleeps better at night and he has more 
friends. I've brought Joe closer to his com- 
puter than ever before. He still insists on 
typing in those long programs, though. 
Maybe someday 80 Micro will put those 
long listings on a bulletin board where I can 
help Joe with this problem, too.B 



Continued from page 6 

We'd love to have you along too. The tour 
starts about the end of October and goes 

about two weeks for Asia and three 

if you go to China, Munich, and London. 
Or you can come back however you like. 

In 1979 we went back and spent several 
days in Tokyo, meeting more of the people 
wanting to do business with us. The next 
year we went on to Hawaii, where I gave 
talks to local groups, and we lazed about 
the Waikiki Beach for an hour or two. On 
the last trip we also made side trips to 
Macao and up to Canton, China. I guaran- 
tee you this: you will never forget one 
minute of a trip to China. Not a minute. 

Are there Big Macs in Hong Kong as 
good as at home? You'll never know until 
you've been there and had 'em. 

The electronics shows are scheduled 
so that you have a couple days to see 
them, a day of travel, two more days 
of show, another day to travel, and so 
on. That allows you to visit four elec- 
tronic shows in four countries in two 
weeks. Not bad. 

For details— and you'd better get 
started with this now if you are going to 
have your visas all set in time (China can 
take a long time) — drop a note to Sherry, 
Commerce Tours, Wayne Green, Inc., 
Peterborough, NH 03458. ■ 



The left bracket, [, replaces the up arrow used by Radio Shack to indicate exponentiation on our printouts. When 
entering programs published in 80 Micro, you should make ihis change. 

80 formats its program listings to run 64-characters wide, the way they look on your video screen. This accounts for 
the occasional wrap-around you will notice in our program listings. Don't let it throw you, particularly when entering 
assembly listings. 



Article submissions from our readers are welcomed and encouraged. Inquiries should be addressed to: Sub- 
missions Editor, 80 Pine Street. Peterborough, NH 03458. Include an SASE for a copy of our writers' guidelines. 
Payment for accepted articles is made on publication, at a rate of approximately $50 per printed page; all rights 
are purchased. Authors of reviews should contact the Review Editor, 80 Pine Street, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



8 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 







Systems avertable for Altos, 'Apple,™ Atari,™ Heath,™ North Star,™ S-100, 
(Models 1, 11, 111, Color), Zenith. 



eas r 

CMD Performance 

Windsor. C l (203)688-3862 

Digital Data Communications, Inc. 

Richmond, Me. (207)737-4447 

MIDVV 
Cottage Software 

Wichita, Ks (316)683-4813 

Web Products, Inc. Software Division 
Carol Stream, II (312) 653-5229 




Meta Technologies 

1-800-321-3552 



Insync Systems Corp. 

Alvin.Tx (713)331-2024 

Central Kansas Computers 

Herrington, Ks (913)258-2575 

Dataflow Systems 

Indianapolis. In (317)888-3640 



WEST 
Everett Computer Center 

Everett. Wa (206)259-0024 

Connection 80 

Vancouver, Wa (206)573-0319 

H & S Microsystems 

Burnaby, BC Canada (604 ) 430-4 1 45 



wmm 



Dealer Inquiries - 1-800-621 3102. (312) 987-1024 COMPUTER CORPORATION 



.-37 



■ 



SO INPUT 



We here at 80 Micro 

ha ve no sentiments 

against Tandy." 



Missing Address 

We were very pleased to hear that 80 Mi- 
cro published an article by one of our 
users on our M-80 microcomputer ("Build- 
ing an M-80," March 1982). A customer 
subsequently called us and beat us merci- 
lessly about the head and shoulders be- 
cause the article failed to mention either 
our address or our distributor's address: 
Quest Electronics, 2322 Walsh Ave., San- 
ta Clara, CA 95051. 

Eric M. Miller, President 

Miller Technology 

647 N. Santa Cruz Ave. 

Los Gatos, CA 95030 



Tandy Defender 

I am opposed to your sentiments 
against Tandy Corporation that have ap- 
peared in recent issues of 80 Micro. Re- 
member, if they weren't around, you 
wouldn't be either. 

Philip Herbst 

Staten Island Labs 

Staten Island, NY 



We here at 80 Micro have no sentiments 
against Tandy. Indeed, you will not find 
anywhere a group more dedicated to the 
permanent success of the TRS-80. 

We are in the information business. Our 
job is to keep our readers informed. They 
feel that the best thing that has happened 
to their TRS-80 has been 80 Micro. 

Wayne Green Inc. has been around 

years longer than Tandy and will continue 

to survive no matter what course Tandy 

takes with their TRS-80.— Matthew Smith, 

Assistant to the President 



Right Decision 

Just as I was wondering if I had sub- 
scribed to the right magazine two things 
happened. You finally said a good word 
about Radio Shack. Your magazine devot- 
ed a large number of pages to the Color 



Computer. Thank you. 

I have had my Color Computer since 
January 1981 and I have enjoyed it very 
much. I have converted many Model I and 

III programs to fit the Color Computer. 
This has helped me to learn programming. 
I enjoy 80 Micro, most of all Dennis 
Kitsz's articles. 

B.L. Mott 
Bristow, OK 



Archbold Speed-up Kit 

In his Exclusive Oracle column {80 
Micro, February 1982) Mr. Kitsz gave ad- 
vice about the speed-up kit by Archbold 
Electronics. The information he gave was 
misleading. On page 42, he provides four 
points that you should consider before 
buying the mod. Each needs some clarifi- 
cation. 

First, switching between speeds is an 
option provided by the kit under program 
or manual control. By asking "How?" Mr. 
Kitsz implies that the user has to design 
the option himself. 

Second, true, the XRX-II mod will re- 
strict the cassette baud rate to 500. How- 
ever, the clock mod provides an option 
(take it or leave it) to automatically slow 
down the CPU during tape operation. 
Without XRX-II, the baud rate could be 
doubled or tripled depending on clock 
speed selected. But is being forced to use 
500 baud cassette I/O a good reason not 
to increase the speed of everything else? 

Third, using disks with the mod is no 
problem. You can wire the clock to slow 
back down while disks are in use. But 
patching TRSDOS or NEWDOS for high 
speed (normal is unaffected) is very easy 
(see 80 Micro, April 1981, p. 240). (Or send 
an SASE to me for even better patches. 
TRSDOS only.) You'll find a surprising in- 
crease in disk speeds, especially from 
Basic. 

Fourth, RAM access time is not as criti- 
cal as Mr. Kitsz indicates. He says you 
must "install a completely new memory 
refresh/select circuit." This is totally in- 
correct! You actually bypass some exist- 
ing circuits to speed access. At triple 



speed the instructions suggest having 
RAMs with, at most, 200 ns. access time. 
But I have some with 250 ns. and have had 
no problems. 

The nebulous reference to a "digital de- 
lay line" as a new select circuit sounds 
very costly and complicated. It is nothing 
more than a 74LS04 inverter with all six 
gates wired in series to produce a slight 
delay. It sells for less than $1 and goes in 
the interface (if you have one). 

The current mod from Archbold is an 
upgraded version (see 80 Micro, July 1981, 
p. 236 for a review of the original). Perhaps 
this is the cause of the confusion. This 
clock mod is reliable, does not entail 
many expensive extras (only $19, Z80B for 
triple speed), and is worth serious consid- 
eration. 

Michael Cash well 

7603 Comanche Drive 

Richmond, VA 23225 



Dennis Kitsz Replies 

/ had to turn back to that February arti- 
cle, because I didn't remember maligning 
the Archbold board at all. Sure enough, I 
didn't. 

I was talking about homebrew installa- 
tions, although the passing mention of 
the Archbold unit in the same phrase 
might have confused Mr. Cashwell. The 
Archbold unit is well designed and has all 
the options Mr. Cashwell mentions. The 
digital delay unit, however, is not just a 
bunch of gates tied together, but rather an 
actual commercial DDU costing $18. The 
gate version sometimes works and some- 
times doesn't (mostly does, but therein 
lies the homebrew problem). I reiterate: If 
you are speeding up, the Archbold speed- 
up is the best thing to consider. 

Dennis Kitsz 
Roxbury, VT 



Model III Banner 

Nelson Ford's change for the prompt 
and banner in NEWDOS80 2.0 (80 Input, 
November 1981) is fine for those still on 



10 • 80 Microcomputing, Junei 'July 1982 



Reader Service lor facing Page s13- 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321-3552 TO ORDER 
IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



marketing 
services 



EPSON 

MX-80, MX-80FT, MX-100 

PRINTERS 

NEW LOWER PRICES! 

CABLES, INTERFACES, ETC. 

TRS-80 KEYBOARD INTER- 
FACES CABLE $69.95 

APPLE INTERFACE 

&CABLE $99.95 

IEEE-488 (PET) INTERFACE 
&CABLE $79.95 

SERIAL (RS-232) 

INTERFACE $74.95 

GRAFTRAX OPTION 
(MX-80 &MX-80/FT) ..$34.95 




EXTRA-LONG 10 ft. RIBBON 

CABLE $24 95 

CONNECTS EPSON PRINTER 
& TRS-80 MICROCOMPUTER 



WE SERVICE WHAT WE SELL! 



complete 

DISK DRIVES 

Includes Case, Power Supply 
and External Drive Connector 



from 



$289 



95 



WE ALSO SELL THE 
INCOMPARABLE 





ADDON DISK DRIVES 

ONE-YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY 

(Parts and Labor, write for complete details) 

TRAXX Add-On Disk Drives are Individually Tested, Burned 

In, Ready to Plug In and Run, and Include Technical 

Documentation and a Static-Free Dust Cover. 

CALL FOR PRICE 



PARAGON 



^^ 



magnetics" 



DISKETTES 



MTC's 

premium Single-Sided, Soft-Sectored 

DOUBLE-DENSITY. 5 'A -inch diskettes with 
reinforcing HUB-RINGS. Individually 100% 
ERROR-FREE certified. Invest in GOLD! 

PARAGON MAGNETICS GOLD $23.95 



Scotch 

Soft-Sectored Diskettes 

5-1/4" 1S/SDen (744-0) $28.95 

5-1/4" 1S/DDen(744D-0) $31.95 

5-1/4" 2S/DDen (745-0) .$39.95 

8" 1S/SDen (740-0) $29.95 

8" 1S/DDen (741-0) $37.95 

8" 2S/DDen (743-0) $49.95 

Hard-Sectored Diskettes 

5-1/4" 1S/D DenlO-sector (744-10) $28.95 

5-1/4" 1S/DDen10-sector(744D-10) $32.95 

5-1/4" 2S/DDen 10-sector(745-10) . . S39.95 

5-1/4" 1S/SDen16-sector(744-16) $28.95 

5-1/4" 1S/DDen16-sector(744D-16) S32.95 

5-1/4" 2S/DDen16-sector(745-16) $39.95 

8" 1S/S Den 32-sector (740-32) $33.95 

8" 1S/D Den 32-sector (741 -32) $39.95 

8" 2S/D Den 32-sector (743-32) $49.95 

Supplies 

5-1/4" Head cleaning kit $29.95 

8" Head cleaning kit $29.95 



Authorized Distributor 
Information Processing Products 



VERBATIM 

Soft-Sectored Diskettes 

5-1/4" 1S/DDen(MD525-01) $26.95 

5-1/4" 2S/DDen(MD550-01) S39.95 

5-1/4"2S/4Den(MD55701) $51.50 

8" 1S/DDen(FD34-8000) $43.95 

Hard-Sectored Diskettes 

5-1/4" 1S/DDen10-sector (MD525-10) $26.95 

5-1/4" 2S/DDen10-sector(MD550-10) $39.95 

5-1/4" 2S/4Den10-sector(MD557-10) $51.50 

'RINGS' & THINGS 

HUB RING KIT for 5'/i" disks $10.95 

HUB RING KIT for 8" disks $12.95 

REFILLS (50 Hub Rings) $ 5.95 

CLEANING KIT for 5V4" drives S24.95 

5'/4-inch diskette case $3.50 

8-inch diskette case $3.95 

5% -inch File Box for 

50 diskettes $24.95 

8-inch File Box for 

50 diskettes $29.95 



TRS-80 is a trademark ol the 

Radio Shack Division of Tandy 

Corporation DATALIFE is a 

trademark ot VERBATIM PLAIN 

JANE, PARAGON MAGNETICS. 

are trademarks of MTC 

© 1982 by Meta Technologies 
Corporation 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

24 Hr. Bulletin Board 
(216)289-8689 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 

June 30, 1982 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice 

8206 



WE ACCEPT 
•VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

•CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 
•C.O.D. 



• Add $3.00 for shipping 
8i handling. 

• $2.00 EXTRA for U.S. 
Mail delivery. 

• $3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 

• Ohio residents add 6.5% 
sales tax. 



SQ INPUT 



the Model I but the locations for the Model 
III are different. 

The Ready prompt is located at relative 
sector 164, relative byte EO-EE inclusive. 
The "Mini" prefix for Mini-DOS is in front 
of this at DB-DF inclusive, should you 
also wish to change it. 

The first line of the banner is at relative 
sector 17, 88-98 inclusive and then 9C-C5 
inclusive; the second line at relative sec- 
tor 17, C8-FF inclusive and then relative 
sector 18, 00-01 inclusive; finally, the third 
line is at relative sector 18, 03-3B inclu- 
sive. 

On another subject, does anyone have 
a patch to make TRSDOS 2.3B and 1.3 
(Models I and III) run 80-track drives? 

Allan F. Hawkins 

P.O. Box 38-542 

Howick, New Zealand 



Invalid Complaint 

I just read Dick McKenna's request 
("Access Time," 80 Aid, February 1982) for 
a patch to cause his foreign disk control- 
ler board to properly operate his Radio 
Shack TRS-80 Model III computer. 

He says everything works but TRSDOS. 
I disagree with that and say that every- 
thing works but the non-Radio Shack con- 
troller and drives. McKenna then com- 
plains that Radio Shack's customer ser- 
vice (free computer hotline) wouldn't or 
couldn't tell him how to correct the incom- 
patibility of his drives with the Model III. 
Funny, he didn't even mention calling the 
people who manufactured his drives and 
controller board for help. Did he call them 
for help; if not, why? If so, why didn't they 
provide the help? 

If you are going to buy non-Radio Shack 
peripherals do not expect Radio Shack 
to correct the incompatibilities or defects 
in another manufacturer's hardware or 
software. 

Leigh L. Klotz 

McComb, MS 



Bravo! 

Three colorful cheers for your March is- 
sue on the Color Computer. Those graphic 
programs are super! I find this machine 
better than my Apple to teach program- 
ming. It's time to give this inexpensive but 
powerful machine some credit! 

Marmo Soemarmo 

Ohio University 

Athens, OH 



Faster Basic 
Word Processor 

I have developed a compiled version of 
Delmer D. Hinrichs' Basic Word Processor 
(80 Micro, May 1980). I used the Accel 2 
Compiler. 

To use the compiler I had to modify the 
For. . . Next loops so that their indices are 
set to the final value if a test within the 
loop requires a jump out of the loop. Often 
I had to rewrite the test to use the comple- 
ment condition to obtain valid results. 
With these changes the program com- 
piles using Accel 2. The program takes 
about 1 min 45 sec to compile and the re- 
sultant code is slightly more than double 
the original value. Although it requires a 
machine with 32K of memory, it does not 
require use of a disk. 

The compiled version of the Basic Word 
Processor speeds up typing in words and 
the blanking and compile commands. 

Ronald H. Chapman 
Wheaton, IL 



Don't Forget an SASE 

At the end of my article "Two-Way 
ANOVA" (80 Micro, March 1982) I included 
the offer of all my statistics programs to 
anyone who would send a disk and an 

SASE. 

I was surprised at the high response 
and I appreciate the interesting letters. I 
filled each request almost immediately, 
even though I received requests at about 
five per day for a month after the article 
was published. 

Some readers neglected to send the 
SASE and as a result I have a collection of 
extra disks waiting for use. Obviously, I 
cannot pay postage for the items. If you 



did not send the SASE you will not get the 
programs or the disk back until you do. 
Please send the self-addressed, stamped 
envelope— or appropriate postage— and I 
will return your disks with the programs 
you requested. 

Thanks to all of you for your interest 
and your comments. 

Richard C. McGarvey 

221 Hirsch field Drive 

Williamsville, NY 14221 



Tasmon Update 

Thank you for your Kind review of our 
Tasmon program {80 Microcomputing, 
January 1982). Here are some additions to 
Rowland Archer's review which will be of 
interest to many of your readers: 

Current versions of Tasmon are 1.12 for 
the Model I and D.5 for the Model III. If 
anyone has an earlier version, please 
notify us and we will ship out a new 
tape ASAP. 

All commands are implemented in the 
above versions of Tasmon, including all 
disk I/O. 

If purchasers of the Tasmon source 
code wish a copy of the source code on 
disk, they may include a disk with their 
order. The source code is available only 
from the author. Please specify whether 
you wish Model I or III. 

Mr. Archer wishes more information on 
how to interface user routines with 
Tasmon. Bruce Hansen (author of 
Tasmon) has provided me with the routine 
which further documents this process 
(see Program Listing 1). Hopefully this will 
encourage more users to experiment with 
the (U)ser command. 

In addition, I would like to encourage 
purchasers to return their registration. We 
have already mailed a list of important ad- 
dresses within Tasmon to registered 











Program Listing 


7 








oo:co 
















00110 


; 


TASMON 


USER PATCH - 


DISK DIRECTORY 






00120 
















00130 


; 


by Bruce G. Hansen 


- 


01/25/82 09:55:00 






00110 


• 














00150 


• 










5P00 




00160 




ORG 


5F0CH 






'jFOO 


CD5C69 


00170 


JSER 


CALL 


WL 




;DISPLAY THE "U" AND A SPACE 


5P03 


CDE360 


00180 


JSE10 


CALL 


KYINP 




;GET A KEY 


5P06 


PE30 


00190 




CP 


'0' 




; LEGAL DRIVE f ? 


5F08 


38P9 


00200 




JR 


C.USE10 




;GET ANOTHER IF NOT 


5P0A 


FE31 


00210 




CP 


.2)1 






5F0C 


30F5 


002P0 




JR 


NC.USE10 




;GET ANOTHER IF NOT 


5 FOE 


D630 


00230 




SUB 


•0' 




;MAKE IT BINARY 


5F10 


328A5F 


00210 




LD 


(DCB+6),A 




;SAVE DRIVE # 


5P13 


C DAB 69 


00250 




CALL 


CL3 




; CLEAR SCREEN 


5F16 


AP 


00260 




XOR 


A 






5F17 


325B7E 


00270 




LD 


(WRKSTR).A 






5F1A 


DD215B7E 


00280 




I.D 


IX,WRKSTR 






5F1E 


06 08 


00200 




LD 


B,8 




; NUMBER OP DIRECTORY SECTORS 






00 300 


; 


SHOULD 


BE 16 FOR MODEL 


III TRSDOS 1.3. 
















Program Listing 1 Continues 



12 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Reader Service lor facing Page ^13- 




META TECHNOLOGIES^^ 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 WSS 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321 -3552 TO ORDER ^2 

IN OHIO, call <216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



MTCAIDS- 



MODELS I & III . . .$69.95 MODEL II . . .$99.95 

Introducing the latest addition to MTC's family of data management systems, AIDS-III. NO 
PROGRAMMING, easy to use. COMPLETE PACKAGE including demonstration application, 
documentation and MAPS-III (see below). 

• Up to 20 USER-DEFINED FIELDS of either numeric- or character-type. 

• CHARACTER-type fields may be any length (total: up to 254 characters). 

• NUMERIC-type fields feature automatic formatting, rounding, decimal alignment and 
validation. 

• Full feature EDITING when adding or changing records: 

- ENTER FIELD (can't type-in more characters than specified). 

■ BACKSPACE (delete last character typed). - RIGHT-JUSTIFY FIELD contents. 

- DELETE FIELD contents - SKIP FIELD (to next or previous field). 

- RESTORE FIELD contents. - SKIP RECORD (to next or previous record). 

• SORTING of records is MACHINE CODE assisted. 

- 200 RECORDS (40 characters) in about 5 SECONDS. 

- ANY COMBINATION of fields (including numerics) with each field in ascending or 

descending order. 

• SELECTION of records for Loading, Updating, Deleting, Printing and Saving is 
MACHINE CODE assisted. 

• Specify up to 4 CRITERIA, each using one of 6 RELATIONAL COMPARISONS. 

- LOAD or SAVE selected records using MULTIPLE FILES. 

- Example: Select records representing those people who live in the state of Col- 

orado, but not in the city of Denver, whose last names begin with "F" 
and whose incomes exceed $9000.00. 

- Example: Select records representing those sales made to XYZ COMPANY that 

exceed $25.00, between the dates 03/15 and 04/10. 

MAPS-III (MTC AIDS PRINT SUBSYSTEM), included at no charge, has the following features: 

• Full AIDS-III SELECTION capabilities. 

• Prints user-specified fields DOWN THE PAGE. 

• Prints user-specified fields in titled, columnar REPORT FORMAT, automatically 
generating column headings, paging and (optionally) indentation. 

• Can create a single report from MULTIPLE FILES. 

• Prints user-defined formats for CUSTOM LABELS, custom forms, etc. 

BELOW ARE TESTIMONIALS from owners of AIDS systems. These are absolutely authentic 
statements and are typical of the comments we receive. 

"This program will do more for my business than all the other programs I 
have, combined." 

David Wareham, Vice President (EDP), National Hospital and Health Care Services Inc. 

"We have 32 different Data Base Management packages for the TRS-80. AIDS-III is easily 

the best. It also makes it easier for us to step up to our Model II since the package is 

available for both computers." . . „.., ,.._,-_, 

Jack Bilinski, President, 80 Microcomputer Services 

"Your AIDS program is far and away the finest information management system that I've 
ever seen. I am currently using it to maintain a clear picture of the demographic data on all 
the kids in our residential treatment program and it is working for me superbly." 

Frank Boehm, Director, Front Door Residential Treatment Program 



MTC CALCS-III™ 

Models I & III $24.95 

Modelll $39.95 

MTC's most popular AIDS subsystem. Use 
for report generation involving basic 
manipulation of numeric data. Features are: 

• Columnar Headings 

• Optional Indentation 

• User-specified Columnar Totals 

• Columnar values computed using con- 
stants and/or column values 

• Balance forward calculations 

• Use for accounting, inventory, financial 
and other numeric-based systems. 



EPSON PRINTERS 

DISK DRIVES 

DISKETTES 

BOOKS 
and more!! 



AIDS OWNERS! 

WE HAVE WHAT 

YOU'VE BEEN 

WAITING IV. . . 

MTC CALCS-IV™, that is. 

• More Computations 

• Save Report Formats on Disk 

• Faster, and more! 

MTC CALCS-IV™ $39.95 

For Models I & III $39.95 

For Model II $59.95 



MTC AIDS MERGE-III™ 

This subsystem will combine up to 14 AIDS- 
created data files into a single, large file. An op- 
tional purge capability removes duplicate entries 
while performing the merge operation (can even 
be used to eliminate duplicates in a single file). 
Machine-code assisted for high-speed perfor- 
mance, MERGE-IIITM properly handles files sorted 
by any combination of fields, including numerics, 
with each field in ascending or descending order. 

MTC AIDS MERGE-III™ $19.95 

For Models I & III $19.95 

For Model II $29.95) 



THE COMPLETE 

MTC AIDS-III 

PACKAGE 



TM 



SAVE $$$$ 



Includes MTC AIDS- 
CALCS-III™ and MERGE- 



TM 



|TM 



A comprehensive system 
at a competitive price! 

MODELI&III $99.95 

MODELII .$149.95 

Add $25 for CALCS-IVTM 



AIDS/P is 
HERE* 



TRS-80 is a trademark of the 

Radio Shack Division of Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark of VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE, AIDS-I. AIDS-III. CALCS-III. 

CALCS-IV. MERGE-III are 

trademarks of MTC. 

1982 by Meta Technologies 

Corporation 



MOST ORDERS 
SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

24 Hr. Bulletin Board 
(216)289-8689 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 

June 30, 1982 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice 

8206 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 
•CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 
•C.O.D. 



Add $3.00 for shipping 
& handling. 
•$2.00 EXTRA for U.S. 
Mail delivery. 

• $3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 

• Ohio residents add 6.5% 
sales tax. 



We will meet or 
beat any price 
in the U.S.A. on 




MICROCOMPUTERS 

In fact, no matter what price you see 

advertised by Texas Computer Systems, 
Micro Management, Computer Plus, 
Pan American, or any authorized Radio 
Shack dealer for TRS-80 Computers with 
pure factory installed memory and full 
warranty, we'll beat it! , ; -. -***—**— 




We have consistently offered the best 
prices on 

APPLE • COMMODORE VIC-20 

OKIDATA • MICROLINE 
EPSON • WABASH • MAXELL 

- plus a complete line of Diskettes, 
Monitors, Modems and other 
accessories — all at the best delivery 
from the largest inventory in the 
Northeast. 

If you're looking for the best prices in 
the U.S.A., check the others, but call 
Computer Discount of America. 

TRS-80 and Radio Shack are trademarks of Tandy Co. 



Write or call for FREE Computer Catalog 
with pictures, specs, accessories and prices. 

CALL TOLL FREE: 
800-526-53 1 3 



Computer 



of America 



COMPUTER DISCOUNT OF AMERICA. INC. 
15 Marshall Hill Road. West Milford Mall 
West Milford. New Jersey 07480-2198 
In New Jersey Call 201-728-8080 



14 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



ft Proorsm 


Listing 1 continued 














«j 5F20 


210200 


00310 




LD 


HL.0002H 






*', 5F23 


228E5F 


00320 




LD 


(DCB+OAH) 


HL 


SET FIRST SECTOR TO TWO 


4 5F26 


0E08 


00330 USE20 


LD 


C,8 




NUMBER OF ENTRIES PER SECTOR. 






00310 




SHOULD 


BE 5 EC!' MODEL III TRSDOS. 


V > 5P28 


118'I5F 


00350 USE30 


LD 


DE.DCD 






J 5F2B 


CD 36 11 


00360 




CALL 


1136H 




READ A SECTOR 


T\ 5F2E 


FE06 


00370 




CP 


6 




ZERO FOR MOD IIP TRSDOS 


"i 5F30 


20'! 2 
217B7E 


00380 
00390 




JR 


NZ, ERROR 
HL,FLBUF 




JUMP ON ERROR 


« 5F32 


| 5F35 


7E 


00100 


;seio 


LD 


a,(hl; 






1 5F36 


B7 


00 110 




on 


A 






5F37 


282F 


00120 




J R 


Z.USE60 






5F39 


FE18 


00130 




CP 


18H 




7FH FOR ALL FILES - 






00135 




INVISIBLE AND SYSTEM 




; ;F3B 


302B 


00110 




JR 


NC.USE60 






5F3D 


110500 


00150 




LD 


DE,5 






5 F10 


19 


00160 




ADD 


HL.DE 






Sr'ili 


160B 


0017 c 




LD 


D.ll 




DO 11 CHARACTERS 


5F13 


7E 


00180 


ISE50 


LD 


A, 'HE) 




GET A FILE NAME CHARACTER 


| 5F11 


CDBA79 


00190 




CALL 


WR 




DISPLAY IT 


H 5F17 


23 


00500 




INC 


HE 






•! 5F18 


15 


00510 




DEC 


D 






A 5 El 9 


20F8 


00520 




JR 


NZ.USE50 




GO DO ANOTHER 


|. 5F1B 


DD3100 


00530 




INC 


(IX+O) 




INCREMENT COLUMN COUNT 


1 5F1E 


DD7E00 


00510 




LD 


A,(IX+0) 




GET COLUMN COUNT 


5F51 


IP 


00550 




RRA 






CARRIAGE RETURN OR TAB? 


5F52 


300A 


00560 




JR 


NC.USE55 






5F51 


3E20 


00570 




LD 


A.20H 




WRITE SOME SPACES 


5F56 


CD5C69 


00580 




CALL 


WL 






5F59 


CD5C69 


00590 




CALL 


WL 






5F5C 


1805 


00600 




JR 


USE57 






5F5E 


3E0D 


00610 


JSE55 


LD 


A.ODH 




WRITE A CARRIAGE RETURN 


5F60 


CDBA79 


00620 




CALL 


WR 






5P63 


111000 


00630 USE57 


LD 


DE.10H 




SKIP REST OF DIRECTORY STUFF. 






00610 




SHOULD 


BE 20H FOR 


MODEL 


II TRSDOS 


5F66 


1803 


00650 




JR 


USE70 






5F68 


112000 


00660 


JSE60 


LD 


DE,20H 




SKIP REST OF DIRECTORY STUFF. 






00670 




SHOULD 


BE 30H FOR 


MODEL 


II TRSDOS 


5F6B 


19 


00680 


JSE70 


ADD 


HL,DE 






5P6C 


OP 


00690 




DEC 


C 






5F6D 


20C6 


00700 




JR 


NZ.USElO 




GO DO ANOTHER ON THIS SECTOR 


5F6F 


10B5 


00710 




DJNZ 


USE20 




DO ANOTHER SECTOR 


5P71 


C3EE60 


00720 




JP 


BREAK 




GO BACK TO TASMON 


5F71 


217D5F 


00730 


;rror 


LD 


HL, BDMSG 




POINT TO ERROR MESSAGE 


5F77 


CDC96F 


00710 




CALL 


WRITE 




DISPLAY IT 


5P7A 


C3EE60 


00750 




JP 


BREAK 




RETURN TO TASMON 


5P7D 


OA 


00760 BDMSG 


DEFB 


OAH 






5P7E 


15 


00770 




DEFM 


'ERROR' 






5P83 


OD 


00780 
00790 
00800 




DEFB 


ODH 










00810 




THE FOLLOWING IS 


4 "FAKE 


FILE CONTROL BLOCK USED TO 






00820 




READ SECTORS. IN 


THIS CASE, DIRECTORY SECTORS ARE 






00830 




TO BE 


READ. 




" 






00810 












5F81 


8028 


00850 


XB 


DEFW 


2880H 




2080H FOR MOD III TRSDOS 


5P86 


20 


00860 




DEFB 


20H 




00 FOR MOD III TRSDOS 


5P87 


7B7E 


00870 




DEPW 


PLBUF 






5P89 


0000 


00880 




DEFW 









5F8B 


Al 


00890 




DEFB 


0A1H 




15H FOR MOD III TRSDOS 


5P8C 


FFOO 


00900 




DEFW 


OOFFH 






5F8E 


0000 


00910 




DEFW 









5F90 


FFOO 


00920 




DEFW 


OOFFH 






5F92 


nop 


00930 




DEFW 


0F11H 




0000 FOR MOD III TRSDOS 


5F9I 


FFFF 


00910 




DEFW 


OPFFFH 




0F11H FOR MOD III TRSDOS 


5P96 


FFFF 


00950 
00960 
00970 




DEFW 


OFPFFII 










00980 




THE FOLLOWING ARE 


EQUATES FOR ROUTINES IN TASMON. 






00990 




THE ADDRESSES LISTED ARE 


FOR THE MODEL I VERSION, 






01000 




THE MODEL III ADDRESSES ARE GIVEN IN THE COMMENT LINE. 






01010 
















01020 












695C 




01030 V 


L 


EQU 


695CH 




695BH 


60E3 




01010 


CYINP 


eqi; 


60E3H 




60E1H 


7E7B 




01050 


n,BUF 


ECE 


7E7BH 




7EE5H 


69AB 




01060 


LS 


KQU 


69ABH 




69AAH 


79BA 




01070 V 


ffi 


EQU 


79BAH 




7A1CH 


60EE 




01080 


REAK 


EQU 


60EEH 




60ECH 


6FC9 




01090 V 


RITE 


EQU 


6FC9H 




6FCCH 


7E5B 




01100 V 


RKSTR EQU 


7E5BH 




7EC5H 






OHIO 
01120 
















01130 




PATCH 


NTO USER POUT. o .':■•■■> .'.;.D o ' 






OHIO 












6 ODE 




01150 




ORG 


60DEH 




60DCH 


2 6 ODE 


00 5 F 


01160 

01170 




DEFW 


5F00H 




5F00H 


* 0000 




01180 




END 








" ooooc 


TOTAL 


ERRORS 












i 32221 


TEXT 


AREA BYTE 
00760 


S LEFT 








f\ BDMSI 


5F7D 


0730 










| BREAK 


60EE 


01080 ( 


0720 


00750 








I CLS 


69AB 


01060 


0250 










$ DCB 


5F81 


00850 


0210 


00320 00350 






■i ERROf 


5F71 


00730 ( 


0380 










J PLBUI 


7E7B 


01050 ( 


0390 


00870 








3 KYIN1 


60E3 


01010 < 


0180 










*j USE1C 


5F03 


00180 < 


0200 


00220 








j USE2( 


5P26 


00330 ( 


0710 










i USE3C 


5F28 


00350 












i USE1C 


5F35 


00 100 


0700 










» USE5C 


5F13 


00180 


0520 










\ U5E5! 


5F5E 


0061C 


0560 










Si USES' 


5F63 


00630 c 


0600 










1 USE6C 


5F68 


00660 1 


0120 


00110 








? : USE70 


5F6B 


00680 


0650 










*> USER 


5 FOG 
695C 


00170 
01030 c 


0'.70 


00580 00 








i WL 


90 






WR 


79BA 


01070 c 


0190 


00620 








i WRITE 


6FC9 


01090 c 


0710 










5| WRKSTR 7E5B 


01100 c 


0270 


00280 









Reader Service for facing Page s 13- 



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'NORPAK offers full 

keyboard 

capabilities. . . " 



users. This included the address of the 
Tasmon printer driver so users may inter- 
face their own driver (one of author 
Archer's complaints), and a user routine 
that permits ASCII display of disassem- 
bled mnemonics. We are planning at least 
one other mailing to registered users. 

Charley Butler 

The Alternate Source 

Lansing, Ml 



Tabbing 

An article entitled "Tab Extender" (80 
Micro, February 1982) has prompted me to 
write this letter. 

I own one of the least expensive print- 
ers on the market today, and I have never 
had any problem with tabbing anywhere 
from 1 to 80, and without the use of any 
additional lines or subroutines. 

My method is simple and straight- 
forward. If I want to LPRINT something at 
TAB(72) I type: 

10 LPRINT" here I hit the right arrow 9 times (9X8 = 72) 
and then type whatever I want at TAB<72) 

I never even knew a problem existed un- 
til I read that article! 

Raymond T. Schreiner 
Tuckerton, NJ 



Videotext Update 

I would like to clarify a few apparent 
misunderstandings in Michael E. 
Nadeau's article "Videotext for the 
Masses" (80 Micro, January 1982). 

The usual term by which the systems 
discussed by Mr. Nadeau are known gen- 
erically is videotex (no final t). Videotex 
systems allow the user to access text and 
color graphics from a central computer 
host, and to create and store such infor- 
mation. Videotex systems currently in use 
or under development include Prestel in 
England, Teletel (Antiope) in France, Cap- 
tain in Japan, and Telidon in Canada. 

Strictly speaking, The Source and Com- 
puServe, or any on-line ASCII data provid- 
er and access system, would not be 



termed videotex. 

On page 62 Mr. Nadeau twice states 
(once in the glossary and once in the body 
of the article) that Telidon, sponsored by 
the Canadian government, is "run by Bell 
Canada." This is simply not so, and does a 
disservice to all of the other companies 
which are currently using the Telidon sys- 
tem. Full Telidon systems, including data 
bases, information provision and user in- 
teraction and access, are now being run 
by the federal Department of Communica- 
tions, Infomart of Toronto, TVOntario (in 
broadcast mode), Sasktel (which is not 
Bell Canada), New Brunswick Telephone, 
and many other firms. The Bell Canada 
Telidon field trial— which is known as 
VISTA— has recently begun to be co-man- 
aged by Infomart and Bell Canada. It is a 
large system with many participants, but 
is certainly not the only Telidon system 
running, nor does Bell Canada have exclu- 
sive rights to Telidon systems. 

Our final clarification is in reference to 
Mr. Nadeau's statement that Telidon 
"does not use a full keyboard, and there- 
fore cannot access data bases such as 
CompuServe without modification." NOR- 
PAK offers full keyboard capabilities with 
several of its Telidon products. Our Inte- 
grated Videotex Terminal in particular can 
access both Telidon data bases and any 
ASCII on-line data base such as The 
Source or CompuServe and uses a full 
ASCII keyboard. 

Herb G. Bown, 

Vice-President Corporate Development 

NORPAK Ltd. 

Konata, Ontario 

Canada 



Yes, I erred in the January article. It is 
our editorial policy, though, to spell video- 
text with a "t" because, as best as we can 
tell, that is how the term was originally 
spelled. 

You have my apologies.— M.N. 



Cheers for 80 Micro 

Bravo! on your latest issue featuring 
the Color Computer (March 1982). You 
have restored my faith in you, and I must 
admit I was faltering! After Wayne's re- 
cent comments, I was afraid you had writ- 
ten Color Computer users off the family 
tree. I was glad to see some discussion of 
the true potential of this machine. I hope 
the issue will spark some interest among 
the readership and inspire some shy Color 
Computer programmers to surface. 

Mark S. Mosty 
Kerrville, TX 



Neatlist for Disk 

D.N. Ewart's program Neatlist (80 Mi- 
cro, January 1982) is a welcome addition 
to my program library. I have a 48K system 
with one disk drive but many of my pro- 
grams go beyond the 16K limit of this pro- 
gram. The location of a program in Disk 
Basic is different from Level II. 

This program will run in Disk Basic with 
minor modifications (see Program Listing 
2). I also added a small amount of coding 
to page the printer past the perforations. I 
have a Microline-80 printer and so the 
LPRINT STRING$(S,138) command does 
not work; I substituted an LPRINT" ". The 
top-of-form command on my printer is 
LPRINTCHR$(11). 

I shortened the Data statements by one 
number to keep from losing the last digit 
during disk operations. Because I save the 
program on disk in ASCII, the Data state- 
ments cannot be as long as shown in the 
article. 

To run the program in Disk Basic: 

• Save the Neatlist program in ASCII 
as "NEATLIST",A. 

• Load the program to be listed in the 
normal manner. 



65504 CLS:CLEAR600:DEFINTA-Z:DIMK1(125) : LM=5 : RM=78: S=0 : Tl=5 : POKE 
16424, 67 :POKE16425,l:KK=l:I=PEEK( 16548) +256*PEEK( 16549) -2 :GOSOB6 
5510 : PRINT@520 , "" ; : INPOT"TITLE" ; A$ :GOSUB65524 

65505 IFI=32767THENI=-3276 8ELSEI=I+1:D=PEEK(I) : IFD=0THENP=0:GOSD 
B65524:GOSUB65515:LN!=PEEK(13)+256*PEEK(14) : IFLN! =6 5500THENSTOPE 
LSEGOSUB65520:I=14:GOTO65505ELSEIFD=58THENIFP=1THEN 65506ELSEGOS 
UB65524:GOTO65505ELSE65506 

65515 IFK32765ORI<0THENI3 = I+3ELSEI3=-1* (65533-1) 

65516 IFK32764ORK0THENI4=I+4ELSEI4=-1* (65532-1) 

65517 RETURN 

65520 IFS=0THEN65522ELSEFORJJ=1TOS:LPRINT" " :KK=KK+1 :NEXT 
65522 LPRINTTAB(LM)USING ,1 #####";LNI ;:RETURN 

65527 IFKK>58THEN65528ELSERETURN 

65528 LPRINTCHR$(11) :KK=0:RETURN 

Program Listing 2 



16 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Ste---^ *"-:v 



• Execute the program with MERGE 
"NEATLIST" and RUN65500. 

In line 65504 I changed the definition of 
I to PEEK at 16548,16549 which points to 
the beginning of the Basic program in Lev- 
el II and Disk Basic. 

In line 65505 I added a test to see if the 
index counter goes beyond the 16K limit 
(32767), and if so changes it to minus. 

In lines 65515-65517 I added a short 
subroutine to compute the variables I + 3 
and I + 4 around the 16K limit. 

Lines 65520-65522 and 65527-65528 
are the revisions for my printer and for 
paging. 

James H. Gates 
Fair Oaks, CA 



Make a Fortune 

Many people are investing in Individual 
Retirement Accounts to relieve the social 
security burden in the future. The short 
program (see Program Listing 3) enables 
you to see the value an IRA can have in 
your future. It's amazing how a little per 
month set aside can amount to a fortune 
after 20 or more years. 

Howard D. Ryder Jr. 
St. Petersburg, FL 



Scripsit vs. WordStar 

We must disagree with a statement 
made by Richard Harkness in his review of 
Model 1 1 Scripsit (80 Micro, February 1 982). 

In comparing other word processing 
programs, near the end of the article he 
states "these other programs do not sup- 
port Radio Shack's Daisy Wheel Printer II" 
(with reference to Electric Pencil II, Magic 
Wand and WordStar). We have had excel- 
lent results with our TRS-80 Model II, 
WordStar and Daisy Wheel Printer II, in- 
cluding use of features such as boldface 
printing, underscoring, superscript, sub- 
script, and so on. 

We have used both Scripsit and Word- 
Star in our office and have found Word- 
Star superior to Scripsit for our purposes. 
The print controls are much easier to use 
in WordStar. It is easier to advance 
through a document, add, delete or move 
pages or portions (even columns) of text 
and access the help functions. You may 
set the help function to one of four levels 
—depending on the current user skill— so 
that all, part or none of the help prompts 
are displayed on the screen. You may 
change the help level at any time— even 
during editing— so if you wish to have the 



complete screen for editing a document 
you can still call up the help menu without 
leaving the document or looking for the 
manual. 

The MailMerge feature greatly en- 
hances WordStar's already powerful qual- 
ities. We have found several uses for Mail- 
Merge other than the obvious form letter 
utility. With a little imagination it expands 
WordStar's capabilities by leaps and 
bounds. 

You can even use WordStar for writing 
programs (such as in C-Basic) so that you 
can take advantage of already familiar 
editing features instead of trying to learn 
several sets of editing commands. 

If you really want to know how well 
something works ask someone who has 
used it. After using both programs, the 
few minor modifications necessary to en- 
able WordStar to use the Daisy Wheel 
Printer ll's features were well worth the ef- 
fort. The WordStar user manual contains 
a printer patch area with all the necessary 
information. 

Kathy Morris 

Joe M. Ben net, D.O. & Associates Inc. 

Sedalia, MO 



Faster March 

I was sufficiently impressed with Mr. 
Boothe's program "Save All Humans" (80 
Micro, March 1982) that I had to write in 
appreciation. While the general program 
is just another Space Invaders type pro- 
gram, its true value lies in the delightful 
human characters which march on and off 
the screen at the beginning and end of the 
battle. I would not have believed that the 
animation in the program was so simple 
to execute had I not typed it in myself. 

Unfortunately, and as Mr. Boothe ad- 
mits in his article, the graphics action is 
painfully slow. This is not completely due 
to inherent limitations of Basic as Mr. 



Boothe implies. I am including a small, but 
important, addition to the program. The 
addition of the following line results in a 
significant increase in speed: 165 DIM 
ES,F3,F,Q,T2,SL,P,B,A,K,SW,Z,X,G(5), 
TT,TE,C(6),S,E,QL,A,W,BN,SH,HX,M, 

TH,L,FL,R,E,TS. In addition, delete the 
DIM statements in lines 600 and 1770. 

By placing all variables in a single DIM 
statement, from most to least frequently 
used, the Basic interpreter spends consid- 
erably less time searching the variable 
table for a variable encountered in a pro- 
gram. Hence, the program takes less time 
to execute. 

Peter W. Snyder 
Chicago, IL 



Graphic Codes Revisited 

I read with interest B.L. Howdeshell's 
letter "Graphic Codes" (80 Micro, Decem- 
ber 1981) relating to Epson MX-80 graph- 
ics codes from NEWDOS80 V2.0. 1 have a 
Model III, 48K with disks. 

I called up SYS3/SYS with Superzap and 
installed the 22-byte patch. I pressed the 
JKL keys (in NEWDOS80 this activates a 
screen dump); no graphics were printed. 

The last used byte in SYS3/SYS is File 
Relative Sector (FRS) 4, Relative Byte (RB) 
A2. All of Mr. Howdeshell's code is at and 
beyond FRS 4, RB B9. Therein lies the 
problem! There is no link from SYS3/SYS 
to his code. 

The desired linkage point is at FRS 4, 
RB 9C. I coded my own process of convert- 
ing TRS-80 to MX-80 graphics. The result 
is the following 12 bytes of code, which 
should be appended starting at FRS 4, 
RB A3: 

FE CO 3B 04 3E 2E 18 F3 C6 20 18 EF 

To link this code to SYS3/SYS follow this 
procedure. SYS3/SYS FRS 4, RB 9C 



10 CLS:FORI=0TO127:SET(I,1) : NEXTI 

20 PRINT@10," IRA/ SAVINGS/INVESTMENT ACCOUNT CALCULATOR ": PRINT: 

PRINT: PRINT 

30 POKE16916,4'REM THIS LINE FOR MODEL III ONLY 

40 CLS:L=0: INPUT "MONTLY INVESTMENT $";A 

50 INPUT "ANNUAL INTEREST RATE PERCENTAGE" ; B 

60 INPUT "NUMBER OF YEARS TO BE CALCULATED" ; C 

70 E=A*12:F=B/100+1:FORX=1TOC 

80 L=(E*F+(L*F) ) :NEXTX:PRINT 

90 PRINT "YOUR ACCOUNT BALANCE WILL BE $";L: PRINT 

100 P=E*C:K=L-P: PRINT" YOUR TOTAL INVESTMENT WAS $";P 

110 PRINT "INTEREST YOU EARNED WAS $" ;K : PRINT: PRINT 

120 INPUT"HIT 'ENTER' FOR ANOTHER CALCULATION" ; A$ 

130 IFA$=""THENGOTO40ELSECLS:END 

Program Listing 3 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 17 



Forbidden Planet 




Forbidden Planet 

The First Talking Adventure 

This adventure talks through 
the cassette port. You no 
longer need to have a voice 
synthesizer. This adventure 
takes you to a desolate pla- 
net where only your skill and 
your talking computer will 
help you survive. This is Part 
1 of a multipart talkingadven- 
ture. Like no other ad ven- 
ture you have ever played. 
The first five people to solve 
Forbidden Planet will get the 
next adventure FREE. 

* Split Screen 

* Machine Language 

• Talks through Cassette Port 
■*■ Supports Lower Case 

• Written by William Demas 

Price $39.95 

48K Disk Model I & III 



Forbidden City 

A Talking Adventure 

This adventure talks through 
the cassette port. This is a 
continuation of Forbidden 
Planet Adventure, but you do 
not have to have or play it to 
play Forbidden City. 

Once you enter, there is no 
turning back. Only with the 
help of yourtalking computer 
will you be able to defeat the 
city's master computer and 
the robot guards. 

• Talks through Cassette Port 

• Three Different Voices 

• Machine Language 



Price $39.95 
48K Disk Model I & III 



See Your Local Dealer 

— Dealers Inquires Invited— 

FANTASTIC 
SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 27734 *x 
Las Vegas, Nevada 891 26 

(702) 362-1457 

1 VISA | 



I^Q ?J 



BO INPUT 



should show a 3E 2E byte sequence. Us- 
ing Superzap zap these two bytes to 18 05. 

When I use T-Bug to get some graphics 
into video RAM, JKL will now send graph- 
ics to the printer. 

The bytes used for this patch are in 
Apparat's reserved zap area for this mod- 
ule. Document your change carefully in 
the event that Apparat comes out with a 
zap for SYS3/SYS. You may have to unzap 
this file. 

William S. Collins 
San Diego, CA 



Do you still plan to support the Model I 
when the Expansion Interface is gone? Or 
should I just sell my computer and buy a 
Model III or an Apple? 

Craig Stein 
Bloomfield, NJ 



The following is an open letter to Ed 
Juge of Radio Shack. 

Expansion 
Interface Worries 

I have a TRS-80 and have generally been 
happy with it. I have stuck up for my ma- 
chine when it's called a Trash-80 and 
when it has been compared to the Apple 



Ed Juge Replies 

Craig Stein's letter points up the confu- 
sion that existed (and maybe still does) 
over the F.C.C. rulings. That's what 
prompted Jon Shirley's February Newslet- 
ter item. 

Jon said that the January 1, 1981 ban 
was on the manufacture (not sale) of 
non-approved equipment. Of our E.I. s, he 
said. . . "We obtained permission to make 
Model I Expansion Interfaces for one addi- 
tional year and, as of December 30, 1981, 
we are not making any more E.l.'s, al- 
though they should be available from our 
stores until around the end of June." 

Craig, we share your disappointment in 



"Does Radio Shack still plan to 
support the Model I when the 
Expansion Interface is gone?" 



and Atari. However, I just received some 
news that upsets and angers me. 

In the December 1981 issue of 80 Micro 
Mr. Green said that the Expansion Inter- 
face may not be saleable. In the February 
1982 issue of Microcomputer News Jon 
Shirley in his column "View from the 7th 
Floor" denied that rumor. I called the toll- 
free number and asked what the truth 
was. The answer was after June 1982 the 
Expansion Interface would not be sold in 
Radio Shack stores. 

I was one of the last to buy a Model I (I 
bought the second last in the store). Your 
catalog says "We still support the revolu- 
tion ... we still provide full support for the 
systems in use. . ." I don't call that sup- 
port. If I could afford to buy an Expansion 
Interface I would. I will not be able to save 
enough money to buy the interface by 
June. Your catalog also says that the in- 
terface is the hub of the system. I have al- 
ready used one port with the printer. How 
am I supposed to expand my system and 
spend my money on disk drives and mo- 
dems without an interface to hook them 
up to? 



having to discontinue the Model I equip- 
ment, but the choice was not ours. 

And yes, we do intend to continue sup- 
port for the Model I by keeping future 
hardware and software compatible when- 
ever possible, as long as there is a de- 
mand. Consider, for example, our new 
Model I (only) double-density conversion 
kit, listed in catalog RSC-7. Of course 
there will be soft and hardware for Model 
III only. 

Craig, we appreciate your choice of and 
enthusiasm for our TRS-80. We like to 
think you chose the best. By the time you 
read this, if rumors are correct, you should 
see that the Apple II is being replaced by a 
newer, more powerful, and cheaper mod- 
el. Nobody is immune to the onward 
march of time and technology. 

Ed Juge, Director 

Computer Merchandising 

Radio Shack 

Fort Worth, TX 

Even after June used Model I Expansion 
Interfaces will still be available for some 
time. — Eds. 






►>See Lis! ol Advertisers on page. 386 




DISCOUNT & BONUS 
COUPONS 

for 

PRINTERS, DISK DRIVES, DISKETTES, 

SOFTWARE, BOOKS 

and MORE! 



(g> 



just circle 
on your Reader Service 
Card and mail it today. 

or write to: 

FREE COUPONS 

P.O. Box 32010 

Cleveland, Ohio 44132 



just good business///^. . 

Xx^mofketino, 
" u ^--services 



Here's proof that you don't have to 
sacrifice on service to save money; 

Our customers 



gave 



We're proud of our service but 
continually search for ways to 
improve it. 

That's why we include this 
Report Card in every order we 
ship. (We even offer a $5.00 dis- 
count to customers who fill out 
the card and return it.) 

We want to know what you 
think: what you like, what you 
don't. How can we serve you 
better? 

So far, we have received over 
5,000 Report Cards. You've told 
us you think our salespeople are 
knowledgeable and friendly. You 
appreciate that we carry a full 
line of products at the lowest 
possible prices. And, you enjoy 
the economy and convenience of 
mail-order shopping. 

Overall, we got an A-minus. 
Thank you. 

We'll continue to ask for your 
opinion about ways to improve 
— our goal is an A-plus. 



16K RAM SPECIAL 



13.95 

Sel of 8 NEC 4116 ns with instructions. Guaranteed one lull year. 

MODEL I, III SOFTWARE 

LAZY WRITER MOD I 169.00 

LAZY WRITER MOO III 169.00 

MICR0PR00F SPELLING CHECK 84.95 

PR0S0FT NEWSCRIPT MOO I. Ill 99.00 

PROSOFT MAILING LABELS MOD I, III 29.95 

PR0S0FT NEWSCRIPT/LABELS MOO I, III 1 15.00 

SPECIAL DELIVERY MOD I. Ill 1 19.00 

X-TRA SPECIAL DELIVERY MOD I. Ill 179.00 

TRAKCESS MOD 1 24.95 

0MNITERM SMART TERMINAL MOD I, III 89.95 

MAXI-MANAGER MOD I, III 89.95 

DOS PLUS 3 4 MOD 1 89.00 

DOS PLUS 3.4 MOD III 89.00 

DOS PLUS 4,0 MOD 1 129.00 

DOS PLUS 4.0 MOD III 129.00 

LD0S5.1 MODI, III 119,00 



^See List ol Advertisers on page 386 



SUPP 

AVER 

1.000 3 Vj 
3,000 
5,000 ? 




DISKETTES 

ALPHA DISKS 

Single sided, certified Double Density 40 
Hub-Ring. Box ol 10. Guaranteed one full year. 

VERBATIM 

M0 525-01, 10, 16 26.50 

MD 550-01. 10, 16 44.50 

MD 557-01. 10. 16 54.95 

FD 32 or 34-9000 36.00 

FD 32 or 34-8000 '. 45.60 

F0 34-4001 48.60 

DYSAN 

5'/4, SS/DD, BOX OF 10 45.00 



310.00 
249.00 
109.00 

SPECIALS 

SPECIAL NO. 1 

TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES, BOX OF VERBATIM 
DISKS, PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 44.50 



DISKETTE STORAGE 

5ft" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2.50 

8" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 3.50 

PLASTIC STORAGE BINDER WITH INSERTS 9.95 

PROTECTOR 5'/i" 23.95 

PR0TECT0R8" 29.95 

TRS-80 MOD I HARDWARE 

PERC0M DATA SEPARATOR 27.00 

PERC0M D0U8LER II 159.00 

TAND0N 80 TRACK DISK DRIVE 429.00 

TAND0N 40 TRACK DISK DRIVE 289.00 

LNW D0UBLER WITH DOSPLUS 3.4 159.00 

LNWDOUBLER 5/8 WITH DOS PLUS 209.00 



MODEMS 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTIC. 



.145.00 



SPECIAL NO. 3 

NEWDOS/80 2.0, BOX OF VERBATIM DISKS, PLASTIC LIBRARY 
CASE 149.00 

SPECIAL NO. 4 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER, BOX OF VERBATIM DISKS, 
PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 179.00 

SPECIAL NO. 5 

MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED AND OTHER MYSTERIES, BOX OF 
VERBATIM DISKS, PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 49.95 

DOUBLE DENSITY SPECIAL 

PERC0M D0UBLER II. NEWDOS/80, BOX OF VERBATIM DISKS, 
PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 279.00 

COMMUNICATION SPECIAL MOD I & III 

NOVATION MODEM, OMNITFRM TERMINAL SOFTWARE 

ACOUSTIC SPECIAL (CAT) 219.00 

DIRECT CONNECT SPECIAL (D-CAT) 239.00 

SERIAL CABLE. 25.00 

DISK LIBRARY SPECIAL 

RACET OISKCAT CATALOGING PROGRAM, FLIP SORT (50 DISK 
CAPACITY), 50 STICK-ON DISK LABELS 59,95 

^11 



CP/M® SOFTWARE FOR MOD II 

MICROSOFT 

MICROSOFT BASIC-80 . . 299.00 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER 319.00 

MICROSOFT FORTRAN-80 . 369.00 

COBOL 80 599.00 

MICRO PRO 

WORDSTAR* 310.00 

MAILMERGE (REQUIRES WORDSTAR)' 110.00 

SPELLSTAR (REQUIRES WORDSTAR)' 199.00 

SUPERSORT* 195.00 

DATASTAR* 245.00 

CALCSTAR' 239.00 

OTHER CP/M® SOFTWARE 

SPELLGUARD 239.00 

SUPERCALC 229.00 

COMMX TERMINAL SOFTWARE 82.00 

dBASE II 599.00 

P&T CP/M* MOD II TRS-80 175.00 

C BASIC 2 115.00 

PASCAL Z. 349.00 

PASCAL MT+ 439.00 

PASCAL/M 205.00 

SYSTEMS PLUS - 

G/L, A/R, A/P. P/R 1799.00 

CONDOR I 579.00 

CONDOR II 849.00 

SUPPLIES 

AVERY TABULABLES 

1.000 3% x 15/16 8.49 

3,000 3% x 15/16 14.95 

5,000 3% x 15/16 19.95 

FAN FOLD PAPER (Pricw fob. s.P.) 

9Vj x 1 1 181b WHITE 3,000 ct 29.00 

14 7/8x11 181b WHITE 3.000 cl 39.00 

CORVUS 

TRS-80 MOD I, II, III 

Controller, Case/P.S., Operating System. A&T 

5 MEGABYTES 3245.00 

10 MEGABYTES 4645.00 

20 MEGABYTES 5545.00 

MIRROR BACK-UP 725.00 

TWO NEW 'OTHER MYSTERIES' 
BOOKS 

THE CUSTOM TRS-80 24.95 

MICROSOFT BASIC FASTER ANO BETTER 24.95 

TRS-80 GAMES 

All games are disk versions. Cassette versions may not be 
available. 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI 34.95 

HELLFIRE WARRIOR 34.95 

STAR WARRIOR 34.95 

RESCUE AT RIGEL 24.95 

CRUSH, CRUMBLE & CHOMP 24.95 

INVADERS FROM SPACE : 17.95 

PINBALL 17.95 

STAR TREK 3.5 17.95 

MISSILE ATTACK 18.95 

STAR FIGHTER 24.95 

Z-CHESS III 24.95 

ADVENTURE NO. 1, 2, & 3. 34.95 

ADVENTURE NO. 4, 5, & 6 34.95 

ADVENTURE NO. 7, 8, & 9 34.95 

DUEL-N-DROIOS 17.95 

STARFLEET ORION 21.95 

INVASION ORION 21.95 

OLYMPIC DECATHLON 24.95 

MONTY PLAYS MONOPOLY 31.95 

SARGONII 31.95 

BLACKJACK MASTER 27.95 

ROBOT ATTACK 17.95 

GALAXY INVASION 17.95 

SUPER NOVA 17.95 

TUESDAY MORNING QUARTERBACK 26.95 

LUNAR LANDER 18.95 

THE MEAN CHECKER MACHINE 21.95 

GAMMON CHALLENGER 18.95 

SPACE ROCKS 18.95 

PIGSKIN 17.95 

ZOSSED IN SPACE 18.95 

ARCADE-80 21.95 

COMBAT 18.95 

SPACE INTRUDERS 17.95 

SILVER FLASH 17.95 

MORTON'S FORK 26.95 

PROJECT OMEGA 21.95 



PRINTERS 

ANADEX DP 9500 1295.00 

ANADEX DP 9501 1295.00 

C-ITOH F-10 40 CPS PARALLEL 1595.00 

C-ITOH 45 CPS PARALLEL 1770.00 

C-ITOH 40 CPS SERIAL 1870.00 

EPSON MX-80 $CALL 

EPSON MX-80 F/T $CALL 

EPSON MX-100 GRAPHIC $CALL 

EPSON GRAFTRAX 90.00 

IDS-445G PAPER TIGER. 779.00 

IDS-460G PAPER TIGER 945.00 



IDS-560G PAPER TIGER 1195.00 

IDS PRISM 80 W/0 COLOR 1099.00 

IDS PRISM 132 W/COLOR 1799.00 

MALIBU 200 DUAL MODE 2695.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3510 S. RO 1995.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3530 P. RO 1995.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7710 S. RO 2595.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7730 P. RO 2595.00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3500 SELLUM 2295.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 389.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 82A 549.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 83A 799.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 84 1199.00 



Now you can use your Epson printer 
without wasting computer time. 

Alpha Byte is proud to 
introduce the Microbuffer! 



Improve efficiency by adding a 
Microbuffer to your Epson printer. 

Your computer is capable of 
sending data much faster than 
your Epson is capable of printing 
it. Because of this you and your 
computer spend a lot of time just 
waiting for the Epson to finish 
printing one line before the next 
can be sent. 

You can recover this wasted 
time by installing the Microbuffer 
buffered Centronics-compatible 
parallel interface, from Practical 
Peripherals, Inc. It will allow you to 
print and process simultaneously 
by storing computer output in an 
external RAM buffer until the 
printer is ready for it. You regain 
control of the computer and may 
continue processing while the 
Epson is still printing. 

MBP-16K PARALLEL 
INTERFACE - 16,394 BYTE 

BUFFER 159.00 

The MBP-16K Centronics-com- 



patible parallel interface features a 
16,394 byte buffer for data storage 
and is compatible with standard 
Epson cables. The MBP-16K sup- 
ports all Epson printer commands 
and GRAFTRAX-80. 

MBS-8K RS-232C SERIAL 
INTERFACE • 8,192 BYTE 

BUFFERING 159.00 

The MBS-8K is an RS-232 serial in- 
terface with an 8,192 byte buffer. 
The MBS-8K supports seven baud 
rates (300 to 19,200), hardware and 
X-On/X-Off handshaking, and user 
selectable UART settings. The MBS- 
8K supports all Epson printer com- 
mands and GRAFTRAX-80. 



Both the Microbuffer MBP-16K and 
MBS-8K are easy to install, they 
simply plug into the existing aux- 
iliary interface connector inside 
the Epson MX-80, MX-80 F/T, and 
MX-100 printers. No special user 
software is required for control. 




We guarantee everything tor 30 days. If 
anything is wrong, return the item and we'll make 
it right. And we'll pay the shipping charges. 

We accept Visa and Master Card on all orders; 
COD orders, up to $300.00. 

Add $2.00 for standard UPS shipping and 
handling on orders under 50 lbs. delivered in con- 
tinental U.S. Call for shipping charges over 50 
lbs. Foreign, FP0 and AP0 orders, add 15% for 
shipping. Californians add 6% sales tax. 

Prices quoted are for stock on hand and are 
I £■%■ IT TT ^ subject to change without notice. 

Ir^l 1 tn lb order or for information call 

PRODUCT? (213)7060333 

rnvUVV I W Modern order line: (213)883-8976 

31245 LA BAYA DRIVE, WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CALIFORNIA 91362 

• 11 



CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. *Reg. trademark of Micro Pro International Corp. 



SO AID 



"Disabling the Break 

key will increase your 

program's execution speed." 



Disabling Break for 
the Color Computer 

I am writing programs for the TRS-80 
Color Computer in Extended Basic. I 
would like some tips on how to protect 
these programs from being easily copied. 
I understand it is possible to command 
the computer to ignore the Break key, thus 
preventing it from listing a loaded pro- 
gram. How is this accomplished? 

Robert E. Meyers 

52 Botsford St. 

Poland, OH 44514 



Because the Extended Color Basic in- 
terpreter scans the keyboard after the 
execution of every Basic keyword looking 
for the Break and Shift® keys, there is no 
simple location to POKE to disable the 
Break key. 

In the February issue of Color Com- 
puter News, Charles J. Roslund offers the 
Basic routine shown in Program Listing 1 
which will disable Break and Shift @ when 
appended to an existing Extended Color 
Basic program (16K). 

Disabling the Break key is not only a 
way to protect your programs from 
tampering but will increase their execu- 
tion speed, as well. 

Two words of warning: this Break 
disable method will not work during the 
execution of an Input command and, once 
enabled, cannot be overcome; the only 
way to interrupt program execution is to 
press the Reset button! — Eds. 



APL Character 
Generator Wanted 

We are a small engineering consulting 
firm and are very interested in running 
APL (A Programming Language) on our 
TRS-80 Model II. Currently we are running 
Vanguard's APLV80 with Pickles & Trout's 
CP/M using the Model II as the computer 
and an Anderson-Jacobson terminal as 
the console. We want to be able to use the 
TRS-80 CRT to input data, edit programs, 
and so on, but we need to be able to 
generate the APL characters on the 



screen. During the past year we have tried 
to purchase an APL character generator 
for our Model II, but thus far we have been 
unsuccessful. 

Can any readers help us find and pur- 
chase the APL prom? 

Shelly D. Leith 

Administrative Assistant 

Texas Consultants Inc. 

525 North Belt 

Suite 250 

Houston, TX 77060 



LNW-80 
Software Exchange 

I would like to contact other LNW-80 
microcomputer owners who would be 
interested in exchanging high resolution 
software and technical ideas. If there is 
enough interest I would be willing to start 
an LNW-80 user newsletter. 

Jay J. Hokanson 

4345 Manchester Rd. 

Grand Island, NE 68801 



Carbon Film Ribbons 

I am using a TRS-80 microcomputer 
with a Daisy Wheel Printer II as a word pro- 
cessing system. One of my projects is pre- 
paring original articles for printing com- 
mercially as individual pamphlets, using 
AB Dick Offset Masters. My printer tells 
me that I need to print the pages on the 
masters with my printer using a non- 
correctable carbon film ribbon. 

I have been unable to find a cartridge of 
non-correctable carbon film ribbon any- 
where. A local office supply company has 



checked with its suppliers and finds that 
the appropriate carbon film ribbon is not 
available to them. They have also checked 
with appropriate business machine com- 
panies locally, with the same result. I have 
checked with the local Radio Shack com- 
puter store manager and he has not been 
able to locate anything for me. A call to 
Tandy Company— Radio Shack Customer 
Services in Fort Worth— yielded only the 
reply that they do not supply non-cor- 
rectable carbon film ribbons for the Daisy 
Wheel Printer II. i would appreciate any 
help you can give me regarding this 
matter. 

Joyce Babcock 

1711 E. Miller 

Jefferson City, MO 65101 



Faster General Ledger 

Has anyone transferred the Radio 
Shack General Ledger I program from 
Basic to machine language so that it runs 
faster for the Model III? 

A. J. Beall, Jr. PE 

Beall Associates 

3901 Monroe Road 

Charlotte, NC 28205 



Model I 
Equipment Wanted 

I represent a non-profit, charitable cor- 
poration which, over the past year, has 
been relying more and more on microcom- 
puter equipment to conduct its daily af- 
fairs: for word processing, accounting, 
fund raising, mailings, correspondence, 



1 IF PEEK(&H3EB9) OS.H32 THEN CLEAR200 ,&H3EB0:FOR I=&H82B9 TO &H831E 
:POKEI-&H4400,PEEK(I) :NEXT ELSE 5 

2 FORI=0 TO 2:P0KE&H3EBD+I,18,NEXT:I=&H3F1E 

3 POKEI,&H26:P0KEI+1,&H3:POKEI+2,4H7E:POKEI+3,&H83:POKEI+4,&H22:POK 
EI+5,&H7E 

4 POKEI+6,&HA4:POKEI+7,&H4C 

5 POKE&H19B,SH3E:RUN10 

10 REM ** YOUR PROGRAM BEGINS HERE ** 



Program Listing 



22 • 80 Microcomputing, Junel July 1982 



and so on. We have received some con- 
tributions of TRS-80 Model I equipment 
which, so far, is serving us well. We would 
be grateful if your readers might consider 
making a tax-deductible contribution of 
additional Model I equipment. Drives, 
printers, and expansion interfaces would 
be especially welcome. 

If you can make such a contribution or 
would like more information, please write 
or call me (collect, if you like) at (617) 
495-9020. 

Robert Epstein, Ph.D. 

Executive Director 

Cambridge Center for 

Behavioral Studies Inc. 

1 1 Ware Si. 

Cambridge, MA 02138 



Special Education Aid 

I recently attended a workshop on 
microcomputers. I see a potential for their 
use in my organization. As Director of 
Education at two community-based facili- 
ties for the mentally retarded, I am investi- 



gating hardware and software that are 
available in this area. I am interested in in- 
struction, programming, and accounting. 
Please send me any information you feel 
would be appropriate for this application. 
Michael R. Fonger 
Director of Education 
Opelousas Developmental Center 
Post Office Drawer 1638 
Opelousas, LA 70570 



Automatic Troubles 

I am experiencing a problem with my 
Epson MX-100 printer. When should I 
enable the automatic carriage return? 

If I enable the switch, I can LPRINT my 
Basic programs and need not worry about 
carriage returns when outputting a line to 
the printer; however, all output from Elec- 
tric Pencil is now double-spaced (in- 
cluding spacing for pagination). 

If I disable the switch to utilize the full 
features of Electric Pencil (including 
pagination, automatic line adjustment, 



and the like) I cannot LLIST my Basic pro- 
grams—the lines overprint each other! 

A I Peponis 

435 Monaco Ave. 

Union City, CA 94587 



Video Signal Info Needed 

We are currently offering an applica- 
tions software package for the Model III. 
We are often asked to give presentations 
before large groups of people. In order to 
demonstrate to such groups, we would 
like to transfer the screen image onto a 
larger monitor or wide-screen tv. Although 
we have a tv rf interface, we have been 
unable to determine precisely how to ob- 
tain the video signal from the Model III. 
Have any of your readers tackled this 
problem? 

Earl B. Beutler, 

Manager, Computer Sales Division 

Trade Service Publications Inc. 

P.O. Box 85007 

San Diego, CA 92138 



PRODUCTS FOR YOUR RADIO SHACK 





MICROTEXT COMMUNICATIONS VIA YOUR MODEM! 



Now you can use your printer with your modem! Your computer can be an 
intelligent printing terminal. Talk to timeshare services or to other personal 
computers; print simultaneously through a second printer port; and re-display 
text stored in memory. Download text to Basic programs; dump to a cassette 
tape, or printer, or both. Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer at 
all. It features user-configurable duplex/parity for special applications, and can 
send any ASCII character. You'll find many uses for this general purpose 
module! Available in ROMPACK, ready-to-use, for $59.95. 



SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Software Development System (SDS80C) is a complete 6809 
editor, assembler and monitor package contained in one Color Computer program 
pack! Vastly superior to RAM-based assemblers/editors, the SDS80C is non- 
volatile, meaning that if your application program bombs, it can't destroy your 
editor/assembler. Plus it leaves almost all of 16K or 32K RAM free for your 
program. Since all three programs, editor, assembler and monitor are co-resident, 
we eliminate tedious program loading when going back and forth from editing to 
assembly and debugging! 

The powerful screen-oriented Editor features finds, changes, moves, copys and 
much more. All keys have convenient auto repeat (typamatic), and since no line 
numbers are required, the full width of the screen may be used to generate well 
commented code. 

The Assembler features all of the following: complete 6809 instruction set; 
complete 6800 set supported for cross-assembly; conditional assembly; local 
labels; assembly to cassette tape or to memory; listing to screen or printer: and 
mnemonic error codes instead of numbers. 

The versatile ABUG monitor is a compact version of CBUG, tailored for debugging 
programs generated by the Assembler and Editor. It features examine/change of 
memory or registers, cassette load and save, breakpoints and more. SDS80C 
Price: $89.95 



GAMES 



* ^ 



Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid field in this action-packed 
Hi-Res graphics game! Available in ROMPACK; requires 16K. Price: $39.95 
Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game by Computerware, with 
fantastic graphics, sound and action! Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 
Berserk — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res game by Mark Data 
Products. Cassette requires 16K. Price: $24.95 

Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by Mark Data Products. Each 
cassette requires 16K. Price: $19.95 each. 



R0MLESS PAK I — is an empty program pack capable of holding two 2716 or 

2732 EPROMs. allowing you up to 8K of program! The PC board inside comes 

with sockets installed, ready to go with the addition of your custom EPROMs. 

Price: $24.95 

2-PASS DISASSEMBLER — with documentation package. 16K; cassette. 80C 

Disassembler Price: $49.95 

CBUG — Machine language monitor. CBUG Cassette Price: $29.95 

CBUG ON 2716 EPR0M: Can plug into Romless Pak I. CBUG ROM Price: 

$39.95 

PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE — serial to parallel converter allows use of all 

standard parallel printers. PI80C Price: $69.95 

Assembly Language Programming, by Lance Leventhal. Price: $16.95 

MEMORY UPGRADE KITS: 4-16K Kit Price $39.95. 16-32K (requires soldering 

experience) Price: $39.95 

PARTS & SERVICES: SAMs, 6809Es, RAMs. PIAs. Call for prices. 



THE 



WE SHIP FROM STOCK! 

: /\^D©[^3) •"» l£&& GOOD STUFF! Master Charge/Visa and COD Accepted 

M®[Mrs^ P.O. BOX 1110 DEL MAR, CA 92014 714-942-2400 



See List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 23 



WHY 



THE LATEST BLAST 
FROM BIG FIVE... 



DEFENSE 
COMMAND 



IS THE ALPHA JOYSTICK 
SUCH A SUCCESS ? 



Because of games like these. 





WMAAAAA.y^ 



I i i i i * it 



Actual unretouched photos 



DEFENSE 
COMMAND 



Big Five has done it again! Now the most popular 
arcade game of all time has a fascinating new twist. 
The Invaders are back! You are alone, valiantly 
defending the all important nuclear fuel cannister 
stockpile from a convoy of thieving aliens who 
repeatedly break off and attack in precision forma- 
tions. An alien passes your guard, swiftly snatching 
up a cannister and flying straight off. Quick! you 
have one last chance to blast him out of the sky. 
Great action and sound! 




BEST 
^SELLER, 



SCARFMAN 

THE LATEST ARCADE CRAZE now runs on your 

TRS-80. 

It's eat or be eaten. You control Scarfman around 

the maze, gobbing up everything in your path. You 

attempt to eat it all before the monsters devour you. 

Difficulty increases as game progresses. Excellent 

high speed machine language action game. From 

The Cornsoft Group. With sound. 

CAUTION: Played with the Alpha Joystick, Scarfman 

may become addictive. 



SUPER NOVA 



Asteroids float ominously around the 
screen. You must destroy the asteroids 
before they destroy you 1 (Big asteroids 
break into little ones ) Your ship will 
respond to thrust, rotate, hyperspace 
and fire Watch out for that saucer with 
the laser 1 As reviewed in May 1981 Byte 
Magazine 



LUNAR LANDER 



As a vast panorama moonscape scrolls 
by select one of many landing sights. 
The more perilous the spot, the more 
points scored —if you can land safely 
You control LEM mam engines and side 
thrusters Absolutely the best use of 
TRS-80 graphics we have ever seen 1 
From Adventure International. With 
sound 



ATTACK FORC^ 



As your ship appears on the bottom of 
the maze, eight alien ships appear on the 
top. all traveling directly at you! You 
move toward them and tire missiles. But 
the more aliens you destroy, the faster 
the remaining ones become. It you get 
too good you must endure the "Flag- 
ship "... With sound effects! 




COSMIC FIGHTER 



Your ship comes out of hyperspace 
under a convoy of aliens. You destroy 
every one. But another set appears. 
These seem more intelligent. You 
eliminate them. too. Your fuel supply is 
diminishing. You must destroy two more 
sets before you can dock The space 
station is now on your scanner... With 
sound! 



METEOR MISSION II' 



As you look down on your view, 
astronauts cry out for rescue. You must 
maneuver through the asteroids & 
meteors. (Can you get back to the space 
station') Fire lasers to destroy the 
asteroids, but watch out, there could be 
an alien FLAGSHIP lurking Includes 
sound effects! 



TALKING ROBOT ATTACK 



INCREDIBLE! This amazing game actually TALKS 
without a speech synthesizer, through the cassette 
AUXplug 

You are armed with just a hand held laser In a 
remote section of the space station you encounter 
armed robots, some march towards you. some wait 
around corners Watch out. the walls are electrified 
Zap as many robots as you dare before escaping 
into a new section where more robots await you 
The struggle continues With Joystick action and 
VOICE OUTPUT, this game will amaze you 

VOICE OUTPUT! 




Mb ALPHA Products 



79-04 Jamaica Ave., Wood haven. NY. 11421 



(212)296-5916 



GAME PRICES 

16K Level 2, Mod 1 + Mod 3 Cassette: $15.95 
32K Level 2, Mod 1 + Mod 3 Diskette: $19.95 
All games on this page are "Alpha Joystick 
Compatible." They may be played with or 
without joystick (using arrow keys). 



Toll Free 
Order Line 

(BOO) 
221-0916 



ADD $2.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING 
WE ACCEPT VISA, MASTERCARD, CHECKS, M.O. 
C.0.0. ADD $3 00 EXTRA. 

NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. MHJB 
OVERSEAS, FPO.APO: ADD 10%. l,„*y 
DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



X. 




rt Swvet 'Deal ; 

l/Vften you buy 
an A/p/ia Joystick 
and games together, 
deduct up to $14.00 
from your order. 




THE 

ALPHA 

JOYSTICK 



MODEL 1 OR 3 

ONLY 

$39.95 

MODEL I OR III. SPECIFY WHEN ORDER- 
ING. PRICE INCLUDES ATARI JOYSTICK + 
ALPHA INTERFACE + INSTRUCTIONS + 
DEMO PROGRAM LISTING. 



Joystick + 1 game : Deduct $ 6.00 
Joystick + 2 games: Deduct $12.00 
Joystick +3 games: Deduct $14.00 



The Alpha Joystick gives you 
real arcade action. Game pro- 
ducers know that it makes 
great games better. That's why 
each month more games from 
more producers are "Alpha 
Joystick Compatible." 

There has never been a 
better time to get your Alpha 
Joystick. With so many 
excellent action games to 
choose from it's time to step 
up to joystick power. 

You will find the Alpha Joy- 
stick simple to use. Just plug it 
in. No modification, wiring or 
batteries are required, and it's 
fully compatible with any other 
TRS-80 accessories. The 
instructions are clear and com- 
plete, we even show you how 
easy it is to experiment in 



BASIC (A = INP(O) reads stick) 
and to convert BASIC pro- 
grams for joystick control. 

MODEL I - Plugs into any Level 
II keyboard (40 pin card edge in 
the back) or expansion inter- 
face (left side, next to printer 
port). Our latest design has a 
"mode" switch for compatibil- 
ity with the many different 
producers of joystick com- 
patible games. 

MODEL III — Works with any 
Model III BASICsystem.lt 
plugs into the 50 pin I/O bus 
(largest edge connector under- 
neath, centered toward the 
rear). It will work with "Joystick 
Compatible" Model III games 
from any producer. 



"If you purchase Alpha's Joy- 
stick you get the exquisite 
pleasure of enjoying (action 
games) to the limit of arcade- 
style realism." 

- 80 Microcomputing 
80 Reviews, Jan '82 



M3 ALPHA Products 

79-04 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven. NY 11421 ^17 (212)296-5916 



14 DAY MONEY BACK 
GUARANTEE: If you are not 
delighted, return it within 14 
days for a prompt and 
courteous refund. 

Toll Free 
Order Line 

ORDERS ONLY. HOURS: 9 AM - 5:30 PM, E.S.T. 
FOR INFO CALL: (212) 296-5916 

800-221-0916 



ADD $2.00 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING 

WE ACCEPT VISA. MASTERCARD, CHECKS. M.O. 

C.O.D. ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 

NY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. 

OVERSEAS, FPO, APO: ADD 10%. 

DEALER DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



npn 



8D DEBUg 



"A wrong fix is 
more frustrating than 
the original problem. " 



Screen Scroll Fix 

Mr. Keller's article "As the Screen 
Scrolls" (80 Micro, February 1982) is very 
interesting and useful. 

I have a 16K Model I, Level II, but not the 
Editor/Assembler package. After typing 
Program Listing 3 (pg. 266), I found my 
screen scrolling and saving only the bot- 
tom line. 

Program Listing 1, the source code, was 
written for the top of a 32K machine. List- 
ing 3 POKEs this code to the top of a 16K 



"That last 
digit was lost." 



machine. This works fine until line 210 of 
Listing 1 tries to LD BC with the value 
stored at BB81H by line 190. BB81H is 
above the 16K boundary, 7FFFH. If you 
change this location to 7FD4H, (32724), 
just below the beginning of the program, 
things will work fine. Listing 3 should be 
as shown in Fig. 1 (changes are under- 
scored). Be sure to set the memory size to 
32720 or below. 

The number of top lines to be protected 
is passed to the subroutine at line 65010, 
Listing 3, in PF. To change the size of the 
bottom field, simply increase or decrease 
the test value (16256) in line 65030 by mul- 
tiples of 64. This subroutine can be made 
to do many things by using whatever test 
or directive you wish at line 65050. This 
line determines when the machine lan- 
guage routine is called. 

Daryl Kraft 

1301 Hughitt Ave. 

Superior, W I 54880 



Wrong Fix 

A wrong fix is more frustrating than the 
original problem! In my letter on the 
ULCBAS bug (80 Micro, February 
1982, page 28). there was a missing 
digit. Line 10 should read: Y = PEEK 
(16561) + 256-PEEK(16562) + 1. Somehow 



that last digit was lost on the printing 
room floor. 

Nate Salsbury 

608 Madam Moore's Lane 

New Bern, NC 28560 



A New Exhibition 

There are two bugs in Program Listing 1 
that accompanied my article "Pictures at 
a Model II Exhibition" (80 Micro, March 
1982). 

Line 30 should read GOSUB 280. Line 80 
should read FOR X1 = 1 TO 121. 

To turn off the compressed mode 
change line 270 to read CLS:PRINT@ 
910,CHR$(26)"END OF PROGRAM" 
CHR$(25);CHR$(27);CHR$(15):END 

Jesse W. Baker 

P.O. Box 145 

Fort Kent, ME 04743 



I Can't Get Out! 

Roy Green's Supermaze for the Color 
Computer (80 Micro, March 1982, page 
148) is fun, but I had to change some lines 
to run the program. 

In line 310 delete the apostrophe that 
appears before :PRINT@. In line 320 
delete the apostrophe at the beginning of 
the line. 

Change line 1150 to read IF X = A(100) 
AND D = 4 THEN 1300. Change line 1160 
to read IF X = A(101) AND D = 2 THEN 
1350. 



In Matt Robins' article "Hydra- 
Disk" (80 Micro, March 1982) the 
captions under Figs. 2 and 3 on 
page 208 were reversed. — Eds. 



The main program was 


omitted 


from Richard Ramella's 


article, 


"Shady Characters" (80 


Micro, 


March 1982). The listing 


appears 


below. 




100 REM SHADOW BOX BY RICHARD RAMELLA 


110 CLS 




120 CLEAR 126 




(DATA LIKES) 




1000 FORX=1TO150 




1010 READ A 




1020 READ B 




1030 LPRINT STRINGS(A,"") ; 




1040 LPRINT STRING$(B-A,"*") 




1050 NEXT X 




1060 END 





Michael Goldflam's sort routine ("Goldf lam Sort,"80 Input, February 1982) was 
incorrect as printed. The correct listing follows. 

1 INPUT"HOW MUCH MEMORY WOULD YOU LIKE TO SET ASIDE FOR ITEMS", -B:C 
LEAR B:INPUT"HOW MANY ITEMS TO SORT" ; A: DIMA$ (A) : FOR X=l TO A: INPUT 

A$(X) :NEXT X 

2 FOR X=2 TO A:FOR Xl=l TO X-1:IF A$ (X) <A$ (XI ) THEN 4 ELSE NEXT 

3 NEXT X:GOT05 

4 B$=A$(X):FOR X2=X TO Xl+1 STEP-1 : A$ (X2) =A$ (X2-1) : NEXT: A$ (XI) =B$ : 
GOT03 

5 CLS:PRINT"DONE" : INPUT"HIT <ENTER> TO CONTINUE" ; B: FOR X=l TO A: PR 
INTA$(X);" ";:NEXT 



65110 DATA 0,0,2 05,127,10,3 4,212,127,33,192,63,237,212,127 
65120 DATA 237,66,68,77,42,212,127,17,64,0,237,82,84,93 
65130 DATA 42,212,127,237,176,58,32,64,214,64,50,32,64,201 

Figure 1 



26 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



AND MODEL 



Now Model III users can take advantage of the ALPHA I/O system too* Our new 
MOD III/I BUS CONVERTER allows most port based Model I accessories (such as 
our ANALOG-80, INTERFACER 2 and INTERFACER-80) to connect to the Model III 

RTER, complete with all connectors, only $39.9 




PRINTSWITCH 

Have 2 printers on line at all times and select printer 1 or 
2 by means ol a conveniently located switch. End the problem 
of constantly plugging and unplugging printer cables. PRINT- 
SWITCH is a compact module that plugs onto the parellel printer 
port of your TRS-80 and provides an edge connector for each 
of your two printers. It works with any two types ot printers: 
dot matrix, daisy wheel, plotters. TRS-80 converted selectrics, 
etc. Assembled, tested, ready to use with connector and in- 
structions. For Model I or III (please specify). ONLY . . $59.00 



OS 40W 
@6ID 34P 



^P CABLES 



®§1D 34Pta,54- @ @ @ p 
© E3 34 Ph, 2ft D=» 

© §3 34 Pkl, 4ft 



9- 



■ B 



40Pta,2of4ft 



9- 



SUPERIOR QUALITY REPLACEMENT & EXTENSION CABLES 

Highest quality cable and high force, gold plated contacts 
ensure the utmost in connection reliability. 

O KEYBOARD TO EXPANSION INTERFACE S21 . 

© DISK DRIVE CABLE FOR 1 OR 2 DRIVES $32. 

© DISK DRIVE CABLE FOR 3 OR 4 DRIVES $45. 

© DISK DRIVE CABLE EXTENDER $22 

© PRINTER CABLE EXTENDER $24. 

© 40 PIN BUS EXTENDER - 2 ft. .. $22 4 ft. .. $24. 

Custom cable configurations are also available. Call us. 







YOU ASKED FOR IT: 'EXPANDABUS" XI. X2. X3 AND X4 
CONNECT ALL YOUR TRS-80 DEVICES SIMULTANEOUSLY 
on the 40 pin TRS-80 bus. Any device that normally plugs 
into the keyboard edge connector will also plug into the 
"EXPANDABUS". The "X4" is shown with protective 
covers (included). The TRS-80 keyboard contains the bus 
drivers (74LS36?) lor uo to 20 devices, more than you will 
ever need Using the E/l, it plugs either between KB anfl E/l 
or in the Screen Printer port. Professional quality, gold 
plated contacts. Computer grade 40 conductor ribbon cable. 
X2...$29. X3..S44. X4 ..$59. X5 S74. 

Custom configurations are also available call us 




ANAL0G-80: A WORLD OF NEW APPLICATIONS POSSIBLE. 
8 DIGITAL MULTIMETtRS PLUGGED INTO YOUR rRS-80" 1 
Measure Temperature. Voltage. Current. Light. Pressure, etc 
Very easy !o use lor example, let's read input channel #4 10 
OUT 4 Selects input #4 and also starts the conversion 20 
A = INP(O) Puts the result in variable "A" Voila' 
Specifications Input range 0-5V. to 0-500V. Each channel 
can Oe set to a different scale 

Resolution. ?0mV (on 5V range). Accuracy: 8 bits ( 5%) Port 
Address lumper selectable Plugs into keyboard bus or E/l 
iscreen printer port) Assembled and tested 90 day warranty 
.Complete with power supply, connector, manual $139. 



SPECIAL THIS MONTH.' 



$Q9_5 



DISK DRIVE EXTENDER CABLE. FREE YOUR MINI-DRIVES. 

End the daisy-chain mess once and for all. Fits all mini- 
drives: Percom, Aerocomp, Shugart, Micropolis, MTI, Vista, 
Pertec, Siemens, BASF. East to install: just remove the drive 
cover, plug in the EXTENDER CABLE and replace the cover. 

Now you can change and move your drives without dis- 
assembly. Keep the cover on and the dust out. High reliability 
gold plated contacts, computer grade 34 conductor cable. 
Tested and guaranteed. 

Get one for each drive ... ONLY $8.95 




TIMEOATE 80: REAL-TIME CLOCK/CALENDAR MODULE 

Keeps quartz accurate time lor 3 years on 2 replaceable 
AAA batteries (not included) Gives MO/DATE/YR. DAY ol 
WEEK. HR MINSEC and AM/PM. Features INTELLIGENT 
CALENDAR and even provides lor Leap Year This compact 
module simply plugs into rear of Keyboard or side ot 
Expansion Interlace (may be slipped inside E/l) Includes 
cassette software tor setting clock and patching lo any DOS 
(including NEWDOS 80. 2 0). Optional "Y" connector allows 
lor further expansion For Model I Fully assembled and 
tested Complete with instructions and cassette. ONLY 

power relays ui 



.. inputs «. 



* X s - • - •■ i J. 

4 j tt **, s l 




INTERFACER-80: She most powerful Sense/Control module. 

• 8 industrial grade relays, single pole double tmow isolated 
contacts: 2 Amp. @ 125 Volts. TTL latched outputs are also 
accessible to drive external solid state relays. 

•8 convenient LEDs constantly display the relay stales 
Simple 'OUT" commands (in basic) control the 8 relays. 

.8 optically-isolated inputs for easy Oirect interlacing to 
external switches, photocells, keypads, sensors, etc 
Simple INP" commands read the status of the 8 inputs 
Selectable port address. Clean, compact enclosed design 
Assembled, tested. 90 days warranty Price includes power 
supply, cable connector, superb user's manual. .. . $159 



GREEN SCREEN 

WARNING 

I8M and all the biggies aie using green screen monitors 

Its advantages are now widely advertised. We feel that every 

TRS-80 user should enjoy the benetits it provides But 

WARNING: al! Green Screens are not created equal. Here is 

what we found: 

•Several are just a flat piece of standard colored Lucite The 

green tint was not made for this purpose and is judged by 

many to be too dark. Increasing the brightness control will 

result in a fuzzy display. 

•Some are simply a piece ol thin plastic him taped onto a 

cardboard frame The color is satisfactory but the wobbly turn 

gives it a poor appearance. 

•One "optical filter" is in fact plain acrylic sheeting 

•False claim: A few pretend to "reduce glare", in lact. their 

Hat and shiny surfaces (both film and Lucite type) ADD their 

own reflections to the screen. 

•A few laughs: One ad claims to "reduce screen contrast" 

Sorry gentleman but it's just the opposite One of the Green 

Screen's major benefits is to increase the contrast between 

the text and the background. 

•Drawbacks: Most are using adhesive strips to tasten their 

screen to the monitor. This method makes it awkward to 

remove for necessary periodical cleaning All (except ours) 

are flat. Light pens will not work reliably because of the big 

gap between the screen and the tube. 

Many companies have been manufacturing video fillers for 

years. We are not the first (some think they are), bul we have 

done our homework and we think we manufacture the best 

Green Screen. Here is why: 

•It tits righl onto Ihe piclure tube like a skin because it is the 

only CURVED screen MOLDED exactly to the picture tube 

curvature. It is Cut precisely to cover ihe exposed area ol the 

picture tube. The tit is such that the static electricity is 

sufficient to keep it in place! We also include some invisible 

reusable tape for a more secure fastening 

•The filter material that we use is just right, not too dark nor 

too light. The result is a really eye pleasing display. 

We are so sure that you will never take your Green screen ott 

that we offer an unconditional money-back guaraniy: try our 

Green Screen for 14 days. If for any reason you are not 

delighted with it. return it tor a prompt reiund. 

A last word We think that companies, like ours, who are 

selling mainly by mail should »lisl their street address»have a 

phone number (lor questions and orders ("accept CODs. not 

every one likes lo send checks lo a PO boxaolfer the 

convenience of charging their purchase to major credit cards 

How come we are the only green screen people doing it? 

Older your ALPHA GREEN SCREEN today $1 2 50 




Prodi* 



ADO S2.50 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING 

ALL ORDERS SHIPPED FIRST CLASS MAIL 

WE ACCEPT VISA. MASTER CHARGE CHECKS MO 

COD ADD S2 00 EXTRA 

OUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE ■! 

N Y RESIDENTS ADO SALES TAX ■■ 



85-71 79 St.WOODHAVEN N.Y. 11421 S Info and order. (212)296-5916 



SODEBUg 



Data must have 105 items for each 


change "R" to "— 


'; and in line 270 change 


maze, so I added one zero as the first data 


"L" to "■*-". You must also change lines 


item in lines 3250, 3260, 3290, 3300, 3330, 


1110-1130. In line 1110 change "F" to 


and 3340. Example: 3250 DATA 0, 


CHR$(94); in line 


1120 change "R" to 


11011 


CHR$(9); and in I 


ne 1130 change "L" to 


I also made a change to Supermaze that 


CHR$(8). 




makes it easier to walk through the maze 




Daniel W. Phillips 


if you are unfamiliar with the keyboard. In 




289 S. Sheridan St. 




line 250 change "F" to "T"; in line 260 




Wilkes-Barre, PA 18702 






The article "CP80," page 306 in the April 1982 issue has some technical errors 






which were missed. Line numbers 1600-2190 were deleted 


in the magazine, but 






are correct on the Load 80 tape and disk. They are shown in 


he listing below. The 






Key Box states that CP80 requires at least one disk drive 


. The minimum con- 






figuration is actually 32K Level II, and is not tested under disk operation. Lastly, 






on page 306 the article refers to a Compac program. This is a modem-driver 






package which will soon be appearing 


n 80 Micro. Our thanks to author Brian 






Cameron for pointing out these errors. - 


-Eds. 








7049 FE5B 01600 CP 


5BH 


UP ARROW? 






704B 2007 01610 JR 


NZ,N0TU 


NO 






704D 3EC9 01620 LD 


A,0C9H 


LOAD A RET 






704F 328876 01630 LD 


(POUT) ,A 


STORE IT 






7052 18C6 01640 JR 


CMDHND 








01650 ; 










7054 01660 N0TU EQU 


? 








7054 FE2A 01670 CP 


2 AH 


IS IT STAR? 






7056 2009 01680 JR 


NZ, NOTST 


NO - BYPASS 






7058 01690 CMORE EQU 


$ 








7058 CD9770 01700 CALL 


OURKBD 


GET COMMENT 






705B FE0D 01710 CP 


0DH 


END? 






70 5D 20F9 017 2 JR 


NZ, CMORE 


NO - GET MORE 






705F 18B9 01730 JR 


CMDHND 








7061 01740 NOTST EQU 


$ 








7061 CBAF 01750 RES 


5,A 


INSURE UPPER CASE 






7063 FE44 01760 CP 


4411 


DISPLAY? 






7065 CAF971 01770 JP 


Z,DICMD 








7068 FE53 01780 CP 


5311 


STORE? 






706A CA0C71 01790 JP 


Z,STCMD 








706D FE41 01800 CP 


4.1H 


ADSTOP? 






706F CA0575 01810 JP 


Z,ADSTP 








7072 FE42 01820 CP 


42H 


BEGIN? 






7074 CA3074 01830 JP 


Z,BCMD 








7077 FE45 01840 CP 


45H 


E CMD? 






7079 283D 01850 JR 


Z,ECMD 


YES 






01860 ; 










01870 ; 










707B 00 01880 NOP 










707C 00 01890 NOP 










707D 00 01900 NOP 










01910 ; 










707E 01920 ICMD EQU 5 










707E CD7B76 01930 CALL 


OURMSG 


DISPLAY MSG 






7081 0E 01940 DEFB 


0EH 


CURSOR ON 






7082 0D 01950 DEFB 


CR 








7083 49 01960 DEFM 


'INVALID COMMAN 


)' 






7092 0D 01970 DEFB 


CR 








7093 00 01980 DEFB 


EOM 








01990 ; 










7094 C31A70 02000 JP 


CMDHND 


; START AGAIN 






02010 ; 










7097 02020 OURKBD EQU 


S 








7097 CD2B00 02030 CALL 


KBD 








709A B7 02040 OR 


A 








709B 28FA 02050 JR 


Z, OURKBD 








709D CD8176 02060 CALL 


DSP 








70A0 C9 02070 RET 










02080 ; 










02090 ; 










70A1 02100 WBLK EQU 


$ 








70A1 CD9770 02110 CALL 


OURKBD 


GET A CHAR 






70A4 FE20 02120 CP 


20H 


IS IT A BLANK? 






70A6 2001 02130 JR 


NZ, NOTBL 








70A8 C9 02140 RET 










02150 ; 










70A9 02160 NOTBL EQU 


5 








70A9 Fl 02170 PDF 


AF 


FREE UP STACK 






70AA 18D2 02180 JR 


ICMD 








02190 ; 



















Percom Disk Storage 

Quality Percom products are available from 
the following authorized Percom retailers. 
If a retailer is not listed for your area, call 
Percom toll free at 1-800-527-1222 for the 

address of a nearby retailer, or to order directly 
from Percom 

ARKANSAS 
MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS. INC Hoi Spnngs 1501 ) 62.3 5209 

ARIZONA 
SIMUT! K Tucson 1602)323-9391 

CALIFORNIA 
ALPHA BYTE STORES Calabasas 1213) 883-H594 

BERKELEY MICRO COMPUTFRS Berkeley (415)848 7122 

COMPUTER INFORMATION EXCHANGE 

SanLuisRey (714)757 4849 
COMPUTER SERVICE CENTER Hollywood (21318513434 

DESMAR ELECTRONICS Sania Clara (408)988 2208 

HOBBYWORLD Norihndge (213)886 9200 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
THE PROGRAM STORE Washington (202) 337 469 1 

FLORIDA 
ENTRON.INC Largo (813)586 5012 

MICROSYSTEMS SOFTWARE. INC 

Hollywood (305) 983 3390 

GEORGIA 
COMMERCIAL DATA PRODUCTS Atlanta (404)325-7800 

HAWAII 
COMPUTER CENTER Honolulu ' (808)488 2171 

IDAHO 
OFFICE MAGIC COMPUTERS Boise (208)376 4613 

IDAHO MICROCOMPUTER ' Buhl (208) 543-6292 

ILLINOIS 
GARCIA & ASSOCIATES 



BESCO ELECTRONICS 
CARDENS. INC 

DATA SERVICES INC 



Chicago 
KANSAS 

Shawnee 
Hutchins. 
Wichita 
KENTUCKY 



.ill,- 



OMNITFK 



DAMASCUS CB 

Al TFRNAT1 SOUR! 1. 



THE CODE ROOM 



lEMBERCTRCO 



COLUMBUS TV 
CURTRONICS 



COMPUTER MAGIC 

MASSACHUSETTS 

I ,'wksburv 

MARYLAND 

Damascus 

MICHIGAN 

Lansing 

MINNESOTA 

Eden Praine 

MISSOURI 

Vienna 

NEBRASKA 

Columbus 

Lincoln 

NEW JERSEY 

CHANNEL 1 RADIO SHACK Medford 

DA &D SALES Bloomfield 

NEVADA 

PCS COMPUTER Las Vegas 

NEW YORK 

H & E COMPUTRONICS Spring Valley 

MICRO 80 SYSTEMS Brooklyn 

PROGRAMS UNI IMITED Jericho 

STONY CLOVE New York City 

DATASCAN COMPUTER SYSTEMS. INC . . , 

Selden 

NORTH CAROLINA 

HOLLIDAYMFG Greensboro 

OHIO 
FELDMAN ENTERPRISES Akron 

MPS Wadswonh 

PENNSYLVANIA 
COMPUTER ANALYSTS N. u Bnghti « 

SUNRISE ELECTRONICS Chambersburg 



TENNESSEE 
COMPUTER WORLD. INC Nashville 

TEXAS 

PERCOM COMPUTER! ENTER R.chardson 

COMPUTER TO GO Ausbn 

BREEZE. QSD. INC Dallas 

TEXAS COMPUTER SYSTEMS Ariington 

UTAH 
MICRO MNEMONICS Sunset 

WASHINGTON 
COMPUTER SERVICES Kennewick 

NORTHWEST COMPUTER SERVICE 

Bellvue 
WEST VIRGINIA 
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TRS*80* COMPUTING EDITION 



©1981 PercomDataCo., Inc. 



®t)e percom ^ertptjeml 



35 cents 



Percom's DOUBLER II" tolerates wide variations in media, drives 



GARLAND, TEXAS — May 22, 1981 — 
Harold Mauch, president of Percom Data 
Company, announced here today that an im- 
proved version of the Company's innovative 
DOUBLER® adapter, a double-density plug-in 
module for TRS-80' Model I computers, is 
now available. 

Reflecting design refinements based on both 
theoretical analyses and field testing, the 
DOUBLER II®, so named, permits even great- 
er tolerance in variations among media and 
drives than the previous design. 

Like the original DOUBLER, the DOU- 
BLER II plugs into the drive controller IC 
socket of a TRS-80 Model I Expansion Inter- 
face and permits a user to run either single- or 
double-density diskettes on a Model I. 

With a DOUBLER II installed, over four 
times more formatted data — as much as 364 
Kbytes — can be stored on one side of a five- 
inch diskette than can be stored using a stan- 
dard Tandy Model I drive system. 

Moreover, a DOUBLER II equips a Model I 
with the hardware required to run Model III 
diskettes. 

(Ed. Note: See "OS-80®: Bridging the TRS- 
80* software compatibility gap" elsewhere on 
this page.) 

The critical clock-data separation circuitry 
of the DOUBLER II is a proprietary design 
called a ROM -programmed digital phase-lock 
loop data separator. 

According to Mauch, this design is more 
tolerant of differences from diskette to diskette 
and drive to drive, and also provides immunity 
to performance degradation caused by circuit 
component aging. 




Percom DOUBLER II s 



Mauch said "A DOUBLER II will operate 
just as reliably two years after it is installed as it 
will two days after installation. " 

The digital phase-lock loop also eliminates 
the need for trimmer adjustments typical of 
analog phase -lock loop circuits. 

"You plug in a Percom DOUBLER II and 
then forget it," he said. 

The DOUBLER II also features a refined 
Write Precompensation circuit that more 
effectively minimizes the phenomena of bit- 
and peak-shifting, a reliability-impairing char- 
acteristic of magnetic data recording. 

The DOUBLER II, which is fully software 
compatible with the previous DOUBLER, is 
supplied with DBLDOS**, a TRSDOS'- 
compatible disk operating system. 

The DOUBLER II sells for $2>^5, includ- 
ing the DBLDOS diskette. *#ill<|/^ 



Circuit misapplication causes diskette read, format problems. 

High resolution key to reliable data separation 



GARLAND, TEXAS — The Percom 
SEPARATOR® does very well for the Radio 
Shack TRS-80* Model I computer what the 
Tandy disk controller does poorly at best: reli- 
ably separates clock and data signals during 
disk-read operations. 

Unreliable data-clock separation causes for- 
mat verification failures and repeated read 
retries. 

CRC ERROR -TRACK LOCKED OUT 

The problem is most severe on high-number 
(high-density) inner file tracks. 

As reported earlier, the clock-data separa- 
tion problem was traced by Percom to misap- 
plication of the internal separator of the 1771 
drive controller IC used in the Model I. 

The Percom Separator substitutes a high- 
resolution digital data separator circuit, one 
which operates at 16 megahertz, for the low- 
resolution one-megahertz circuit of the Tandy 
design. 

Separator circuits that operate at lower 
frequencies — for example, two- or four- 



megahertz — were found by Percom to provide 
only marginally improved performance over 
the original Tandy circuit. 

The Percom solution is a simple adapter that 
plugs into the drive controller of the Expansion 
Interface (EI). 

Not a kit — some vendors supply an un- 
tested separator kit of resistors, ICs and other 
paraphernalia that may be installed by mod- 
ifying the computer — the Percom 
SEPARATOR is a fully assembled, fully tested 
plug-in module. 

Installation involves merely plugging the 
SEPARATOR into the Model I EI disk con- 
troller chip socket, and plugging the controller 
chip into a socket on the SEPARATOR. 

The SEPARATOR, which sells for only 
$29.95, may be purchased from authorized Per- 
com retailers or ordered directly from the fac- 
tory. The factory toll-free order number is 
1-800-527-1222. 

Ed. note: Opening the TRS-80 Expansion In- 
terface may void the Tandy limited 90-day 
warranty. ^ 2 



The Percom DOUBLER II is available from 
authorized Percom retailers, or may be ordered 
direct from the factory. The factory toil-free 
order number is 1-800-527-1222. 

Ed. note: Opening the TRS-80 Expansion In- 
terface may void the Tandy limited 90-day 

warranty. 

^ i 

AH that glitters is not gold 

OS-80® Bridging the TRS-80* 
software compatibility gap 

Compatibility between TRS-80* Model I diskettes 
and the new Model III is about as genuine as a gold- 
plated lead Krugerrand. 

True, Model I TRSDOS* diskettes can be read on 
a Model III. But first they must be converted and re- 
recorded for Model IN operation. 

And you cannot write to a Model I TRSDOS* dis- 
kette. Not with a Model III. You cannot add a file. 
Delete a file. Or in any way modify a Model I 
TRSDOS diskette with a Model III computer. 

Furthermore, your converted TRSDOS diskettes 
cannot be converted back for Model I operation. 

TRSDOS is a one-way street. And there's no re- 
treating. A point to consider before switching the 
company's payroll to your new Model III. 

Real software compatibility should allow the di- 
rect, immediate interchangeability of Model I and 
Model III diskettes. No read-only limitations, no 
conversion/re-recording steps and no chance to be 
left high and dry with Model III diskettes that can't 
be run on a Model I. 

What's the answer? The answer is Percom's OS- 
80'* family of TRS-80 disk operating systems. 

OS-80 programs allow direct, immediate inter- 
changeability of Model I and Model III diskettes. 

You can run Model I single-density diskettes on a 
Model III; install Percom's plug-in DOUBLER'* 
adapter in your Model I, and you can run double- 
density Model III diskettes on a Model I. 

There's no conversion, no re-recording. 

Slip an OS-80 diskette out of your Model I and in- 
sert it directly in a Model III. 

And vice-versa. 

Just have the correct OS-80 disk operating sys- 
tem — OS-80. OS-80D or OS-80/III — in each com- 
puter. 

Moreover, with OS-80 systems, you can add, de- 
lete, and update files. You can read and write disket- 
tes regardless of the system of origin. 

OS-80 is the original Percom TRS-80 DOS for 
BASIC programmers. 

Even OS-80 utilities are written in BASIC. 

OS-80 is the Percom system about which a user 
wrote, in Creative Computing magazine, "... the best 
$30.00 you will ever spend. "t 

Requiring only seven Kbytes of memory, OS-80 
disk operating systems reside completely in RAM. 
There's no need to dedicate a drive exclusively for a 
system diskette. 

And, unlike TRSDOS, you can work at the track 
sector level, defining and controlling data formats — 
in BASIC — to create simple or complex data struc- 
tures that execute more quickly than TRSDOS files. 

The Percom OS-80 DOS supports single-density 
operation of the Model I computer — price is 
$29.95; the OS-80D supports double-density opera- 
tion of Model I computers equipped with a DOUB- 
LER or DOUBLER II; and, OS-80/III — for the 
Model III of course — supports both single- and 
double-density operation. OS-80D and OS-80/III 
each sell for $49.95. 

«^" 3 



PRICES ANDSPEC1FICATIONS SUBJECTTO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. PRICES DO NOT INCLUDE HANDLING AND SHIPPING. 

PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC. 11220 Pagcmill Road Dallas, Texas 75243 (214) 340-7081 

^Trademark of Percom Data Company, Inc. 'TRS-80 and TRSDOS ate trademarks of Tandy Corporation which has no relationship to Percom Data Company. 'tCreative Computing Magazine, June, 1980, page 26. 
^See List ot Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 29 



SO ACCOUNTANT 



by Michael Tannenbaum C.P.A. 



"/ deplored the lack of tax planning software and 
suggested this area to software developers. " 



In my February column I discussed 
the state of tax preparation software as 
seen from the vantage point of November 
1981. My thoughts were influenced by a 
survey of our staff conducted during 
September and October. As you might 
recall, I deplored the lack of tax planning 
software and suggested this area to soft- 
ware developers. I also noted that a micro 
might not be the best vehicle for automat- 
ing tax preparation procedures. 

Several readers have taken me to task 
for this conclusion. Mr. Fred E. Guth of 
Gooth Software (931 South Bemiston, St. 
Louis, MO 63105) suggested that I was not 
giving micros the break they deserve. He 
indicated that his software helped many 
tax preparers with return preparation and 
his clients all used TRS-80 models. Unfor- 
tunately, I did not receive a sample of the 
software so I was unable to evaluate it for 
this column. However, F. Lee Radzicki of 
IMPACC Associates (P.O. Box 93, 
Gwynedd Valley, PA 19437) did send me 
his Tax Master system. 

The Tax Master System 

The Tax Master system (TM) simulates 
tax forms on the Model It's display. Any 
tax return preparer familiar with the tax 
form will be able to use this system with 
almost no training. This feature of the TM 
system represents a radical departure 
from the normal service bureau input 
form. Although the input forms used by 
our firm's service bureau are well designed, 
we still require a pre-tax season training 
session in their use for our staff. 

Elimination of the input form has a fur- 
ther benefit. Any ambiguities in how data 
input affects the tax return can be resolved 
immediately. Because of the interaction 
between tax forms, data entered on one 
form often affects calculations on another 
in unexpected ways. This interaction is not 
always obvious to novice tax preparers 
when entering data on service bureau input 
sheets. Should such a misunderstanding 
occur, time will be lost in all the input 
sheets and preparing the return again. 

TM is for use on a two-disk Model II 
system. The programs reside on drive zero 
and the client data files reside on drive one. 
With this type of organization, the data disk 
can accommodate up to 75 clients. The TM 



software developer recommends an alpha- 
betic indexing scheme for establishing 
client disk files. Regardless of the method 
used, the program's sophisticated client 
search method allows the preparer to 
separate and reference clients with the 
same last name, same first name, same 
state of residence but different telephone 
numbers. 



"You cannot just pop 
a CP/M-based 

application system in 
your disk drive and 
expect it to work. " 



Once you have established a client 
master file, TM presents a menu of tax 
forms. Simply select the form and the pro- 
gram displays a facsimile on the screen. 
Because of screen limitations, the entire 
form cannot be displayed at once. The 
system's designers used logical breaks 
within the form to divide it into 
displayable groupings. A maximum of 23 
lines is presented at one time. The last line 
is reserved for messages from the system 
to the user. 

By using the control key, special func- 
tion keys, the tab key and the curly 
bracket ({) keys data is entered on the ap- 
propriate lines on the form. Arithmetic 
operations can be made in numeric data 
entry fields. Each field is a calculator. For 
example, to sum the earnings of a hus- 
band and wife, the operator need only 
enter a plus sign after the first entry. Then 
when he enters the second amount and 
presses the Enter key the field will display 
the sum of the entries. Other arithmetic 
operations such as multiplication and 
division are also permitted. 

When data is entered, the cursor moves 
to the next allowable data entry field. If 
the new field is a subtotal or grand total 
field, pressing the control key and the let- 
ter V automatically does the calculation. If 



the field is the result of calculations done 
on another form, the same key sequence 
extracts the appropriate total. If the other 
form has not yet been completed, the key 
sequence will return a zero. The preparer 
may override the zero amount if he desires 
to estimate the amount. 

You can use an estimate for the 
unknown amount if an approximate tax 
value is to be calculated. The TM system 
permits estimated taxes to be calculated 
since there are two levels of calculation 
(local to the form and global to the return). 
This feature allows you to use the TM sys- 
tem as a tax planning tool. Once the glo- 
bal (entire return) calculation option is ex- 
ercised, the estimate will be replaced by a 
zero if the proper schedule has not been 
prepared. 

At any time the preparer can terminate 
data entry operations even if all informa- 
tion required is not entered. Once this is 
done, the data entered to date is stored on 
the disk and the forms selection menu is 
displayed. Should the preparer elect to 
work on another client, he can exit from 
the forms selection menu and select a 
new client name from the master file. The 
entire forms and client selection pro- 
cedure makes the TM system a close 
analogue of manual procedures. 

At any point in the tax preparation pro- 
cess you can print a set of tax forms. By 
entering appropriate commands when 
you select a form, the totals are dumped 
onto the printer. The format of the report 
has been designed so that you can place a 
tax form overlay on the printout and 
photocopy them. In a pinch, if a tax form 
overlay is not available, you can make the 
printout directly on the form. The latter 
course of action is not very desirable— it 
is difficult to line up the form so data is in 
the proper boxes. Getting a good copy 
takes patience and plenty of extra forms. 

I evaluated the system by entering data 
for an actual taxpayer. As a novice user, 
unfamiliar with the program's control key 
structure, I made many mistakes. The 
system is quite forgiving but a bit 
frustrating to use. For example, when I 
made an error, the system presented a 
flashing message on the last line of the 
screen. You must enter control S to 
acknowledge the message. The system 



30 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 31 



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also requires an uppercase response to a 
bulletin message. While these procedures 
are sound, they are easy to forget and un- 
til they become automatic they add to a 
new user's frustration. 

Once while entering data, the display 
froze. Rebooting the system brought up 
the ominous message "Internal Error at 
E086." The manual advises you to reset 
the system if a strange message appears 
when booting it up. I tried the recommend- 
ed procedure and the problem went away 
temporarily. When I tried to return to the 
form I was working on when the system 
failed, the same problem occurred again. 
The files had been left in an open status. 
The program includes no error trap for this 
occurrence. 

Since all programs in this system are 
supplied in compiled form, the lack of a 
trap for this type of error could be due to 
the compiler used by the system develop- 
er. I detected no other untrapped errors 
during the evaluation sessions. I was 
subsequently advised that a utility is pro- 
vided to close the files. Unfortunately, the 
otherwise excellent documentation does 
not indicate the availability of this utility. 

None of my problems should persuade 
a potential purchaser to avoid this 
system. The problems I encountered are 
typical of those any user must expect with 
a new system. The fact that I prepared an 
accurate return in such a short time 
proved to me the user-friendliness of the 
TM system. The professional tax preparer 
should have no difficulty using the system 
after a brief instruction period. 

During the evaluation process the 
system demonstrated its worth when a K1 



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•T.M. of Tandy Corp. 



and a 1099 showed up for the test case 
after I had prepared the manual return. 
Entering the new data on the appropriate 
forms and selecting the global calculation 
method generated a revised return in 
minutes. The opportunity for a quick pay- 
back of the system cost is obvious. 

The TM system is equipped to prepare 
28 different types of personal tax forms. 
Unfortunately, this does not include forms 
for any state. A tax preparer in a state 
where income tax returns are reouired 
must still resort to pen and pencil for the 
state return. This limits the market for an 
otherwise excellent software product. De- 
spite its cost of $1300, TM will be worth its 
weight in gold during tax season. Since it 
is a forms oriented system updates are re- 
quired to adjust the system for form and 
law changes. Updates, available for $300 
per year, keep the system current. 

The Shortax System 

The TM system is designed for the 
Model II and utilizes all graphics features 
available on the integrated CRT. It stands 
in sharp contrast to another tax related 
system I received for evaluation. Shortax 
works on a CP/M-based system. Because 
of the large number of different equip- 
ment configurations, application pro- 
grams for CP/M systems usually do not 
use elaborate graphic displays. 

Shortax's lack of fancy graphics does 
not hinder its usefulness. Shortax is a 
planning aid for the professional tax con- 
sultant. Because it groups categories of 
tax return data you cannot use it to pre- 
pare a tax return. However, if you enter the 
appropriate data, it will calculate the tax 
liability of individuals, corporations and 
trusts for up to five different time periods. 
(Shortax was designed by Vernon K. 
Jacobs, a Kansas City CPA who is a pro- 
fessional tax and fananciai consultant.) 

You can use a tax preparation system 
such as TM for planning; however, its 
forms orientation makes tax forecast 
calculations cumbersome. If you use the 
TM system for planning, only the 1981 
rates are available. Shortax contains rates 
and tables valid from 1979-1984. Clearly 
the two systems are designed to serve dif- 
ferent functions. 

Getting Shortax operating was a 
graphic illustration of the difficulty a 
TRSDOS user can have when moving to an 
unfamiliar operating system environment. 
As is common for systems supplied to 
CP/M users, Shortax arrived on a single 
density disk without the operating system 
and the Basic interpreter. To operate 
Shortax I had to acquire the operating 
system and the CP/M version of Basic-80. 
In the future the system will be supplied 



32 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



mm^t^mm^u 



in compiled form, eliminating the need for 
the Basic-80 interpreter. But you cannot 
just pop a CP/M based application system 
in your disk drive and expect it to work. 
The purchaser has to bring together the 
applications software and the operating 
system. 

Fortunately, I had all the parts.. .so I 
thought. Unfortunately, I was using the 
Lifeboat implementation of CP/M. Shor- 
tax expects the Pickles and Trout version. 
This incompatibility became apparent 
when the computer simply lost its mind 
during processing. I resolved the problem 
quickly and proceeded with my evaluation 
without further incident. 

The Shortax system requires entry of 23 
different facts to prepare an individual tax 
projection. The first three items include 
the tax year to be projected, the filing 
status (single, married filing jointly, and 
so on) and number of exemptions. The 
next 13 items relate to different categor- 
ies of income. If there are variations in 
categories peculiar to a tax year, only the 
categories relevant to the year being pro- 
jected will be displayed. For example, the 
categories "Long term gains prior to 
6/10/81" and "Long term gains after 
6/9/81 " are only important for the 1981 tax 
year and will be displayed only when a 
1981 tax projection is desired. 

All deductions are grouped into two 
categories: "Medical, tax and loss deduc- 
tions" and "Interest contributions and 
miscellaneous deductions." For many tax 
planners these categories may be too 
broad. Also because a recalculation of ad- 
justed gross income might affect some of 
the deductions, you should use the 
system carefully. Without detail, the 
deductible amounts will not be recalculat- 
ed as you vary the components of income. 

You can enter other categories into the 
system, including tax credits, withheld 
and estimated tax paid, net tax preference 
income and the prior four-year base 
period income. The tax planner can review 
the raw data, alter it and calculate the 
potential tax due. The system will display 
the results of the calculation indicating 
the figures in Table 1. 



With this data the planner will have a 
great deal of information concerning tax 
consequences. If the results of the 
calculation indicate an unexpected tax, 
the tax planner can alter the input 
parameters and recalculate the tax. Each 
set of input data can be stored on disk for 
recall as required. You can also print the 
data for distribution to interested parties. 

The same data can be projected to 
another tax period. You can alter the 
original data by a fixed or percentage 
amount. You can then store the new pro- 
file on the disk, use it for a new tax 
calculation or merge it with another pro- 
file. When merging two profiles, you can 
add or subtract the amounts. Once the 
files are combined they will remain in 
memory to be used for a tax calculation or 
stored on disk. 

In addition to combinations of raw pro- 
file data, the system permits you to merge 
the results of tax calculations made on 
different profiles. The tax combination 
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Because the system covers five tax 
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The best way to do this is to enter test 
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Shortax is a useful system for the pro- 
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Alternative minimum tax 




Total Income (including tax exempt income) 


Net tax due after estimate payments and withholding 


Adjusted Gross Income 


FICA tax 




Taxable Income 


The sum of all federal tax 




Tax from tax rate schedule 


Capital loss carry forward 




Maximum tax (if any) 


Income after taxes 




Income averaging tax calculation 


Highest tax bracket 




Tax credits and payments 


Average tax rate all taxes 




Self-employment tax 


Average tax rate income tax only 


Table 1 


Add-on minimum tax 



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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 33 



SOFT BITS 

a basic/assembly column 



by Roger Fuller 



Many couples marry in June — to 
celebrate, I will talk about the union 
of Basic and machine code. Basic is a lan- 
guage, but we often think of it as an oper- 
ating system. The distinction is important 
since we can modify an operating system 
easier than we can change a language. 

There are many ways to install machine 
code in a Basic program. In past columns I 
have put it in the initialization stack area, 
a string constant, the input buffer, and 
high memory. 

You can install a machine-code routine 
anywhere there is memory. It should not 
conflict with your operating system or 
your program. That leaves arrays, strings, 
video memory, free memory or any unused 
spot open for installing your code. 

All the routines I present this month are 
at 7000H and are relocatable (except Pro- 
gram Listing 3-to relocate this one you 
must either adjust the address of a sub- 
routine orduplicatethesubroutine in both 
places it is called. This adds 24 bytes but 
reduces the total count by six since two 
Call instructions are eliminated). 

You access each routine by a USR call. 
The USR function allows easy transfer of 
a single value to and back from the ma- 
chine-code subroutine. 

If you study the ROM code involved in 
USR, you will note a call at 27FEH to the 



"/ will talk about 

the union of Basic 

and machine code." 



reserved RAM. The address called (41 A9H) 
normally contains a return, but in Disk 
Basic it holds a call to a routine evaluating 
which USR call (0-9) is desired. You can in- 
tercept the USR function here for special 
purposes. For example, you can add 
numbered USR calls to a non-disk system. 
Another interesting thing about USR is 
that the call at 2802H-252CH will evaluate 
any valid expression. This includes single 
precision, double precision, and even strings. 
Note that the routine at 252CH sets the 
type flag. Errors occur when the type of 
the argument is not integer and Call 
0A7FH is used in the USR call. All of the 
following work: 

10 A% ViUSR(A% ) 
20 A! = USR (A!) 
30 A# = USR ( A# ) 
40 A$ = USR ( A$ ) 

USR is a numeric function and you should 

try to use it that way. To make it evaluate 

and return strings is a violation of syntax. 

Disk Basic does not have the same syn- 







00100 ; 


INVERTER 


PUBLIC DOMAIN 


7000 




00110 


ORG 


7000H 




7000 


21003C 


00120 


LD 


HL,3C00H 


; FIRST SCREEN ROW 


7003 


010004 


00130 


LD 


BC,1024 


;ONE SCREEN 


7006 


7E 


00140 TEST 


LD 


A, (HL) 


;GET SCREEN BYTE 


7007 


FE20 


00150 


CP 


• ' 




7009 


2004 


00160 


JR 


NZ,S+6 


;IF NOT SPACE 


700B 


36BF 


00170 


LD 


(HL) ,191 


;PURE WHITE 


700D 


180C 


00180 


JR 


NEXT 




700F 


FE80 


00190 


CP 


80H 




7011 


3808 


00200 


JR 


C,NEXT 


;IF BELOW GRAPHIC 


7013 


FEC0 


00210 


CP 


0C0H 




7015 


3004 


00220 


JR 


NC,NEXT 


;IF ABOVE GRAPHIC 


7017 


2F 


00230 


CPL 




; INVERT ALL BITS 


7018 


EEC0 


00240 


XOR 


128+64 


;SET BIT 7 RESET BIT 6 


701A 


77 


00250 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


; REPLACE BYTE 


701B 


23 


00260 NEXT 


INC 


HL 


;NEXT SCREEN POSITION 


701C 


0B 


00270 


DEC 


BC 


;DROP COUNT 


701D 


78 


00280 


LD 


A,B 




701E 


Bl 


00290 


OR 


c 


;TEST FOR BC=0 


701F 


20E5 


00300 


JR 


NZ,TEST 


;LOOP TIL DONE 


7021 


C9 


00310 


RET 






0000 




00320 


END 






00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 














Program Listing 1 





tax for USR as Level II Basic. I have dis- 
cussed patching the Level II USR function 
to have numbered calls like Disk Basic. 
Patching Disk Basic to ignore them is very 
simple; just disable the call at 41A9H by 
POKE 1 5553, 201 . This changes the call to 
the return instruction of Level II. 

Inverting a Screen 

The program in Listing 1 inverts a 
screen. Only spaces and actual graphic 
codes are inverted. This USR routine 
needs no argument; just calling it inverts 
the screen. The code starts by loading HL 
with the address of the first location on 
the screen. Next BC is loaded with the 
number of screen locations. 

The scanner loop is labelled Test. It 
gets a character from the screen and 
checks for a space in line 150. If the char- 
acter is a space it is replaced by a solid 
white block and control jumps to the label 
Next (the loop boundary). 

If the screen character is not a space a 
relative jump passes control to line 190. 
Here the character is compared to 80H (a 
graphic blank). If the value of the charac- 
ter is less than 80H the carry flag is set 
and control passes to Next. If the screen 
character is greater than 191 (a solid white 
block) then the compare in line 210 will not 
produce a carry and control will pass to 
Next. 

If control still has not passed to Next 
then a CPL instruction will change the 
state of all bits. All graphic codes have bit 
7 set and bit 6 reset. A CPL will leave these 
two bits incorrect. Restore them by XOR- 
ing with a mask containing only bit 7 and 
bit 6 set. Figure 1 shows the bit patterns. 

The XOR will set bit 7 since it is zero af- 



IIT POSITION - 
IT VALUE 



GRAPHIC CODE- 

AFTER CPL 

I28 ♦ 64 MASK- 
AFTER XOR 



128 


64 


32 


16 


8 


4 


2 


1 


1 


O 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 





1 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


i 


1 





















Figure 1 



34 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Reader Service lor facing page ^47" 



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SOFT BITS 



ter the CPL and bit 7 of the mask is one. 
Bit 6 is one after the CPL and will be reset 
to zero since bit 6 of the mask is also one; 
XOR will reset if both values are one. All 
other bits are left the same. Alternately 
you can replace line 240 with an Add A,64 
instruction. This changes bit 6 to zero and 
the carry changes bit 7 to one. 

At Next the screen pointer HL is moved 
one position and the byte counter BC is re- 
duced by one. Then the B register is load- 
ed into A at line 280 and ORed with C. If 
both B and C are zero the result is zero and 
the loop falls through; otherwise, control 
passes back to Test and the loop con- 
tinues. 

If you delete lines 150-180 only screen 
positions with graphic codes will be 



changed. This allows you to flash graphic 
sections on the screen, leaving spaces in 
text or around the screen undisturbed. If 
you are hand-assembling and remove 
these lines remember to adjust the rela- 
tive jump at line 300 to reflect the loss of 
eight bytes. 

Program Listing 2 is a routine to change 
all lowercase letters in a string to up- 
percase. This requires that you pass the 
location of the string via the USR argu- 
ment to the machine code. Therefore the 
argument of the USR function is the 
VARPTR of the target string. To capitalize 
all characters in S$ use this code: 10 X = 
USR (VARPTR (S$)). 

The VARPTR of a string variable does 
not return the address of the first charac- 







00100 


; CAPITALIZER 


PUBLIC DOMAIN 


7008 




00110 


ORG 


7000H 




7000 


CD7F0A 


00120 


CALL 


0A7FH 


;GET STRING POINTER ADDRESS 


7003 


46 


00130 


LD 


B, (HL) 


;GET STRING LENGTH 


7004 


7 8 


00140 


I,D 


A,B 


j 


7005 


B7 


00150 


OR 


A 


;TEST FOR NULL STRING 


7006 


2813 


00160 


JR 


Z,LOOP+2 


| EXIT IF NULL 


7008 


23 


00170 


INC 


HL 


; POINT TO STRING LSB 


7009 


5E 


80180 


LD 


E, (HL) 


; GET IT 


700A 


23 


00190 


INC 


HL 


; POINT TO STRING MSB 


700B 


56 


00200 


LD 


D, (HL) 


; GET IT 


700C 


K3 


00210 


EX 


DE,HL 


;NOW HL => STRING ITSELF 


700D 


7E 


00220 


CAPTL LD 


A, (HL) 


;GET STRING CHAR 


700E 


FE61 


00230 


CP 


61H 




7010 


3806 


00240 


JR 


CLOOP-1 


; BELOW A LOWER CASE A 


7012 


FE7B 


00250 


CP 


7BH 




7 014 


3002 


00260 


JR 


NC , LOOP- 


1; ABOVE A LOWER CASE Z 


7016 


CBAE 


00270 


RES 


5,(HL) 


; CONVERT TO UPPER CASE 


7018 


23 


00280 


INC 


HL 


j POINT TO NEXT STRING 


7019 


10F2 


00290 


LOOP DJNZ 


CAPTL 




701B 


C9 


00300 


RET 






0000 




00310 


END 






00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 














Program 


Listing 2 









00100 ; 


REVERSE 


A STRING PUBLIC DOMAIN 






00110 ; 








7000 




00120 


ORG 


7000H 




7000 


CD7F0A 


00130 


CALL 


0A7FH 


;GET STRING POINTER 


7003 


4E 


00140 


LD 


C,(HL) 


; LENGTH TO C 


7004 


AF 


00150 


XOR 


A 


;ZERO A 


7005 


47 


00160 


LD 


B,A 


;NOW BC=LENGTH OF STRING 


7006 


23 


00170 


INC 


HL 


; POINT TO STRING LSB 


7007 


5E 


00180 


LD 


E, (HL) 


; GET IT 


7008 


23 


00190 


INC 


HL 


; POINT TO STRING MSB 


7009 


56 


00200 


LD 


D, (HL) 


; GET IT 


700A 


D5 


00210 


PUSH 


DE 




700B 


El 


00220 


POP 


HL 


;NOW HL = DE 


700C 


09 


00230 


ADD 


HL,BC 


; POINT HL TO END OF STRING +1 


700D 


2B 


00240 


DEC 


HL 


/BACKUP TO ACTUAL END 


700E 


41 


00250 


I.D 


B r C 


;GET LENGTH AGAIN 


700F 


CB3 8 


00260 


SRL 


B 


; DIVIDE LENGTH BY TWO 


7011 


2809 


00270 


JR 


Z,EXIT 


;IF LENGTH TOO SHORT 


7 013 


4E 


00280 RVERSE 


1,0 


C,(HL) 


;GET END CHAR 


7014 


1A 


00290 


LD 


A,(DE) 


;GET FIRST CHAR 


70.1', 


77 


00300 


LD 


(HL) ,A 


; FIRST SHALL GO LAST 


7016 


79 


00310 


LD 


A,C 


• 


7017 


12 


00320 


LD 


(DE),A 


;LAST SHALL GO FIRST 


70 ii; 


13 


00330 


INC 


DE 


;MOVE UP START POINTER 


7019 


2B 


00340 


DEC 


HL 


;MOVE BACK END POINTER 


701A 


10F7 


00350 


DJNZ 


RVERSE 


;LOOP TIL DONE 


701C 


C9 


00360 EXIT 


RET 






0000 




00370 


END 






00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 














Program Listing 3 





ter of a string, but the address of a de- 
scriptor block. The first character is the 
length of the string and the next two are 
the addresses of the actual string in 
LSB, MSB format. The USR routine will 
place the VARPTR address in Basic's 
arithmetic work area. You can transfer 
this integer address to the HL register pair 
by calling 0A7FH as in line 120. 

The length of the string is loaded into 
the B register and tested for zero. If it is a 
null string no action is taken. Sincethe ad- 
dress pointer for a null string must point 
somewhere, any modification of that loca- 
tion may be unwanted. If the string is not 
null lines 170-200 load the address of the 
actual string of characters into the DE reg- 
ister pair. Line 210 swaps the DE and HL 
register pairs, allowing the more versatile 
HL register pair to serve as the pointer. 

At CAPTL the first character is loaded 
into the accumulator and tested for a val- 
ue less than 61 H (lowercase A). If so, no 
action is needed; otherwise the character 
is tested for a value below 7BH (the next 
ASCII code after a lowercase Z). If the 
character is below 7BH then it is a lower- 
case letter and line 270 resets bit 5. This 
action occurs directly on the byte in mem- 
ory, not on its image in the accumulator. 

HL is moved up one place and a DJNZ 
drops the B register one, tests it for zero 
and loops back if not zero. Remember the 
B register was loaded with the string 
length in line 130. If the B register is zero 
control returns to Basic. 

Here is an example of how to use the 
above routine: 10 L$ = "" : INPUT L$ : 
PRINT USR ( VARPTR (L$) ): GOTO 10. This 
Basic line requires that you already set up 
the USR. Assigning L$ a value prevents a 
function call error if no characters are 
entered for L$. If no characters are entered 
L$ is not defined for the VARPTR function. 



SINGLE PIXEL 



GRAPHIC BLOCK 





figure 2 



36 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



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SOFT BITS 



DURING RPIXEL 



1 


2 


4 


8 


16 


52 







4 




16 







-2 




8 




32 



ft N D 2 * 8 + 3 2 

SRA 



REVERSED 



Figure 3 



10 DIM S$(15) 




20 FOR R=0 TO 15 : M = VARPTR ( S$(R) ) 




30 POKE M,64 




40 POKE M+l , R * 64 AND 255 




50 POKE M+2 , R / 4 + 60 




60 NEXT 




70 FOR R = 1 TO 47 : SET ( R , R ) : NEXT 




80 FOR R = TO 15 : M = USR( VARPTR ( S$(R) )) 


: NEXT 


90 GOTO 80 




Program Listing 4 





The 



Fantasies and Reflections 
on Self & Soul 




ROeGIS 5 SMUUWN 4 MOHOWITZ 4 «UOtE> 4 M'SDANFf 4 
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Composed and Arranged bv 

DOUGLAS R. HOFSTADTER 
DANIEL C. DENNETT 



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Douglas Hofstadter, author of the 
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Fantasies & Reflections on Self & Soul 

Composed and Arranged by Douglas R. Hofstadter 
and Daniel C. Dennett 

BASIC BOOKS, INC. 

10 E. 53rd St., New York, NY 10022 (212) 593-7083 

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From Back to Front 

Listing 3 reverses the order of charac- 
ters in a string. It also reverses any graph- 
ic codes along a vertical line down the 
middle of each graphic block. This way a 
diagonal line is a mirror image of itself 
when reversed. If the strings reversed are 
the first and second lines of the screen 
Fig. 2 would show a correct and an in- 
correct reversal. 

The USR routine uses CALL 0A7FH to 
determine the address of the string's de- 
scriptor block. BC is loaded with the 
string's length. In lieu of loading the 
B register with an immediate zero byte, 
XOR A packs the code in a string con- 
stant. Remember Basic uses the zero byte 
to find the end of a Basic line. Once again 
the actual address of the string is loaded 
into the DE register pair, but instead of a 
swap a Push-Pop combination loads HL 
with DE. 

This Push-Pop technique is very slow, 
taking 22 T-states to execute. A tandem 
set of register-to-register loads take the 
same number of bytes, but only eight 
T-states. The instruction in line 230 com- 
putes the end of the string plus one. To 
see why this is so, pretend a string of 
length one was at address 1000H. Since 
the start is also the end, adding the length 
to the address would give 1001 H— one 
past the actual end. DEC HL adjusts this 
address to its proper value. 

Lines 250-270 perform two tasks. They 
divide the length of the string by two and 
test for a string length which does not 
need reversing. Such a length is zero or 
one. The SRL divides by two to prevent a 
double reversal of each character. I could 
have used a RET NZ in line 270 instead of 
the conditional jump but that would allow 
two exits including one in the middle of 
the program. 

RVERSE does the actual switching. If 
you do not want the graphic codes re- 
versed remove the subroutine RPIXEL and 
the calls to it in lines 300 and 330. Other- 
wise the last character is loaded into C 
and the first into A. Now each is in the chip 
instead of in memory. RPIXEL is called 
to reverse A if it is a graphic code. Then 
the last character is placed first and the 
first character in C is loaded into A and 
sent to DE. 

DE (the start pointer) is incremented in 
line 350 and HL (the end pointer) is 
decremented in line 360. Since the B 
register still contains the length to reverse 
(one-half the original length) DJNZ drops 
the count and loops back until done. 

RPIXEL 

Lines 400-430 test for graphics to be 



38 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 




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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 39 



SOFT BITS 







00100 ; 


HORIZONTAL SCROLL 


PUBLIC DOMAIN 


7000 




00110 


ORG 


7000H 




7000 


CD7F0A 


00120 


CALL 


0A7FH 


;GET TYPE BYTE 


7003 


CB7C 


00130 


BIT 


7,H 


;TEST FOR NEGATIVE 


7005 


2022 


00140 


JR 


NZ,LSCRL-6 


;IF NEGATIVE SCROLL LEFT 


7 07 


0610 


00150 


LD 


B,16 


;16 ROWS TO MOVE 


7009 


DD21FF3B 


00160 

00170 


LD 


IX,3C3FH-40H 


;END OF TOP ROW 

; BACKED UP ONE ROW 


7 0D 


DDE5 


00180 RSCRL 


PUSH 


IX 




70 0F 


El 


00190 


POP 


HL 


;HL IS ROW POINTER 


7010 


C5 


00200 


PUSH 


BC 


;SAVE ROW COUNTER 


7011 


014000 


00210 


LD 


BC,64 


;ROW LENGTH 


7014 


09 


00220 


ADD 


HL,BC 


;MOVE ROW POINTER DOWN 


7015 


so 


00230 


LD 


E,L 




7016 


54 


00240 


LD 


D,H 


;DE => END OF ROW 


7017 


E5 


00250 


PUSH 


HL 




7018 


DDE1 


00260 


POP 


IX 


;IX => END OF ROW 


701A 


DD7E00 


00270 


LD 


A, (IX) 


;GET LAST CHAR ON ROW 


701D 


2B 


00280 


DEC 


HL 


;SET UP FOR MOVE 


701E 


0B 


00290 


DEC 


BC 


;MOVE 63 BYTES 


701F 


EDB8 


00300 


LDDR 




;MOVE THEM 


FIELD OVERFLOW 








7021 


DD77C1 


00310 


LD 


(IX+256-63) ,A 


;LAST CHAR TO FIRST PLACE 


7024 


CI 


00320 


POP 


BC 


; RESTORE COUNTER 


7025 


10E6 


00330 


DJNZ 


RSCRL 


;TIL 16 ROWS DONE 


7 8 27 


1820 


00340 
00350 


JR 


EXIT 




7029 


0610 


00360 


LD 


B,16 


;16 ROWS TO MOVE 


702B 


DD21C03E 


00370 
00380 


LD 


IX,3C00H-40H 


; START OF TOP ROW 
; BACKED UP ONE ROW 


702F 


DDE5 


00390 LSCRL 


PUSH 


IX 




7031 


El 


00400 


POP 


HL 


;HL IS ROW POINTER 


7032 


C5 


00410 


PUSH 


BC 


;SAVE ROW COUNTER 


7033 


014000 


00420 


LD 


BC,6 4 


;ROW LENGTH 


7036 


09 


00430 


ADD 


HL,BC 


;MOVE ROW POINTER DOWN 


7037 


SB 


00440 


LD 


E,L 




7038 


5 4 


00450 


LD 


D,H 


;DE => START OF ROW 


7039 


E5 


00460 


PUSH 


HL 




703A 


DDE1 


00470 


POP 


IX 


;IX => START OF ROW 


703C 


DD7E00 


00480 


LD 


A, (IX) 


;GET FIRST CHAR ON ROW 


703P 


23 


00490 


INC 


HL 


;SET UP FOR MOVE 


7040 


0B 


00500 


DEC 


BC 


; MOVE. 63 BYTES 


7041 


EDB0 


00510 


LDIR 




;MOVE THEM 


7043 


DD773F 


00520 


LD 


(IX+63) ,A 


? FIRST CHAR TO LAST PLACE 


7346 


CI 


00530 


POP 


BC 


; RESTORE COUNTER 


7047 


10B6 


00540 


DJNZ 


LSCRL 


;TIL 16 ROWS DONE 


7049 


C9 


00550 EXIT 


RET 






0000 




560 


END 






00001 TOTAL ERRORS 














Program Listing 5 





reversed. Note that a blank or solid block 
is not reversed. The BC counter is saved in 



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order to use B as a temporary storage 
location. AF is saved since the value in the 
accumulator must be operated on twice 
and the result combined. 

The operations move the left three pix- 
els to the right and the right three pixels to 
the left. This is easy to do by multiplying 
and dividing, respectively. The drawings 
in Fig. 3 show how this works. Remove the 
extraneous bits by ANDing them with the 
correct mask. After each side is moved 
over the results are added and bit 7 set by 
adding 128. BC is popped off the stack 
and control returns to the calling program. 

The Basic code in Program Listing 4 al- 
ters the descriptor blocks of the variables 
in string array to point to each row of the 
screen. This code POKEs a value of 64 into 
the length byte and alters the pointer ad- 
dress to point to the addresses of the start 
of each video row. Then a loop reverses 
the strings one by one. 

You can make this run much faster by 
making the USR routine do all 16 rows at 
once. I challenge beginners to see if they 
can figure out how to do it. You might get 















t 

HL 
BC 














| | 



EB 



Figure 4 



an idea by studying the last program 
(Listing 5). 

This program does a horizontal screen 
scroll of one position upon each call. The 
routine needs a value passed to it. This 
value determines which direction the 
screen scrolls, left if negative or right if 
positive. After getting the value via CALL 
0A7FH, a bit test on bit 15 of the integer 
value (bit 7 of the H register) determines 
the sign. 

If a right scroll is required, the B register 
is loaded with 16 (the number of rows to 
scroll). Then IX is loaded with the pointer 
to the end of the row. This is originally 
backed up one row to allow for the row in- 
crease in line 220, which precedes actual 
scrolling. Lines 180 and 190 contain a 
Push-Pop combination (you cannot load 
the IX from another register pair). 

The row counter BC is saved on the 
stack in line 200, allowing the BC register 
pair to increase the row address by one 
row in line 220. Then DE is loaded quickly 
by a tandem pair of register-to-register 
loads. Lines 250 and 260 load IX with the 
increased address for later use. 

This routine does the scroll by saving 
the last byte on the row, moving the first 
63 over one, and putting the saved byte in 
the first position. This process repeats 16 
times, once for each row (see Fig. 4). 

Line 310 includes the strange expres- 
sion because of a bug in the Radio Shack 
Editor/Assembler program. This line will 
give a field overflow error, but will assem- 
ble correctly. To avoid the error I made the 
value positive by adding 256. The LSCRL 
is very similar to the above. ■ 



40 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 




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"Anyone from a businessman to the hobbyist 

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With the increasing number of com- 
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I decided to join these ranks in mid-Oc- 
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The market offers some astounding 
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The Modem 80 is a complete unit. There 
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The unit includes all cables, instruction 
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taining six programs for software support. 

Modem 80 is a direct-connection 
modem that connects to either the TRS-80 
Expansion Interface or to the back of the 
Model I keyboard's extension bus. The 
Modem 80 is also compatible with the 
TRS-80 Model III (Model I is a 40-pin bus, 
Model III is a 50-pin bus). 

The unit measures 8 by 3 1/2 by 1 1/2 in- 
ches. On one end are two modular phone 



jacks for connecting to the phone line and 
the telephone, although the latter is not 
required for operation. The opposite end 
houses a ribbon cable and an edge card 
connector (this is extremely handy if you 
want to connect other devices to the 
TRS-80 bus). A special Y power cable ex- 
tends from this end as well. One end of 
this cable connects to the TRS-80 power 
socket on the computer, the other con- 
nects to the jack on the other end of the 
power pack. Two LEDs are on the top of 
the unit to indicate on-line and carrier- 
detect conditions. 

Inside the Modem 80 is what first ap- 
pears to be a 50-pin bus for the connection 
to a Model III computer. ICROM builds the 
Modem 80 for the TRS-80, Pet and Apple. 
The edge card bus inside the Modem 80 is 
for the Apple card slots. 

Two pages of instructions are included 
for initial setup and a self test to ensure 
proper connection. Two manuals also ac- 
company the Modem 80. One describes 
operation from Basic, and the other de- 
scribes all the command functions in the 
terminal mode. 

Software 

The Modem 80's strongest point is its 
software. Four of the programs supplied 
on tape are for Basic operation between 
two Modem 80-equipped systems. Two of 
these programs are in machine language 
for the actual modem input and output. 
The other two programs are host pro- 
grams which work in conjunction with the 
machine-language programs to support 
either tape or disk. 

The last two programs on the tape are 
machine-language terminal programs. 
These smart terminal programs allow 
users to access computer information 
networks. 

Modem Basic 

After loading either of the machine- 
language programs for Basic operation 
(16K version or 48K version), eight new 
Basic commands are available. You can 
incorporate these into your own programs 
or use them directly from the command 
mode (without a program). Table 1 lists the 
new Basic commands. 

The other two Basic programs (disk or 




tape) use these new commands to config- 
ure two computers as host and terminal. 
In this mode Basic programs, machine- 
language programs, and data may be 
transferred from one system to the other. 
Also during program or data transmis- 
sions Modem Basic has automatic line- 
error detection and re-transmission, thus 
providing very reliable communications. 

Modem Terminal Software 

Two machine-language programs (tape 
or disk) are provided to allow access to 
computer networks. These programs are 
not the standard dumb terminal, but 
rather smart terminal support. These pro- 
grams are excellent and I have not en- 
countered any problems with either of 
them to date. There are 32 command func- 
tions in the terminal mode. The manual ex- 
plains them clearly and concisely. 

Eight programmable function keys 
allow the user to define eight lines of text 
with a maximum of 32 characters per line. 
Any one of these lines may be selected 
and transmitted to the host system. A 
ninth programmable key sends any ASCII 
file that was loaded in to the host system. 

An upper/lowercase switch is used 
when the host system understands only 
uppercase letters. 

You can set the baud rate at any value 
from 25 to 300. 

There is no limit on the number of digits 
you can dial. 

The redial-phone-number feature 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 45 



fc&taMtf 



redials the last number entered. There is 
also a disconnect-from-line feature. 

All of the material received is held in a 
buffer. The terminal program signals 
when the buffer is full, and you may either 
clear it or ignore it. Once full no more is ac- 
cepted into it (but is still displayed on the 
video). 

The display menu shows all commands 
supported. 

You can set parity from the keyboard at 
even, odd or no-parity. You can also toggle 
between full and half duplex. 

The write/load buffer command stores 
any information contained in the com- 
puter's buffer on tape or disk. All informa- 
tion that your computer receives from the 
host system is stored in the buffer until it 
is full. 

The transmit buffer command loads the 
buffer from tape or disk and then sends its 
contents to the host system. 

The save/load function keys enable you 
to store the eight pre-programmed keys 
on tape or disk. 

The scroll-buffer command allows you 
to display all information previously 
stored in the buffer. You can display the 
buffer in either direction continuously or 
one line at a time. 

The line-printer buffer command sends 
the buffer's entire contents to the line 
printer. 

The place-markers-in-the-buffer com- 
mand allows you to insert start and stop 
markers to tape or disk, or send it to the 
line printer. 

All of the above commands are invoked 
by using a letter key with either a shift key 
or the clear key. Some host systems re- 
quire that the terminal be able to transmit 
control characters. A control character is 
invoked by pressing the clear key with the 
required letter. 

Hardware 

Since Modem 80 does not require an 
RS-232 unit, it uses a port to control its 
functions and for input and output. Inside 
the Modem 80 are all the integrated cir- 
cuits that make it work. Unlike some other 
companies that solder the ICs directly to 
the board and then sandpaper the part 
numbers of the devices, ICROM utilizes 
sockets for all but two of the ICs and 
leaves the part numbers on. Circuit layout 
is uncrowded and provides for easy ser- 
vicing. 

The Modem 80 is designed around the 
Motorola modem IC (MC14412). While this 
chip is capable of either answer or origin- 
ate modes, the Modem 80 can only send in 
the originate mode, but can receive in 
either mode. Any mode switching is done 
by setting a bit in a control word and then 
sending it to the Modem 80's port (port 



120). The remainder of the ICs on the 
board are for decoding input/output port 
control words and the active filters to re- 
spond to only the other modem's signal 
transmitted over the phone line. A fil- 
tered power supply is also on board for 
power requirements. 

Using the Modem 80 

Until I acquired the Modem 80, I knew 
little about such things as word length, 
parity, and stop bits. After reading the ter- 
minal manual I knew a little more, but 
after my first connection to a local bulletin 
board it was still not enough. Through in- 
quiries made from friends and reading 
everything concerning modems, I con- 
cluded that most systems need either a 
seven or eight-bit word length, no parity, 
and one or two stop bits. I switched to 
eight-bit word length, no parity, one stop 
bit and dialed the bulletin board again. 
This time the information was displayed 
correctly on my screen. 

Over the next two weeks I signed onto 
various bulletin boards in Canada and the 
U.S. All worked well with only a few excep- 
tions. Occasionally the phone line would 
go dead or the modem could not read the 
first few characters on a line. The reason 
for this seems to be the speed that the 
host system starts sending the next line 
after sending a carriage return. 

I found two methods to cure this. One 
was to specify about 4-5 nulls when 



asked by the host. This causes the host to 
delay 1-2 seconds after a carriage return 
before resuming transmission. The sec- 
ond was to increase the baud rate I was 
using to about 310. Although the manual 
states that the baud rate is variable from 
25 to 300, 1 found that it accepts values as 
high as 318. By using either of these two 
methods, I was able to access any bulletin 
board with excellent reliability. Out of 17 
systems that I have accessed, only 3 re- 
quired these fixes. I assume the source of 
these problems originates with the host 
system rather than with the Modem 80 ter- 
minal software. 

Modem 80 has proved to me that reli- 
able communications between systems is 
possible for a low initial cost. I have down- 
loaded (received Basic programs), up- 
loaded (sent Basic programs) and chatted 
with various sysops (system operators) 
with complete success. 

One other interesting point is that 
ICROM is producing modems for the 
TRS-80, Apple, and Pet. This is not un- 
usual in itself but they plan to make all the 
modem host programs compatible with 
one another. This means you can dial up a 
friend with an Apple or Pet and send him 
your program in memory, or vice-versa. 
Because of the different Basics involved, 
you would have to edit the programs, but it 
would be easier than typing in the whole 
program. ■ 



MO PEN 


: dial a number or wait for a call and then sign on to the other system. 


MCLOSE 


: disconnect from the phone line 


MLOAD 


load a Basic program iron- the othei computer 


MPRINT 


send a message to the other computer 


MPUT 


send data to the othet computer. 


M INPUT 


request a response from the other computer. 


MDATA 


: request computer type identification. 


MOUT 


: generate an audio tone through the cassette port. 




Table 1 



PI80C Parallel Printer Interface 

The Micro Works 

P.O. Box 1110 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Color Computer 

$69.95 

by Howard Berenbon 

The Micro Works must be working over- 
time to develop software and hard- 
ware for the TRS-80 Color Computer. A 
new product which I recommend is their 
PI80C Parallel Printer Interface. It is de- 
signed so that you can use a parallel print- 
er, such as the Centronics 730, through 



the serial port of yourTRS-80C. You do not 
have to buy a serial printer if you happen 
to have a parallel printer nearby, say from 
a Model I. 

The Hardware and Connection 

The printer interface is supplied in a 

ROM pack, though the instructions warn 
you that it is not a ROM Pak and should 
not be plugged into the ROM slot of your 
Color Computer. A DIN plug connects to 
your computer's serial I/O jack. An edge 
connector connects to your parallel print- 
er cable. A transformer plugs into a 120 
volt ac outlet (the interface has its own 
power supply). I used a Centronics 730 



46 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



parallel printer to test the interface, but 
any Centronics-compatible printer should 
work as long as it can do a line feed auto- 
matically. To output to the printer, follow 
the directions in the Color Computer man- 
ual. It requires no software to operate. It 
uses the commands that Color Basic pro- 
vides: LLIST and PRINT #-2. 

Radio Interference 

The interface causes slight radio fre- 
quency interference and snow on the tv 
screen. This can be minimized if not elimi- 
nated, by moving the interface away from 
the tv. This move is limited by the cable 
that connects to the computer's serial I/O 
jack; the cable is only about 10 inches 
long. This could be lengthened, say to 
three or four feet, so that the interface 
may be moved further away from the tv. I 
used a black and white portable tv with 
the Color Computer. I do not know what in- 



Escon Selectric Interface 
Escon Products Inc. 
12919 Alcosta Blvd. 
San Ramon, CA 94583 
Models I, II, & III 
$599 



by Mike Rigsby 



The Escon Selectric typewriter inter- 
face kit enables any Selectric 
typewriter to operate as a printer. The kit 
includes an electronic interface (blue box) 
and electro-mechanical components. The 
kit works with any Selectric and operates 
at a maximum speed of 12.5 characters 
per second. The electronic interface ac- 
cepts data in RS-232 orTTL parallel form. 
You may use 110, 150, 300, 600, 1,200, 
2,400, 4,800 or 9,600 baud rates. The inter- 
face has a 96-character buffer and it will 
accommodate various forms of hand- 
shaking. Instructions are included for in- 
terfacing to the TRS-80 Model I (with or 
without Expansion Interface), the TRS-80 
Model II, Apple, Sorcerer, an SSM AIO 
Card, and the Northstar (parallel). 

Although this kit works with any Selec- 
tric, the early versions of Model I with 
serial numbers beginning with four have a 
small problem. A spring which debounces 
the space bar gets in the way of solenoid 
mounting. You can remove the spring and 
the unit will not suffer as a printer, though 
it will be very poor as a typewriter. As an 
alternative, IBM will modify the typewriter 
to operate like the later models and it will 
then perform well as a printer or 
typewriter. 



terference, if any, results when using a 
color tv. 

Data Processing 

The interface must convert your serial 
data to parallel before printing: this slows 
down the printing process somewhat. You 
will notice this delay when listing a pro- 
gram. The short program line may have no 
noticeable lag, but the longer line will take 
about Vt of a second to process before 
the printer prints it. Serial printers I have 
seen operating with the Color Computer 
do not seem to have any noticeable print- 
ing lag. 

Since the printer interface requires no 
software, there is no problem using the 
printer's available functions, which re- 
quire control characters from the comput- 
er for activation. If you want to elongate 
your character set, or do whatever your 
printer is capable of doing (proportional 



The instruction manuals are very 
thorough and Escon's staff is helpful with 
questions, but solenoid installation is not 
for the timid. It took me about one week 
(every spare moment after work and all 
weekend) to make the modifications. The 
cover did not come off my machine in any 
of the indicated ways in the instructions; I 
removed a screw from the bottom and slid 
the lower part of the case towards the rear 
of the machine to get it off. I never could 
get the top cover off, though it turns out 
that I did not need to. 

Although you should read the instruc- 
tions carefully before attempting the in- 
stallation, you must perform one opera- 
tion early in the sequence and at the time 
the instructions state. After all the 
solenoids, levers and wires are in place 
(five days into the project) the instructions 
tell you to use an ohmmeter to assure that 
none of the solenoid wires are shorted to 
the chassis. If a short is found at this 
point, you must undo much of the pre- 
vious mechanical work, correct the prob- 
lem (a 30-second fix) and then reassemble 
the unit. To avoid this frustration, I strong- 
ly recommend checking for shorts be- 



spacing, double striking, underlining, and 
so on), follow the instructions that come 
with your printer. The interface will accept 
these control characters, as it accepts 
any data your computer sends, allowing 
your computer to control your printer. 

The PI80C printer interface is a useful 
piece of hardware for the TRS-80 Color 
Computer. It can save you the expense of 
a serial printer if you already own, or have 
access to, a parallel printer.H 




tween the solenoid wires and their metal 
frames before, during and after each in- 
stallation. There is an electrical checklist 
which involves reading specific values 
with an ohmmeter. Diodes are involved, 
thus the polarity of the meter leads can 
determine whether you obtain the desired 
readings. 

Operating this unit from a TRS-80 
Model I without an Expansion Interface 
requires a printer interface cable (Radio 
Shack number 26-1411) which you must 
then wire to the blue box of the inter- 
face unit. 

The machine worked almost perfectly 
the first time I printed a message. There 
was a slight problem with the shift mech- 
anism which I adjusted in less than 10 
minutes. The instructions are quite clear 
on how to adjust the linkages; they cau- 
tion to expect imperfect copy until you 
have made adjustments. With no further 
adjustments I have typed over 200 pages 
and the machine has worked flawlessly. 

Documentation on the system is good 
and would allow the user to repair or 
modify the unit with relative ease. I am 
using Scripsit (cassette) and the type- 



". . . / strongly recommend checking for shorts 

between the solenoid wires and their metal frames 

before, during and after each installation." 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 47 



SO REVIEWS 




Photo 1. Inside view of typewriter, all parts in place 



"Solenoid installation 

requires work 

and patience. . . " 



writer appears to be totally compatible 
with the software. 

Economically, this system would be 
easiest to justify for someone who al- 
ready owns a Selectric typewriter - 
used Selectrics in fine condition cost $300 
or more. Solenoid installation requires 
work and patience (and the nerve to pull 
guts from that costly Selectric). Escon will 
install the solenoids (for a fee) if the job 
seems too formidable. 

For letter-quality printing on a reliable, 
sturdy (slow) machine, the Escon inter- 
face and a Selectric typewriter combine to 
form an attractive printer alternative-^ 




Color Computer Disk System 

Radio Shack 

Fort Worth, TX 

26-3022 

$599 

by Howard Berenbon 



The TRS-80 Color Computer Disk Sys- 
tem is for everyone, or for at least 
anyone that can afford disks. The system 
is easy to operate and requires a 16K Col- 
or Computer with Extended Basic. The 
92-page manual is written in a style 
similar to Radio Shack's Color Basic 
manual, including sections for the pro- 
grammer and newcomer to programming. 
Its simple and direct language takes you 
slowly, and clearly, step by step through 
the disk operating system (DOS), and 
features examples of the commands and 
Disk Basic. 

The system costs $599, but is available 
for somewhat less if you decide to pur- 
chase it through the mail from the dis- 



count Radio Shack dealers that advertise 
here in 80 Micro. 

The System 

The system consists of the disk inter- 
face in a plug-in program pack cartridge, a 
cable, and a 5 1 /i-inch disk drive. The cable 
connects to the disk interface and the 
disk drive with one free connector allow- 
ing you to connect a second drive. A sec- 
ond drive is not required. The interface 
controls up to four drives, but an addition- 
al cable is required when adding two more 
drives. The 35-track double-density, 
18-sectors-per-track disks hold about 
161K bytes of data. 

If you want to add another drive to your 
system, I'm sure that a 40-track drive will 
work (usually available for about $310 mail 
order) but you'll get only 35 tracks of stor- 
age because that is all the DOS supports. 

The DOS is part of the system (on ROM), 
and it only uses 2K of your computer's 



"The TRS-80 

Color Computer Disk 

System is for 

everyone. . . " 



RAM. When you PCLEAR 1, it leaves you 
with a iittleover 11Kof RAM. If you require 
more memory for longer programs, it may 
be necessary to upgrade your 16K com- 
puter to 32K. 

Commonly Used Commands 

The DSKINIO command automatically 
formats any disk in drive 0, while DSKINI1, 
formats any disk in drive 1 , and so on. You 
can access your program directory by 
entering the DIR0 command, or just DIR if 
you intend to look at the directory of the 
disk in drive 0. DIR1 displays the directory 
of the disk in drivel, and soon. All your ex- 
isting files are displayed. 

With the Merge command you can 
merge one program from disk with 
another currently in memory. The Kill com- 
mand deletes any file from disk while the 
Load command allows loading any Basic 
program file into memory. LOADM allows 
loading machine-language files. There is 
also a machine-language save command, 
SAVEM. And speaking of machine 
language, there is a section in the manual 
on machine-language with examples. 

One annoying point about this system 
is that the supplied disk drive does not 
have an On/Off indicator light making it 
difficult to know if the drive is on or off. 
There is a white dot on the switch to be 
used as an On/Off indicator, but this is 
inadequate. 

The Color Computer Disk System works 
well, is easy to operate, and has excellent 
documentation. ■ 



48 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Reader Service for facing page >50-» 



TRS-80 owners . . . the Mapper I and III Works 
Packages are available In 64K versions for S 599. 



OMIKRON proudly presents 




The ultimate CP/M package for your TRS-80* Model I or III 



The WORKS includes: 

Mapper I & CP/M 2.2, CBASIC II, MBASIC-80 

and WordStar 



$399 



Mapper I and Mapper III 

cards are designed for simple plug in instal- 
lation. 



CP/M 2.2 is the latest version of CP/M 
from Digital Research. Our package also includes 
the MAPPER I CP/M adapter and a sophisticated 
set of utilities and drivers designed to optimize 
the CP/M system for the TRS-80. 

□ List price: $239 



WordStar is widely recognized as the 
most advanced product on the market. It is 
featured by many computer manufacturers, in- 
cluding Xerox, for wordprocessing applications. 

□ List price: $495 

MBASIC-80 is the CP/M version of 
Microsoft BASIC. The conversion of TRS-DOS 
BASIC programs to MBASIC is easy because the 
syntax is almost identical. 

□ List price: $349 

CBASIC II is the most widely used BASIC 
for CP/M applications programs. This version of 
BASIC contains all of the features necessary to 
develop complex business programs. 

□ List price: $149 



"See Review 80 Microcomputing, April 1982, page 370" 



OMIKRON 



f TRS-80™ Radio Shack/Tandy Corporation 



Products that set Precedents 

I 1 21 Hearst Street, Berkeley, CA 94702 (4 1 5) 845-801 3 

CBASIC II™ and CP/M™ Digital Research 




Litigation Support System 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
Fort Worth, TX 
Model II 
$299 

by Edward D. Young III 

Every junior lawyer has heard it a 
thousand times "Haven't we had a 
case like this before? I seem to recall that 
George handled a case like this several 
years ago; see if you can find the file." The 
request sends the junior attorney scurry- 
ing to a mammoth file cabinet and a con- 
glomeration of index card boxes. If he is 
lucky, he will eventually find that Harry, 
not George, handled the case which oc- 



curred only four months ago, not years. 

With Radio Shack's Model II Litigation 
Support System, savvy lawyers no longer 
need to waste time searching old files. Af- 
ter an hour of learning the system, anyone 
(even a lawyer) can create, store and re- 
trieve files. 

The Litigation Support System is com- 
posed of two files: a Clients file and a 
Forms file. The Client file can hold up to 
375 files. You can use the client record to 
store information such as the client's per- 
sonal background, case history and prior 
correspondence. The Forms file is used to 
conduct legal research. The user enters 
the area of law, case number, keyword, or 
any other criteria desired, and the com- 
puter searches up to 570 records for that 
criteria and displays all matching records 
until the user decides which one he wants 
to use. 

In addition to storing and retrieving in- 
formation, the Client and Forms files can 
generate reports. The Client file program 
can generate two reports; a Client Repre- 
sentative report and a Client Personal 
Data report. The Client Representative re- 



port prints the current date, client's name, 
client number, type of case, attorney of 
record and other relevant information for 
each client selected. The Client Personal 
Data report prints the name, record or 
case number, address and phone number 
of each client selected. The Forms file re- 
port generates a list of cases, subjects, 
forms or keywords based on any criteria 
you select. 

The availability of these storage and re- 
porting features means lawyers can con- 
duct research on recurring legal issues 
and familiarize themselves with the case 
history of their clients in a fraction of the 
time it took using traditional filing sys- 
tems. Therefore lawyers can manage their 
cases more carefully and respond faster 
to client or court inquiries concerning the 
status of the case. By entering times and 
dates in the user-defined input fields, a 
lawyer can even use this program to keep 
track of scheduled appointments. 

Excellent Documentation 

Perhaps the most impressive feature of 
this program is its documentation. The 



PRICES LOWERED AGAIN! (THOSE WITH $ SIGN) |i|jPR f\ Ikl Ck A I $£ EXACT REPLACEMENTS, LONG-LIFE, HEAVY WKING 

pood ™* Month RADIO SHACK-CENTRONICS-EPSON- ANADEX-BASE 2- HEWLETT PACKARD-MAUBUHBM PRINTERS 



X 



PRINTER 

MAKE, MODEL NUMBER 

(Contact us it your printer is 
not listed. We can probably 
RELOAD your old cartridges.) 



RIBBON 
SIZE 



ANADEX 9000 Series 



BASE 2 

CENTRONICS 7-meg 

702/7Q3/704/753 



HP-MALIBU 2608-2631 

RADIO SHACK 
DAISY WHEEL II 

Carbon Film (26-1419) 



COLORS 



Long-Lite Fabri c ( 1449) 

LP I— II — IV 700 Zip-Pack 
(141 3) 730/737/ 739/779 

LP III— V (26-1414) 

LP VM/ljT (26^1418) 
_LP YU __ <2 ®" 1 424) . 

EPSON MX 70-ao IBM 



MX 100 



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INSERTS 

EZ-LOAD™ 



EXACT REPLACEMENTS made in 
out own shop feature LONG-LIFE 
and HEAVY NCNG. Our nstructions : 



4z-> 



DROP IN, NO WINDING! 

^"twi "W -tuna 



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RELOADS 

You SEND your used 
CARTRIDGES to us. We 
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_ $/* ^ 

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SILVER DOLLAR 

WIND to LOAD 

WHY DO WE SELL THESE? 
This is the type ribhon you get if von 
order from our fellow advertisers, rte 
seli them tor Jess since we make \tn-^. 
ourselves. Do you really like the mess 
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don't know why these are being sold. 

Computers Should simplify your life, 
not make it more complex just to save 
a few pennies. You are welcome to 
order these if you cannot afford our 
EZ-LOAD - INSERTS. RELOADS, or 
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You now know how to avoid disap- 
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to check the length of any ribbon 
BEF ORE you buy it. For instance, an 
MX-foo ribbon should be 30 yards 
long, not 20 as in the MX-80. 



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SEND CHECK, MONEY ORDER, or COD ($2.00 ups) TO: 

BCCOMPCO ^ _ 

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"We just went through three of your (DW ID reloads, and there's no question they are better than the 

USERS' 

" Doctors, lawyers, accountants, hospitals, schools, universities, U.S. Armed Forces, small 
and large corporations, state and federal agencies, Radio Shack Dealers, and a lot of just plain 'folks'. 
Need a recommendation in your area? Call us. We have users all over the world, in Japan, Australia, 
the Phjllipines. Italy, Canada, Mexico. Sweden, England, Columbia, Kenya and many other countries. 



50 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



documentation is so complete even a per- 
son who has never touched a computer 
can run the program successfully. The in- 
structions are clear, consise and easy to 
read. In addition to illustrating, in great 
detail, the procedures for creating, storing 
and retrieving client records, the manual 
also provides instructions for making 
back-up disks. The ability to create a back- 
up data base is very important in the legal 
environment. The loss of vital information 
could severely damage a client's case and 
the lawyer's reputation. 

The manual also provides meticulous 
instructions for printing client reports, us- 
ing various formats: alphabetical order, 
chronological order, by attorney's name, 
or by just about any other criteria you de- 
sire. You can also adjust the page length 
and paper width to accommodate your 
printer. 

Added Features 

The Litigation Support System is de- 
signed both for expansion and for use 
with other Radio Shack programs. A sec- 



". . . the most 
impressive feature. . . 
is its documentation." 



tion of the user's manual is devoted to ex- 
plaining how to run the program on a sys- 
tem with more than one disk drive. That 
section also explains how to convert cli- 
ent and back-up files created on a one- 
drive system into files to be used in a 
multi-disk environment. 

The manual explains how to merge 
Scripsit with the Litigation Support Sys- 
tem to create commonly used documents 
such as form letters, leases and powers of 
attorney. This feature alone can save a 
law office much time and effort. 

Additionally, the Litigation Support 
System has the capacity to print mailing 
labels. This feature is particularly valu- 



able for filing documents with courts. 
Rather than type the address of the court 
each time a pleading is sent there (which 
the average lawyer does at least 2,000 
times a year), a lawyer can simply enter 
the name of the court and the mailing lab- 
el is printed instantly. 

The Litigation Support System can be 
used with Radio Shack's Time Accounting 
System. If you have this system, you can 
give clients the same client numbers as- 
signed to them by the time accounting 
system. This way, users of both systems 
can maintain the continuity, accuracy and 
accessibility of the client record system. 

This program allows lawyers to do legal 
research, manage their cases and send 
out repetitive documents with a minimum 
of effort. The program works so well that 
you wish that you had more storage capa- 
city so you could store complete opinions, 
excerpts from legal treatises, or even legal 
briefs. ■ 

(Editor's note— The reviewer is a gradu- 
ate of the Harvard Law School and a prac- 
ticing attorney in Washington, D.C.) 




Robot Intelligence— With Experiments 

David L. Heiserman 

Tab Books 

Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214 

Softcover, 322pp. 

$9.95 

by Don Stauffer 

What, another book on building a 
robot? I have several of these books 
and although the robots sound interest- 
ing, I find it hard to justify spending the 
money for the necessary hardware. But 
after reading its back cover and taking a 
quick thumb through, I realized Robot In- 
telligence is different. It is not a book 
about building robots; it is a book about 
simulating robot behavior on aTRS-80. 

The book's theme is the computer simu- 
lation of machine intelligence developed 
by a technique the author calls Evolution- 
ary Adaptive Machine Intelligence (EAMI). 
Heiserman warns the reader early that 
these simulations are not very spectacu- 
lar, but they do illustrate behavior that will 
prove thought provoking if you have an in- 



"What, another book 
on building a robot?" 



terest in machine intelligence. The reader/ 
programmer must study the explanations 
of how the programs work to gain any- 
thing from the simulations, the author 
warns. Typing the programs in and watch- 
ing them run will not be enough. 

Heiserman classifies the intelligence of 
the creatures created by the simulations 
into three categories of increasingly com- 
plex behavior: Alpha, Beta and Gamma. 
Each of these categories is subdivided in- 
to two levels: level I and level II. Even the 
most intelligent creature in this book is no 
robot genius. The fascination stems from 
the complex behavior that results from 
relatively simple programming. 

The programs are straightforward and 
well documented; the author includes 
hints on debugging them. He makes ex- 
tensive use of subprograms, easing the 
task of entering the increasingly larger 
programs. Most of the subroutines from 
early chapters are used in the higher level 
creatures of later chapters. So, for each 
step up in intelligence only the short main 
program must be revised and the new sub- 
routines added. 



Although the book is a source of much 
fun and interest, there are a few faults. As 
is common in Tab publications, the book 
lacks sufficient editing, as evidenced by 
the large number of typographical errors. 
There are typos in the program listings, 
though the printout "composite" listings 
at the end of the chapters are generally er- 
ror free. 

The lengthy discussion of the philoso- 
phy of machine intelligence in the early 
part of the book may bother some who are 
anxious to get to the experiments. I en- 
joyed the discussion, though it may ap- 
pear to others that the author belabors 
the point. 

I also take slight issue with Heiser- 
man's comment that, "There is absolutely 
no programming devoted to telling the 
creature exactly what it is supposed to do 
under any particular set of circum- 
stances." I have not tried to prove the 
point, but I think some of the creature's 
responses are somewhat less "autono- 
mously self-programming" than Heiser- 
man claims. 

These small criticisms do not detract 
from the fascination if this book and the 
creature it creates. If you own a computer 
other than a TRS-80, the Basic is fairly 
standard, except for the graphics, and can 
be easily converted by any competent pro- 
grammer. Robot Intelligence will provide 
many hours of fascination and provoke 
thoughts about the nature of machine in- 
telligence.B 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 51 



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See for yourself how easily and quickly you can set up a RELATIONAL data base. 
Exercise the query language. Use the full screen editor. 

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with the ease of BASIC, the power of PASCAL and the structure of "C". 

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SO RE vii 




dBASE II 

Ashton-Tote 

3600 Wilshire Blvd. #1500 

Los Angeles, CA 

$700 

by Craig Hilton 

Many powerful Data Base Managers 
(DBMs) are written under CP/M to 
reach the widest potential market; dBASE 
II is one such manager. 

Written in Assembly language, dBASE 
II is a novel approach to sophisticated 
data base management for the price. 
Figure 1 details the results of a com- 
parison between dBASE II and Profile II 
Plus, another popular DBM. 

Most data base managers operate ex- 
clusively in an interactive mode where the 
end user manipulates data one step at a 
time. Programming diversity is generally 
traded off for simplified data manipula- 
tion techniques. DBASE II approaches the 
"diversity or simplicity" dilemma from a 
new direction. Adapted from techniques 
developed by NASA, dBASE provides two 
entirely separate modes of operation. An 
interactive mode, similar to other DBMs, 
allows data manipulation in discrete 
steps under end-user control. However, it 
is the command mode that makes dBASE 
II unique. Like a high-level language, it 
allows complex sequence functions to be 
programmed in a Pascal-like structured 
language. 

Many complex routines, that would re- 
quire numerous Basic statements to ac- 
complish, can be called using dBASE II 
with a single command: Create, creates 
an entire file structure; Sort, sorts a file; 
Total, sums portions of a file; and so on. 
Through the use of a wide range of 
qualifiers to the commands, diverse and 
very sophisticated programs can be writ- 
ten (Fig. 2). 

The two modes of operation function in 
a relational management environment, 



Benchmark Standard 


dBASE II 


Profile II + 


Orientation 






Level of required user sophistication 


beginner 


competent 


Quality of supporting documentation 


adequate 


poor 


Ease of Use 






Overall use of entire DBM (human engineering) 


excellent 


very good 


Creating a file 


excellent 


very good 


Editing a file 


excellent 


excellent 


Screen/Report customization 


very good 


very good 


Creating the File 






Maximum number of fields per record 


32 


36 


Maximum size of 1 record 


1000 characters 


852 characters 


Maximum number of records with maximum record size 


65,535 


2,400 


Maximum number of records with 10 character record size 


65,535 


20,000 


Editing the File 






Can one file update another 


yes 


no 


Can groups of records be altered or updated with a single command 


yes 


no 


Number of 'layered" sort levels possible 


unlimited 





Maximum sort length 


unlimited 


30,000 char. 


Reporting the File 






Screen reports 


yes 


no 


Subtotals on reports 


yes 


no 


Type of reports available 


unlimited 


3 




(in Command mode) 


General Features 






Support algebraic functions 


yes 


no 


Can non-DBM data be accessed 


yes 


no 


Can non-DBM programs be run concurrent with DBM 


yes 


yes 


Text processor 


yes 


no 


Can routines be programmed into subroutines 


yes 


no 


Speed 






Time to index 1,000 records 


70 sec 


31 sec 


Time to locate a record within a 1,000-record file 


2 sec 


22 sec 


Time to locate a record within a 10,000-record file 


2 sec 


1 90 sec 


Time to locate and modify a record within a 1,000-record file 


2.5 sec 


23 sec 


Cost 


$700 


$299 


Figure 1 







meaning data elements are represented 
internally in a two-dimensioned table. 
Without the internal complexity of the 
usual DBM hierarchal management en- 
vironment (where linked lists and pointers 
maintain data relationships), indexing 
speed and efficiency are not affected by 
file length. Impressively quick operations 
are a result of the relational system. An in- 
dexed record can be located in a 100 or 
65,000-record file in the same time— two 
seconds. Each file can handle up to65, 535 
records of 1,000 characters each in 32 
fields. The only limit to the number of files 
contained within the system is imposed 
by the available storage capacity. Two 
separate files can be used simultaneous- 
ly, providing extremely fast manipulation 
of data from one file to another. Non- 
dBASE programs and files can be used di- 



rectly under the command mode control, 
allowing the incorporation of the dBASE 
power within the user's existing routines 
and data files. 

Included in the newly released updated 
version is a respectable text editor (sorely 
lacking in the previous version) and 
several file-handling enhancements in- 
cluding a fascinating "window-like" 
Browse command. 

Problemr? The system suffers from in- 
adequate documentation of its abilities 
only partially satisfied by the newly up- 
dated manual. I am surprised that a 
system with the sophistication of dBASE 
is not carefully supported with com- 
prehensive programming examples and a 
step-by-step tutorial. Be ready to spend 
hours learning the system's hidden 
abilities by trial and error. I was also dis- 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 53 



BO REVIEWS 



Sample Command Mode Program 

CLEAR 

USE Test INDEX Tesll 

STORE 1 10 X 

DO WHILE X< = 10 

APPEND Bl ANK 

ACCEPT Name' to MName 

REPLACE Name WITH MName 
STORE X + 1 toX 
ENDDO 

Here an indexed file is called (Tesfl), the user is asked for a 'NAME', the name is inserted into the file where it 
is automatically indexed, and the process is repeated 10 times. 



Create 


Change 


Copy- 


Delete 


Report 


Recall 


Save 


Pack 


Index 


Display 


Inser 


Read 


Browse 


Edit 


Replace 


Total 



The Enhanced dBASE II Commands 

Do Find 

Select Locate 

Sort Skip 

Accept Do While 

Insput If. . Eise 

Get Bell 

Sum Save 

Restore Clear 



Modify 
Call 

Erase 

Skip 

Update 

Accept 

Input 

Macro 

Append 



Fig. 2. Enhanced dBASE II commands and sample command mode program 



appointed in the interactive mode report 
writer. To generate truly customized 
report formats, plan on writing the for- 
mats yourself using the command mode. 
One more sore point — a file cannot be 
split between drives. Though not a serious 
flaw, it does require multiple-drive users 
to carefully plan file placement. 

Overall, this is a very powerful, fast and 
sophisticated data base manager. I found 
the efficiency of file organization, speed 
of execution, and the command mode pro- 
gramming most impressive. In the most 
rigorous and complex string manipulation 
operations, where I have previously found 
most serious DBM problems, data integri- 
ty was never compromised under dBASE 
II. The novice can expect to create useful 
data base applications immediately. The 
competent user can expect, by trial and 
error, to master the command mode func- 
tions. The system is capable of fulfilling 
nearly any data base requirement con- 
ceivable in the micro environment. ■ 




GR Basic 3.0 
Med Systems Software 
PO Box 2674-T 
Chapel Hill, NC 27514 
Models I & III 
$19.95 cassette 
$24.95 disk 

by Bruce Powel Douglass 



Med Systems Software sells quality 
products and provides excellent 
service and support. Case in point: 
GRBasic by Simon Smith. 

Previously, you had to get different ver- 
sions of GRBasic depending on your oper- 
ating system. GRBasic now integrates 
with any operating system and provides 
much enhanced graphics and sound 
capabilities. I received the disk version. 

GRBasic comes on disk with three ver- 
sions, one for each memory size. It comes 
on a non-systems disk, so TRSDOS users 
with only one drive have a problem. Med 
Systems offers a solution to this, how- 
ever. You may send them a TRSDOS disk, 
and they will place GRBasic on it for you. 



They will also pay you back for your 
postage. 

The manual is a small format (5 by 7 
inches), but well written and very well re- 
produced. The manual is 20 pages long 
and has a very useful table of contents. A 
short index should be included for memo- 
ry-size tables and other information that I 
like to have at my fingertips. The first five 
pages tell disk and cassette users how to 
load GRBasic into their TRS-80s. The rest 
of the manual tells you about the graphics 
and sound commands. 

Besides the GRBasic programs, you 
also get MISSILE/BAS, a demonstration 
program, and SEDIT/BAS, a shape-table 
editor, written in Basic. 

When you execute GRBasic from your 
operating system, GRBasic automatically 
loads in Basic and begins Basic for you. 
The commands are integrated into the in- 
terpreter's parser, so you only need to 
type in the command, with the appropriate 
syntax and parameters, to execute it. If 
you have improper parameters or have in- 



correct syntax, you are informed of this er- 
ror through the normal Basic error 
routines. 

The commands fall into four catego- 
ries: line drawing — LDRAW(R) and 
LDRAW(S); circle drawing — CIRCLE(R) 
and CIRCLE(S); shape drawing — 
SDRAW(R), SDRAW(S), Size, and Turn; 
and sound generation— Audio. 

The S and R are mandatory and tell if 
the line or shape is to be drawn using Set 
(S) or Reset (R). The LDRAW commands 
draw a line from one point to another, or 
from the current point to another. It does 
this very quickly, on the order of hun- 
dredths of seconds. To draw a line from 
(0,0) to (127,47), you enter the command 
LDRAW(S) 0,0 TO 127,47, or, if the last 
command drew a line to (0,0), you need on- 
ly enter LDRAW(S) TO 127,47. You may 
use variables for these parameters also. 

You may chain points together as deep- 
ly as you like in a single LDRAW com- 
mand. For example, to frame the video 
screen, you could enter LDRAW(S) 0,0 TO 



"GRBasic now integrates with any 

operating system and provides much enhanced 

graphics and sound capabilities." 



54 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



1 27,0 TO 1 27,47 TO 0,47 TO 0,0. This draws 
the frame around the screen in consider- 
ably less than one second. 

You also have a command to draw cir- 
cles. You must specify the coordinates of 
the center of the circle and the radius of 
the circle. The upper limit on the radius is 
23, since that is the largest circle that will 
fit on the screen. A visually interesting 
program is: 



10 FOR R = 1 TO 23 

20 CIRCLE(S) 64.24.R 

30 CLS 

40 NEXT R 

50 GOTO 10 



This program draws a circle that gets 
larger and larger and then starts over. 
Children will enjoy it. 

More interesting is the ability to draw 
shapes from a shape table. GRBasic does 
this extremely quickly, and as far as hu- 
man reflexes go, instantaneously. You en- 
code a shape as a set of numbers and 
POKE it into a block of memory (there is a 
127-byte block reserved for this). Two dia- 
grams in the manual explain this fairly 
well. 



"You may also 

scale or rotate 

your shape." 



You indicate a direction by a number. 
You have eight directions in which you 
may move from a given pixel. You have the 
same eight directions but different num- 
bers if you wish to redraw the line rather 
than draw it. You terminate a shape with a 
99. If you want to draw a box that is two 
pixels long in the X direction and three in 
the Y direction, POKE in the numbers 
1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,99. The 1 tells it to go right 
one unit, the 3 tells it to go up one unit, the 
5 tells it to go left one unit, and the 7 tells it 
to go down one unit. The 99 indicates the 
end of the shape. You can easily have 
several shapes in your block of memory. 
The command SDRAW(S) X,Y, USING N in- 
dicates the specific shape. The N tells 
GRBasic which shape to use. The X,Y tells 
it where to start drawing from. You need 
not specify the USING parameter if you 
wish to use the same shape again, but to 
reset the pointers, you must use a 
SDRAW(S) X,Y USING 1. 

You may also scale or rotate your 



shape. The Size N command gives 
GRBasic a scaling factor to multiply the 
lengths by. The Turn N parameter, where 
N is a number between and 255, speci- 
fies the number of 45 degree turns to 
make. This is a bit inconvenient, since you 
may specify only 45-degree rotations. A 
better idea would have been to divide the 
360-degree circle into 256 even parts and 
rotate by that factor instead. One problem 
with all this is that the TRS-80 graphics 
are 3 by 2 units. Rotation causes some 
rather strange distortions in shape. The 
command is useful and it would be diffi- 
cult to implement in Basic every time you 
wanted to do it. 

You can return to the correct size by en- 
tering Size 1. You may return from an N 
turn by specifying 8-N turns if N is be- 
tween 1 and 8. The shape drawing uses a 
clipping algorithm so that if a point draw- 
ing is off the screen, no error will result 
since the point will be drawn in extended 
space. There are several such algorithms 
in existence, and this one works well. This 
algorithm solves a potential problem with 
rotations and scalings. 

The manual also gives instructions on 
how to POKE the shapes into strings, and 
how to tell the shape-table pointer where 
to look. 

The last command GRBasic provides is 
Audio. This command permits the produc- 
tion of tones over an amplifier connected 
to the TRS-80's cassette port. The Audio 
command is interesting in that you may 
play a single tone for a set duration, or you 
may play a scale of tones from one to an- 
other using the given duration. The syntax 
is Audio X,Y,N. If X = Y then a single tone 
is played, otherwise a range of tones is 
played from X to Y (if X<Y) or Y to X (if 
Y<X). N is the duration of the tones to be 
played. You may specify a fourth argu- 
ment, and it indicates the number of times 
the Audio X,Y,N command is to be played. 
You can get some very interesting tones 
from this command and it significantly 
enhances the overall package. 

GRBasic is a useful tool for the develop- 
ment of games and even some plotting 
programs. It allows you to view things in a 
variety of perspectives and provides very 
useful line, circle and arbitrary shape- 
drawing commands, as well as sound pro- 
ducing commands. 

As good as GRBasic is I would like to 
see the following improvements: Change 
the Turn command as mentioned; allow 
the user to input three-dimensional ob- 
jects and have GRBasic display the two- 
dimensional isoclines of the figure (pro- 
jections of the figure onto a plane); and 
change the Audio command so that you 
can play musical scales (minor and 
major). ■ 



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margins of your choice, indented 
carryover lines, on any size paper! 

Appreciate the time and money you 
will save by not waiting for your 
printer. 

SooperSpooler, a buffered printer 
interface, maintains control over your 
printer while you go on using your 
computer for more productive 
activities. Eliminate waiting while your 
printer pecks through a long 
document. SooperSpooler accepts 
information from your computer at up 
to 3000 characters per second and 
feeds it to your printer as fast as it can 
handle it without using any of your 
computer's memory or time! 

SooperSpooler features include: 

• 16K Memory (62K optional) 

• Buffer Status Readout 

• Space Compression 

• Pagination 

• Single Sheets 

• Headers and Page Numbering 

• Indentation on Carryover Lines 

• Self Test Routine 

• Features also Software Controllable 

• Plugs into Model 1, II, Hi systems 

• 16K Parallel I/O Unit $349.00! 

• Serial I/O Option $95.00 

• 46K Memory Option -$159.00 

SooperSpooler by Compulink— 
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Call for information: 800-525-6705 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 55 



BQ REVIEWS 



Uniterm 

B.T. Enterprises 

171 Hawkins Road 

Centereach, NY 11720 

Models I & III 

$79.95 

by Sal Navarro 

Uniterm is short for Universal Terminal 
Program. According to Webster's, 
universal means "pertaining to, or charac- 
teristic of all." This word totally explains 
Uniterm. 

Regardless if you have a Model I or 
Model III you only need one terminal pro- 
gram for both. It can be used with NEW- 
DOS +, TRSDOS, DOSPLUS, LDOS and 
NEWDOS80 Versions 1 and 2. The mini- 
mum system requirements are a Model I 
or III with one drive and 32K of memory 
and some type of serial interface, either 
an RS-232C interface, Lynx modem, Chat- 
terbox modem or Microconnection mo- 
dem. The manual comes in a looseleaf 
binder with 74 pages of comprehensive 
user instructions. It also gives tips on how 
it can make your communications easier. 

Getting Started 

When you first turn on the computer, 
you can initialize a Command I and set up 
a INIT/PAR file with the parameters you 
will be using for that type of communica- 
tion. You have to answer a few simple 
questions such as Auto Log-on Message 
and Sign-on Message. I answered my ID 
number for the log-on message and my 
password for the sign-on message. Now 
when I enter Micronet I just give an up ar- 
row-C and an up arrow-S and I have trans- 
mitted my ID number and password with 
just two keystrokes. All of these parame- 
ters are stored on the disk, and every time 
you call up Uniterm it automatically initial- 
izes all that you need. 

Command Mode 

The following is a summary of the com- 
mand mode. 

A— auto buffer open/close: This is a 
powerful feature that allows Uniterm to 
accept a clean copy of text from the host 
computer. It allows the host to open and 
close your computer's buffer automatical- 
ly, and the text will be ready to be saved to 
disk. 

B— load/save binary file: The command 
B allows you to send and receive binary 
files automatically. Uniterm converts 
them to ASCII before transmission and 
before saving them to disk. 

C— close buffer: This command allows 
you to manually close the buffer. 

D— display/print buffer: Unlike many 




other terminal programs, Uniterm allows 
you to look at your buffer to see what you 
are about to send or what you have just re- 
ceived. You can also send the contents of 
the buffer to your line printer. 

E— exit to DOS: If you want to return to 
DOS for a moment to check something, 
you can by the command E. You can then 
return to Uniterm by the R/CMD file includ- 
ed with Uniterm. 

H— half/full duplex: If you want to 
change from half duplex to full duplex 
while in Uniterm, you just have to do a 
command H and enter either an H or F. 

I— define your initialization parame- 
ters: These parameters are usually set up 
just once the first time you boot up Uni- 
term. The exception is if you are using a 
different number of systems that require 
different parameters. In this case you can 
make up different files for the different 
systems or different disks set up for the 
particular system. 

L— load ASCII file to buffer: Command 
L loads any ASCII file that has been saved 
to disk either by the command S or one of 
the word processors. In this mode you can 
also add to the contents of your buffer, in 
effect combining two or more files than 
you would by resaving to disk or transmit- 
ting them to another computer. 

M — change modem parameters: To 
temporarily change your modem parame- 
ters, you use this command. The perma- 
nent change is done via the command I. 

O— open and zero the buffer: The com- 
mand O can manually open and zero the 
entire buffer. This way the only thing in the 
buffer will be what you are receiving at the 
time. While in this mode you can toggle 
the buffer open and close with a shift-®. 
Doing this you can capture only the data 
that you want, such as specific messages 
on the bulletin board. 

P— send buffer in prompt mode: The 
command P transmits what you have 
stored in buffer. 

R— send buffer with auto open/close 
buffer codes: This feature is designed to 



"Uniterm conforms 

to the way you want 

to do things." 



be used with the Auto Buffer feature for 
automatically opening and closing the 
buffer during transmission. 

S— -save buffer in ASCII format: The S 
command automatically saves your buf- 
fer to disk in ASCII format. 

T— transmit buffer: This sends out the 
entire contents of the buffer in block for- 
mat. This means that it keeps sending the 
contents as long as the receiving system 
does not halt or abort the transmission. 
While in this mode and in full duplex, reli- 
ability increases tremendously. 

W— set screen to desired width: W al- 
lows you to set your screen width to any 
desired length up to 64 characters. By 
using a smaller value you are assured of 
no words being broken up. 

X— type to buffer from keyboard: This 
very handy feature lets the operator add 
text to the buffer before sending to anoth- 
er system or saving to disk. 

Z— display this command list: Activat- 
ing the command Z displays all the com- 
mand codes and what they are for. This is 
handy in the beginning while you are still 
learning the codes. 

The Manual 

A glossary of terms is included in the 
manual. It fully explains different words 
and phrases used in smart terminal pro- 
grams. There are sheets on how to build a 
special table if you so desire. If at any time 
there is an update for Uniterm, there is a 
sheet explaining how and where to get it 
off a bulletin located in your section of the 
country. A technical information section 
explains overlays and locations that Uni- 
term uses and for what. A list of public ac- 
cess systems that are in use around the 
country is also provided. It includes what 
type of system, phone number, access 
hours, baud rates and special interest 
codes for the particular system. 

Summary of Uniterm 

I have been using Uniterm first with my 
Model I with a Novation Cat and RS-232C, 
and now with my Model III with a Lynx for 
about six months. Now that I am used to 
the command and control keys I find it a 
lot easier to use than the terminal pro- 
grams that I had been using before. Uni- 
term conforms to the way you want to do 
things.H 



56 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 






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■ GAMES GAMES GAMES™ 

The computer was not meant to be ALL business! 
We carry a complete stock of Adventure & Arcade 
style games. Each game has been subjected to ex- 
tensive testing by one of our less productive staff 
members. (* denotes rated great!) 

For Model I or III 

'Adventures by Scott A Cass. $19.95 

1-12 order by adventure number - also for 

Atari & Apple Cassette Disk 

Super Nova 15.95 19.95 

*Galaxy Invasion . . 15.95 19.95 

*Cosmic Fighter 15.95 19.95 

* Robot Attack 15.95 19.95 

•Attack Force 15.95 19.95 

•Defense Command 15.95 19.95 

•Alien Defense 19.95 19.95 

StarTrek3.5 14.95 19.95 

Sky Warrior 14.95 19.95 

•Eliminator 14.95 20.95 

•Armor Patrol 19.95 24.95 

•Valkyrie 29.95 39.95 

Planetoids 19.95 20.95 

Interlude 18.95 21.95 

For Kiddies 

Human Adventure — 19.95 

•Old McDonald 19.95 — 

Frog 14.95 — 

Red Riding Hood 14.95 — 

Color Computer 

CART CASS. DISK 

•Beserk — 24.95 — 

•Cave Hunter — 24.95 — 

Calixto Island — 19.95 — 

Black Sanctum — 19.95 — 

•Star Blasters 39.95 — — 

Color Meteroids — 21.95 — 

Magic Cubes — 19.95 24.95 

*Pac Attack — 24.95 29.95 

Hangman — 14.95 — 

Sigmon — 29.00 — 

Sees — 29.00 — 

Color Forth 109.95 — — 

3D Drawing — 24.95 — 

Minotaur Adventure — 19.95 — 

Color Scripsit 38.95 — — 

•Art Gallery 39.95 — — 

•Learning Lab — 49.95 — 



SPECIAL DELIVERY^ 

By now you have heard of this 

FANTASTIC SOFTWARE. 

Now experience it! 

• Maintain Your Mai! List 

• Print Free Format Labels 

• Merge with Form Letters 

• Fast Fast Fast Machine Language 

• Sorts Faster Than A Speeding Bullet 

• Enter Names at typist speeds 

• Use with Scripsit, Lazywriter, Electric 
Pencil (We sell them all!) 

• Extract Selected Names 

• Boldface & Underline (Even on the Daisy 
Wheel II!) 

• Get your Form Letters Past the 
Secretary's Desk! 

XTRA Special Delivery Includes All Of 
The Above PLUS: 

eDisk Sorts 
eMuIti Label Printer 
eKey Definitions 

The last mailing list you will 
ever have to buy! 

NOTE TO 
REGISTERED OWNERS 

Registered SPECIAL DELIVERY owners can upgrade to 
XTRA! by returning their ORIGINAL disk with $74.00 + 
$2.00 shipping and handling. 

FOR YOUR MODEL I OR III: 
(requires minimum of 32K, single drive) 

SPECIAL DELIVERY $125 

XTRA SPECIAL DELIVERY $199 

FOR YOUR MODEL il: 

(requires TRSDOS version 2.0 & Scripsit 2.0) 

SPECIAL DELIVERY $199 



■OTHER FINE SOFTWARE^ 
■iFOR THE MODEL I & IIIh 

All New Electric Pencil 

We are through stalling. 
It's really herel 

The original PENCIL set a standard for ease of use 
that no other editors can match. The NEW ELECTRIC 
PENCIL reaches even greater heights with many ex- 
citing new features that make it the most simple to 
learn text editor available for the TRS-80 Mod I or III! 
Don't leave home without it. 
Electric Pencil version 2 $84.95 



EDAS 

This is the assembler from Misosys which is used 
for all assemblies of Special Delivery. We had real 
headaches until this came along. A must for any 
assembly language programmer. 
EDAS MOD l/MOD III $75.00 

THE DISASSEMBLER 

This is simply the most advanced disassembler we 
have ever seen. Creates EDAS source code, inserts 
user-defined labels, disassemble disk or memory, 
generates ORGS & EQUates. 
THE Disassembler- Mod I, III $39.00 

RETAIL INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM 

Maintains Inventory, Tracks Stock Sold, Tracks 
Backorders, Tracks Reorder Items, Prints Purchase 
Orders, Prints Listings by Vendors, & MUCH MORE! 
This is the one we use in our store. 
Retail Inventory - Mod 1,111 $129.00 

MAXI MANAGER 

A real database manager has finally come to the 

Model I & III. 

Maxi $89.95 

MORE 

VISICALC MODEL I $94.95 

VISICALC MODEL III $189.00 

SCRIPSIT $94.95 

R.S. General Ledger $94.95 

LAZYWRITER l/lll $165.00 

NEWDOS 80 2.0 $145.00 

LDOS $125.00 

ST80 III $145.00 

Super Utility Plus $74.95 

Quick Fix $29.95 

NEW NEW NEW... 

ELECTRA SKETCH 29 95 

i^mmPRINTERSbhmm 

EPSON PRINTERS 

Epson has become the standard by which other low-cost 
printers are measured. Highly recommended! 

MX80 $465.00 

MX80 F/T $635.00 

MX70 $299.00 

MX100 $745.00 

Printer Cable $35.00 

TRS80 Bus Board/Cable $100.00 

GRAPHTAX 80 $80.00 

MX-80 Ribbons $14.00 

Print Heads $38.00 

2K Serial Card $145.00 

QUME DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS 

Sprint 9 KSR 35cps $1995.00 

Sprint 9 RO 35cps $1895.00 

Sprint 9 LTD 45cps. $2195.00 

Tractor Feed $195.00 

NEC SPINWRITERS 

NEC 7730 RO Parallel $2650.00 

NEC 7720 KSR $3100.00 



DATA SEPARATOR 

The lifesaver. If you have a MOD I with disk drives 
and no data separator you have problems. Order 
from us or someone else but get a data separator. 
Data Separator $29.95 

DOUBLER 

Another breakthrough. Add double density to your MOD 

I. Includes built in data separator. 

Doubler $165.95 

GREEN SCREENS 

Not much difference between green screens but 
everybody should have one. If you don't buy ours, 
buy theirs. 

MOD l/MOD III $17.95 

MOD ll/LEEDEX 100 $22.95 

IJG BOOKS 

Disk Mysteries $21 .50 

BASIC Faster & Better $28.95 

BASIC Decoded $28.95 

DISKETTES 

VERBATIM DATALIFE! Re-inforced hub, double den- 
sity, single sided. 

Pkg.of 10-5V4 inch .$25.00 

ELEPHANT DISKS. Re-inforced hub, double density, 

single sided. 

Pkg. of 10-5V4 inch $24.00 

MX80 PRINTER STANDS 

Smoked plastic printer stand. Hope you buy one of 
these — gotta bunch of these suckers in 
stock $23.95 

OTHER GOODIES 

Flip Sort Boxes 5 1 /4" $28.95 

Flip Sort Boxes 8" $39.95 

Plastic File Boxes (Holds 10 Disks) 4 Color's . . $3.50 

Verbatim Head Cleaner Kit $11.50 

Orchestra 90 $145.00 

Orchestra 85 $125.00 

Add 3% Shipping & Handling 

Texas Residents add 5% Sales Tax on 

all hardware items 

Specify whether MOD I, II, or III when ordering. 

SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 
(214)458-0330 

(214)458-0411 

visit our new retail store at 

116 Preston Valley 

Shopping Center 

Dallas, Texas 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

TRS-80 & Scrlpsit are Reg. Trademarks of Tandy Corp. ^ 43 



mmmmmm 



Packer 1.5 

Cottage Software 

614 N. Harding 

Wichita, KS 

Models I & III, 16K, 32K or 48K 

$29.95 

by Tim Knight 

Most programmers aspire to write pro- 
grams which are fast, efficient, and 
tidy looking. Unfortunately, the process of 
debugging and modifying often results in 
a program less tidy or efficient than 
planned. Packer 1.5 solves some of these 
programming woes. 

Packer 1.5 is a machine-language pro- 
gram which enhances the Basic of a Mod- 
el I or Model III with or without disks. It is 
especially helpful to non-disk owners 
since it provides some commands not 
found in other non-disk systems. The 
package, made and distributed by Cot- 
tage Software, is one of the most helpful 
command-adding programs on the mar- 
ket—next to Level III Basic by Microsoft. 
After loading Packer, it is immediately 
up and running. Basic programming and 
all regular commands and functions are 
the same. In^addition, Packer provides 
some extra commands using the Disk Ba- 
sic command Name (which now works on 
any system, whether tape or disk). The 
commands are entered as Name xxxx: 
BLN,ELN", with xxxx as the command, 
BLN as the beginning line number, and 
ELN as the ending line number. 

Commands 

The Short command packs the resident 
Basic program by removing unnecessary 
words, spaces, and remark statements. 
When any of the commands are imple- 
mented, a beginning byte count is shown. 
At the completion of the command execu- 
tion an ending byte count is flashed on the 
screen. This is very useful in helping a 
user keep track of the space being saved, 
and see directly the benefits of using 
Packer. 

The second command, Unpack, does 
exactly what it sounds like. Unpack 
breaks the program into single-statement 
lines, places spaces between all data 
statements, and also between almost 
every keyword in Basic. This results in a 
very neat looking program, though some- 
what less efficient, and consuming a 
great deal more memory. If you are won- 
dering how this is useful, consider debug- 
ging packed program lines. Problem spots 
are always easier to spot in well spaced, 
unpacked program lines. Also, some mag- 
azines prefer this type of listing when sub- 
mitting programs, and the magazine read- 
er will appreciate them since they are eas- 



ier and less bugprone to type. 

The Pack command condenses the pro- 
gram as much as possible making it high- 
ly memory efficient. This command main- 
tains all program logic. If two lines should 
not be joined, Pack will not join them. 

Many Level II users have longed for a 
command to renumber their programs. 
Packer supplies this function with the Re- 
num command. A program may be renum- 



bered in any way desired. 

The last command is Move. As the 
name implies, it moves any block of pro- 
gram lines to any place in the program. 

I highly recommend Packer 1.5. Anyone 
frustrated with the limitations of Basic 
should consider it for his or her software 
library. It is easy to use, extremely well 
documented, and for the money, the best 
utility I have bought for my TRS-80. ■ 



Smart Terminal Program 
Howe Software 
14 Lexington Rd. 
New City, NY 10956 
$69 

by Richard K. Wallace 

Smart Terminal Program (STERM) is 
designed for a 16, 32 or 48K tape or 
disk-based Model I or Model III. STERM, 
with an RS-232 and modem, allows access 
to another computer over telephone lines. 
In addition, the terminal program can 
transfer files to or from the host system. 
STERM contains features not found in 
dumb terminal programs such as Radio 
Shack's Videotex, but is plagued by limita- 
tions not evident in many disk-based ter- 
minal programs. 

Features 

STERM's communications parameters 
can be set to conform to the requirements 
of the host computer. The baud rate, full 
or half duplex, the number of bits per 
word, the number of stop bits, even, odd or 
no parity, and a line feed after carriage 
return option are all software selectable. 

STERM can store whatever appears on 
the screen in a memory buffer and dump 
the buffer on command to a disk file, a 
tape file or a printer. Disk and tape files 
can be read by both Scripsit and Electric 
Pencil. In addition, everything on the 
screen can be simultaneously routed to 
the printer, with or without saving it in 
memory. You can type text or programs 
directly into the memory buffer for later 
transmission to the host computer one 
line at a time, upon receipt of a one to five- 
character, user-defined prompt string, or 
continuously. Files to be transmitted may 
also be prepared with Scripsit or Electric 
Pencil, saved to tape or disk, and then 
read into the memory buffer by the termi- 
nal program. Disk users can read and 
store Basic programs in disk files. The 
host computer can automatically send 
and receive data from the TRS-80's memo- 
ry buffer if the host is capable of sending 
Standard Device Control Characters. 



Other special commands include a true 
break code and an exit to DOS without 
rebooting. All available commands can be 
displayed on the screen. The user can re- 
define the control keys to transmit any 
ASCII character. Thus, symbols such as 
{, }, [, ], and / can be sent to the time-shar- 
ing computer, although they do not ap- 
pear on the TRS-80 keyboard. 

Faults 

STERM allows considerable communi- 
cation flexibility; however, it contains sev- 
eral shortcomings. For example, only al- 
phabetic control keys can be redefined to 
send arbitrary ASCII values. Since many 
keys already correspond to necessary 
control functions (cursor motions and line 
feeds), and the TRS-80 keyboard lacks 
many standard characters, the program 
would be more useful if it allowed defini- 
tion of numeric control keys. Note also 
that defining a key only allows the trans- 
mission of that character through the 
RS-232. Special characters or control 
codes cannot be typed into memory for 
later automatic transmission. 

Unless you have a disk-based system, 
Basic programs and data cannot be read 
into memory for transmission to the host 
system. For example, one could accept 
stock prices from an information network, 
but not store those numbers on tape for 
subsequent processing by Basic pro- 
grams. Also, if you regularly require a spe- 
cific communications protocol other than 
the default values or special control key 
definitions, you must set these values 
every time you load the program. There 
is no way to save the parameters to disk 
or tape. 

Any data stored in memory can only be 
scanned one line at a time. After display- 
ing the current line, the line pointer must 
be moved forward one line and the current 
line displayed again. This process repeats 
to slowly scan memory. Additional minor 
complaints include the lack of absolute 
cursor positioning and no provision allow- 
ing the system clock to keep track of con- 
nect time. The Model III version only 
comes on a 500-baud cassette, making 



60 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 




the only one with all these 

column x 24 line screen display I 

Real lower case characters 1 

Works with any printer i 

Runsin16Kor32K 



cated full-screen editor 

I text formatter 
Special MX-80 driver 
Disk & cassette I/O 




TELEWRITER 

Telewriter is the powerful word processor 
designed specifically for the Color 
Computer. It can handle almost any 
serious writing job and it is extremely easy 
to use. It has all the advanced features you 
need to create, edit, store, format and 
print any kind of text. With Telewriter you 
can quickly produce perfect, finished copy 
for letters, reports, term papers, articles, 
technical documentation, stories, novels, 
screenplays, newsletters. It is also a 
flexible and efficient way to take notes or 
organize ideas and plans. 

51 x 24 DISPLAY 

The Color Computer is an incredibly 
powerful and versatile computer, but for 
text editing it has some major drawbacks. 
The small 32 character by 16 line screen 
format shows you too little of the text and, 
combined with its lack of lower case 
letters, bears little resemblance to the way 
text really looks on the page. Reverse 
video in place of lower case just adds 
confusion. 

Telewriter eliminates these shortcomings 
with no hardware modifications required. 

By using software alone, Telewriter 
creates a new character set that has real 
lower case letters, and puts 24 lines of 51 
characters on the screen. That's more 
on-screen characters than Apple II, Atari 
or TRS-80 Model III. That's more than 
double the Color Computer's standard 
display. 

FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

The Telewriter editor is designed for 
maximum ease of use. The commands are 
single key (or single key plus control key), 
fast, and easy to remember. There is no 
need to switch between insert modes and 
delete modes and cursor movement 
modes. You simply type. What you type is 
inserted into the text at the cursor, on the 
screen. What you see on the screen is 
always the current state of your text. You 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer. Ir 



can move quickly through the text with 
one key cursor movement in all 4 
directions, or press the shift key 
simultaneously for fast, auto-repeat. You 
can jump to the top or bottom of* the text, 
the beginning or end of a line, move 
forward or backward a page at a time, or 
scroll quickly up or down. When you type 
past the end of the line, the wordwrap 
feature moves you cleanly to the next. 



. . . one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen . . . 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



You can copy, move or delete any size 
block of text, search repeatedly for any 
pattern of characters, then instantly delete 
it or replace it with another. Telewriter 
gives you a tab key, tells you how much 
space you have left in memory, and warns 
you when the buffer is full. 

FORMAT FEATURES 

When it comes time to print out the 
finished manuscript, Telewriter lets you 
specify: left, right, top, and bottom 
margins; line spacing and lines per page. 
These parameters can be set before 
printing or they can be dynamically 
modified during printing with simple 
format codes in the text. 



. . . truly a state of the art word processor . . . 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



Telewriter will automatically number 
pages (if you want) and automatically 
center lines. It can chain print any number 
of text files from cassette or disk without 
user intervention. You can tell it to start a 
new page anywhere in the text, pause at 
the bottom of the page, and set the Baud 
rate to any value (so you can run your 
printer at top speed). 



Atari is a trademark of Ata 



is a trademark of Tandy Corp. : 



You can print all or any part of the text 
buffer, abort the printing at any point, and 
there is a "Typewriter" feature which 
allows you to type straight to your printer. 
Because Telewriter lets you output 
numeric control codes directly (either 
from the menu or during printing), it works 
with any printer. There's even a special 
driver for the Epson MX-80 that lets you 
simply select any of its 12 fonts and do 
underlining with a single underline 
character. 

CASSETTE AND DISK I/O 

Because Telewriter makes using cassette 
almost painless, you can still have a 
powerful word processor without the 
major additional cost of a disk. The 
advanced cassette handler will search in 
the forward direction till it finds the first 
valid file, so there's no need to keep 
retyping a load command when you are 
lost in your tape. The Verify command 
checks your cassette saves to make sure 
they're good. You can save all or any part 
of the text buffer to disk or cassette and 
you can append pre-existing files from 
either medium to what you have in the 
buffer already. 

AVAILABLE NOW 

Telewriter turns your Color Computer into 
the lowest cost hi-power word processor 
in the world today. It runs in 16K or 32K 
(32K recommended) and is so simple you 
can be writing with it almost immediately. 
It comes with 63 pages of documentation 
and is fully supported by Cognitec. 
Telewriter costs $49.95 including shipping 
(California residents add 6% tax). To 
order, specify disk or cassette and send 
check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Ave. 

Del Mar, Ca. 92014 

Or call (714) 755-1258 weekdays 7 AM- 
4PM PST. We will gladly answer your 
questions. 

MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. e» 121 



sSee List ol Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 61 



BO REVIEWS 



"The documentation 
is fairly clear." 



tape reading and writing unnecessarily 
time-consuming. 

The detailed documentation is fairly 
clear. Only the discussion of changing 
baud rates and redefining control keys is 
confusing; however, experimentation with 
those commands should clarify their use. 
The most significant omission in the pro- 
gram package is that of a telephone 



number. If you experience any difficulty 
with the software, you are completely on 
your own. 

In summary, STERM provides many fea- 
tures not found elsewhere for tape-based 
computers. Disk users may prefer the sig- 
nificant advantages of somewhat more 
expensive programs such as ST80-III 
or Omniterm.B 



**« 




The Patch Version 2.0 

CECDAT Inc. 

Box 497 

Hayden Lake, ID 83835 

$125 

by Bruce Powel Douglass 

The Patch is a lowercase modification 
that requires no software to drive it. It 
interfaces with the ROM chips inside the 
keyboard and monitors the calls made to 
the ROM. When something relevant to its 
operation is called, it takes control and 
substitutes its own bytes rather than 
those from the Level II ROM. You can also 
get (optionally) a shift-lock (just like a 
typewriter) and a block cursor. The lower- 
case is up and running as soon as you turn 
on your machine. You can turn the lower- 
case on (press Shift-up arrow) and off 
(press Shift-down arrow). You can, there- 
fore, revert to an uppercase-only keyboard 
with a double keystroke. The lowercase 
works with all the word processors as well 
as all DOSes, if you happen to have a disk- 
based machine. Some of these have to be 
modified slightly, but I'll get to that in a 
moment. The Patch is also compatible 
with Omikron's Mapper I and works with- 
out problems with this modification. 

The shift lock is a useful feature. By tap- 
ping the shift key, you can go temporarily 
into all uppercase mode. You stay here un- 
til you hold down the shift key for a slight- 



ly longer fraction of a second. It takes only 
a few tries to become proficient at switch- 
ing modes, but there is a slight problem 
with this i ( you use H with a disk-based 
machine. 

Most DOSes currently have a debounce 
feature to get around the keybounce prob- 
lems of the Model I. This debounce must 
be defeated for the Patch to work correct- 
ly. The Patch debounces the keys by itself. 
The manual shows the zaps to the various 
operating systems including TRSDOS 2.3, 
NEWDOS80 versions 1.0 and 2.0, 
NEWDOS + , Exatron ESF, and DOUBLE- 
DOS. Several DOSes are not mentioned. 
MultiDOS users can defeat the keyboard 
routine by holding down the shift key dur- 
ing the boot. Other DOS users will have to 
consult the manufacturer of that par- 
ticular DOS. This problem appears only if 
you also have the shift-lock option. 

What's the Catch? 

The Patch requires more extensive 
modification to your TRS-80 than you may 
feel comfortable doing. It involves cutting 
a trace, removing the ROMs and replacing 
them with a printed circuit board, and 
soldering in a piggy-backed chip and a few 
other wires. Although my experience 
should not necessarily be considered nor- 
mal, I did have problems. 

I am all toes (that's somewhat worse 
than all thumbs) when it comes to hard- 
ware. So rather than install it myself (and 
risk destroying my precious computer), I 
asked the electronics expert to put it in for 
me. The result was that the computer re- 
fused to function at all, even after remov- 
ing the unit and trying to reconstruct the 
system. I called CECDAT. They tried to be 



"They tried 

to be helpful, 

but nothing worked." 



helpful, but nothing worked. They advised 
me that I could send them the keyboard 
and they would repair it for $15 per hour, 
half their normal rate. So I sent it off, but it 
failed to work when I got it back. Fearing 
the worst, I opened the keyboard and 
found that in shipping, the PC board had 
come loose. After replacing it, it worked 
fine, and I have had no more problems 
with it. 

Even if you know what you are doing, it 
is possible to screw up this modification. I 
am not sure what went wrong in this case; 
CECDAT advised me that all they did was 
clean up the soldering a bit, although we 
checked it thoroughly before we sent it. If 
you send them your keyboard, they will 
make the modification for you. You pay 
the shipping expenses both ways. If you 
are unsure of yourself, you might consider 
that option. 

The original instruction manual I re- 
ceived was not very well written. It tended 
to verbosity on trivial things, and was 
vague on more important matters. This 
problem appears to be removed with the 
new instruction manual which includes 
drawings of the circuit board, where rele- 
vant, and takes you by the hand and leads 
you through the modification procedure. 
Even I could do it with these instructions, 
but after my previous experience I am not 
anxious to try. 

The manual also includes a program 
listing to use if you ever have to remove 
the Patch chip from the circuit board and 
return it for repair or update. 

The nicest feature of the new manual is 
that a large number of error symptoms are 
listed with a complete description of how 
to overcome them. For example, if you 
turn on the computer and get a screenful 
of squares, your ROM is unplugged. This 
troubleshooting guide is handy, and prob- 
ably necessary. 

If you are serious about having lower- 
case for your computer, the Patch is the 
best modification around. This is true be- 
cause it does not require a lowercase driv- 
er program to operate, and also because 
you can have a hardware shift lock with 
the shift key. These two features definite- 
ly make it worth the time and money.H 



62 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Wordsmith 
ABS Suppliers 
3352 Chelsea Circle 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48104 
$19.95 cassette and disk 

by Hugh M. Ruppersburg 



Wordsmith is an extremely inexpen- 
sive word processing program pro- 
duced by ABS Suppliers of Ann Arbor, Ml. 
It is written in Basic in two versions: one 
for 16K machines without disk, the other 
for 32K machines with at least one disk 
drive. The 16K version is generally identi- 
cal to the disk version, though it lacks the 
latter's search and kill functions and re- 
quires the B-17 Tape Operating System, 
marketed by ABS, to run. The disk version 
which is reviewed here comes on cassette 
and can be CLOADed under Disk Basic 
and then saved to disk. 

Wordsmith is one of the least expensive 
word processing programs available. 
Though it might satisfy a hobbyist inter- 
ested in playing around with word pro- 
cessing for casual letter writing or keep- 
ing a diary, it will not suit those who want 
to use their computers for more demand- 
ing writing applications. Wordsmith will 
not— its claims of being time-saving and 
elegant to the contrary— make such proj- 
ects as writing term papers, newsletters, 
or books easier. It requires an intolerably 
slow typing speed which only masters of 
the hunt-and-peck system will feel com- 
fortable with. Typists who work at moder- 
ate to rapid speeds will find that Word- 
smith has difficulty keeping up with them, 
often losing characters (especially at the 
beginning of lines), and occasionally lock- 
ing up completely until typing stops. 
Many hunt-and-peck typists who do not 
need the sophisticated capabilities of 
Scripsit or Electric Pencil will find Word- 
smith satisfactory. 

The instructions which accompany 
your cassette are clearly written and ac- 
curate. With the exception of the editing 
function, most of the program is simple 
enough; you should be able to use it with- 
out difficulty the first time you load it. Af- 
ter you run Wordsmith, the screen in- 
quires whether you want to use the lower- 
case option. If you answer yes, after a few 
seconds a message appears informing 
you that the lowercase option has been 
loaded and that you should type run once 
more. Once the lowercase option has 
been loaded, the first 10 lines of the pro- 
gram, which enable lowercase, are delet- 
ed from memory, so be sure to save the 
program to disk before running it. Other- 
wise you will lose the lowercase capability 
and will have to CLOAD again to regain it. 




Once in the lowercase option, the com- 
puter asks what line length you want to 
use. (Wordsmith allows a length of up to 
60 characters.) Then a menu appears list- 
ing the 14 program functions. To begin 
composing, type F for Fill and a column of 
15 numbers, each representing an empty 
line, appears on the screen's left side. A 
heavy vertical line on the other side of the 
screen marks the right margin. You type in 
your text in the normal manner. Word- 
smith features word wraparound, which 
means no words will be split in half at the 
ends or beginnings of lines. 

Unfortunately, Wordsmith does not al- 
low simultaneous composition and edit- 
ing, and its menu-oriented design is a def- 
inite disadvantage. In the fill mode you 
can delete words only by typing over 
them, an arduous process since the cur- 
sor backspaces very slowly. Insertions, 
deletions, and other changes must be ac- 
complished from the edit mode. To edit, 
exit the fill mode by pressing Clear, which 
returns you to the menu, where you type E. 
To make an insertion, press shift and the 
up arrow keys simultaneously. Then move 
the cursor to the desired position on the 
line and type in as many characters as the 
line length allows (the text does not auto- 
matically adjust itself past the end of the 
line as in more sophisticated word pro- 
cessors, so the number of inserted char- 
acters may not exceed the number of 
empty spaces in a line— another draw- 
back). 

Deletions are accomplished more easi- 
ly by typing D, which deletes the character 
beneath the cursor. Characters can also 
be changed simply by typing over them. 
Although the cursor moves slowly in the 
edit mode, you can speed things up a bit 
by using a character-search function: 
Press Enter, type the letter you are looking 
for, and then the number of its occurrence 
(the first occurrence, the second, and so 
on), and the cursor positions itself on that 
letter. You exit the edit mode by typing 



Shift and @ twice simultaneously. 

Editing is also possible in the delete 
and insert modes of the menu. If you press 
D, the computer queries the number of the 
line or lines you wish to delete. When you 
answer, Wordsmith deletes the lines, re- 
numbers the text, and returns you to the 
menu. Single words, sentences or para- 
graphs cannot be individually deleted, on- 
ly lines and whatever they contain. 

If you type I, the computer asks for the 
number of the line where you want to 
make an insertion. Once you answer, 
Wordsmith displays the text with the cur- 
sor at the beginning of that line. You can 
then move the cursor to the desired posi- 
tion and begin typing your insertion. Un- 
like insertions in the edit mode, additions 
made through the insert mode can exceed 
the line length, and the computer renum- 
bers the text to accommodate the added 
material. If you finish inserting and find 
yourself in the middle of a line, however, 
the text below will not readjust upwards, 
and you will find a big hole in the middle of 
a paragraph unless you can find some 
way to delete or add enough words to fill 
in the gap. A move mode also allows you 
to move up to 47 lines of text at a time, 
while a search feature locates every oc- 
currence of a specified word or phrase in 
the text. 

Wordsmith's editing functions are cum- 
bersome. Most writers, whether amateurs 
or professionals, edit as they write— try- 
ing one word, discarding it, trying another, 
and so on, until they happen upon the 
right one. They insert, delete and move 
sentences and paragraphs around con- 
stantly. Word processors are designed to 
make this particular aspect of writing 
much easier, and the good ones do. Word- 
smith does not. You cannot make 
changes unless you return to the menu 
and enter the edit mode, an irksome dis- 
traction which may break your concentra- 
tion, and which wastes time. 

Once you have written your text, Word- 
smith allows several means of formatting 
its appearance for display on the screen 
or on the printed page. Menu functions al- 
low the centering of individual lines, as for 
titles or subheadings, and right justifica- 
tion. The print mode allows more latitude 
in formatting. You can print all of the text 
or only the lines which you specify, with or 
without line numbers. You set the left 
margin, call for single or double spacing, 
automatically number pages in sequence 
beginning with the page number you in- 
dicate, and determine the number of lines 
printed on each page. 

Designed for use with the MX-80 printer, 
Wordsmith provides several functions re- 
lated to that printer's capabilities, includ- 
ing specified print density, emphasized 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 63 




strike, and double strike. I was unable to 
print the text I wrote with Wordsmith. ABS 
provided me with the MX-80 control codes, 
but I use my TRS-80 primarily for writing 
and bookkeeping; I cannot write programs 
or make program changes without written 
guidance, so I was unable to modify the 
program to print through my Daisy Wheel 
II. Prospective Wordsmith purchasers 
who do not own the MX-80 should be 
aware that they will have to modify the 
program so that it will work with their own 
printers. 



Wordsmith provides no way of exiting 
the program. You can press Break, of 
course, to reenter Disk Basic. To return to 
TRSDOS, however, you must press Break 
and then type NEW to erase the program 
from memory. Otherwise, Wordsmith will 
rerun each time you try returning to 
TRSDOS. If you use Wordsmith in lower- 
case, you must reboot or reset your com- 
puter to escape the lowercase driver 
which is part of the program. I found no 
other way to escape the driver. When I re- 
turned to TRSDOS and tried loading Scrip- 



sit, the screen exploded into chaos. 

In comparison with more expensive, 
more sophisticated word processing pro- 
grams, Wordsmith has little to offer. If you 
do not need one of those expensive pro- 
grams, or if you are not a fast typist and 
you would merely like to use your comput- 
er to write letters to friends or to make 
notes, then Wordsmith might be exactly 
what you are looking for. Its low price is 
hard to argue with. If you want to make 
serious use of microcomputer word pro- 
cessing, though, look elsewhere. ■ 



ICL (Interactive Control Language) 
XYZT Computer Dimensions, Inc. 
2 Penn Plaza, Suite 1500 
New York, NY 10021 
Models I & III, 32K 
$59 disk 

by Bruce Powel Douglass 

Those who have worked on mainframes 
need no introduction to a job control 
language (JCL). For the rest of the micro- 
world, a JCL is a language that controls 
how the computer processes programs 
and commands. A JCL supervises the 
operating system and controls its func- 
tion. This is important in time-sharing 
systems, but how useful is it in a one-user 
microcomputer? 

ICL Is a simple job control language for 
TRS-80 microcomputers with NEWDOS 
2.1 or NEWDOS80 and 32K or 48K RAM. 
ICL is an interpreted language, as any JCL 
must be. It controls various DOS com- 
mands and functions and allows you to 
program any order of their execution. The 
simplest example of a use for ICL is 
running batches of programs that require 
no intricate program intervention or 
supervision. Who wants to sit around and 
load programs and watch them execute? 
ICL frees you from supervising your 
computer. 

ICL can load and run DOS programs 
with interpretive control over their execu- 
tion, with as little as one command. As an 
example, those of you who have used 
BASCOM from Microsoft know how many 
commands it takes to compile a Basic 
program: write the program, store the pro- 
gram, run the compiler, specify the source 
and object file names, run the linker, link 
to BASLIB, and so on. That can take a long 
time. ICL allows you to enter, with a 
single command, all those commands 
and put them in a keyboard queue. When 
keyboard input is expected, ICL auto- 
matically loads whatever is in the key- 
board queue for keyboard input rather 
than require you to sit around and type in 



predetermined answers to the queries. 

A queue is a line. It is similar to a stack. 
A stack differs from a queue in that a 
stack operates with a last-in, first-out 
logic, whereas a queue has a first-in, first- 
out ordering. ICL lets you set up a 
keyboard queue, and then as keyboard in- 
put is required by some program (as in an 
input statement), ICL checks to see if the 
queue contains data. If so, it substitutes 
its data for a keyboard answer. 

But other programs on the market do 
that. IRV, from Programmer's Guild, and 
KBE from The Alternate Source, both have 
that capability. What makes ICL a 
language, rather than a macro-key defini- 
tion program (such as the other two pro- 
grams mentioned) is the implementation 
of control constructs. 

A control construct is a language ele- 
ment that controls the logic flow of a pro- 
gram, such as GOTO, If, and so on. KBE 
has a simple conditional control con- 
struct, which The Alternate Source refers 
to as conditional macro-key expansion, 
but this capability is limited. KBE is not 
meant to be a language; it is a full screen 
editor with some fancy capabilities. ICL, 
on the other hand, has full control con- 
structs making it a true, although sim- 
ple language. 

The Manual 

One of the first things I look at when I 
review a software package is the manual. 
It is here that most programs are made or 
broken. The ICL Manual is better written 
than most I have seen, although it is not 
the best. The writing is a bit terse, and I 
doubt that a relatively new computer user 
could follow all of it. Several examples 
are: a useable table of contents, an alpha- 
betical reference section of the com- 
mands and pseudo-ops, examples to aid 
learning the language, and an Advanced 
Techniques section for developing skill in 
more interesting uses of ICL. 

On the other side of the coin, the 
manual ought to be indexed, and the use 
of variables could bebetterexplained.The 
manual is a better reference than tutorial. 



As a tutorial, it lacks depth and breadth. 
The Programming Methods section could 
be expanded to benefit the user. 

ICL Cometh 

You must specify whether you have 
NEWDOS 2.1 or NEWDOS80 in order to 
receive the proper format disk, although 
the program actually works with both. 
Some of the programs are ICL32/CMD and 
ICL48/CMD (an interpreter for all 
seasons), L/ICL, EXEC/ICL, DEBUG/ICL, 
FGO/ICL, QDIR/ICL; and RNAME/ICL, 
MKILL/ICL, and LNK/ICL 

Except for the first two, all the pro- 
grams listed are example ICL programs. 
To begin using the ICL interpreter, you 
boot up and enter ICL32 or ICL48, depend- 
ing on your memory size. The interpreter 
performs a few house-cleaning chores 
and then returns with &DOS READY 
= 00 = . You may enter all DOS commands 
in the normal fashion, as well as execute 
ICL programs. The L/ICL program lists ICL 
programs, for example. To list LNK/ICL, 
you need only enter L LNK. 

The Language 

The five divisions of commands are I/O 
commands, I/O support commands, com- 
mands for ICL interpreter, commands ini- 
tiating execution, and commands han- 
dling control interception. 

ICL is a semi-structured language in 
that it supports procedures, labels and 
line numbers, as well as variables. Before 
a given ICL line is executed, all the 
variables are parsed and their values are 
substituted into the expression. Variables 
can be combined in interesting ways. A 
variable for ICL is preceded by an &. You 
can assign a variable a value in your pro- 
gram, or get the value from user input via 
an &READ command. You may have the 
line 10 &A = 1 100 or 20 &B = &A22. If these 
lines are both in the sample program, the 
value that is substituted for B in line 20 is 
1 10022. A bit different from Basic, at least. 
You can even assign numbers to be vari- 
ables, provided they are preceded with 
an ampersand. Thus, 40 &1100 = 



64 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



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BCD reviews 



+ + + + + + + + followed by 50 &TYPE 
&&A transforms line 50 (after substitution) 
into50&TYPE +++++++ +. The vari- 
ables may be used and substituted in a 
very flexible manner. 

ICL is a procedure-oriented language, 
which is also different from Basic. You 
may execute an ICL procedure either by 
entering it directly from DOS, or by calling 
it with an &RUN command from another 
procedure. Nesting your procedures adds 
greatly to ICL's power. 

Logic-flow statements within a pro- 
cedure are the &GOTO, &IF, &JUMP, 
&RESUME and &RUN. The &GOTO causes 
program execution to begin at some 
specified label. &IF is the conditional 
statement in ICL. Its format is &IF 
operand 1 condition operand 2 state- 
ment. The conditions are equal, not equal, 
greater than and so on. Interestingly, the 
writers of ICL chose not to use the more 
common Boolean operator symbols and 
used two-letter abbreviations instead. 
This may be to stress the point that all 
comparisons are arithmetical and not 
logical. 

As an additional illustration of how vari- 
ables are different than in a more classi- 
cal programming language, the variables 
are substituted into the expression before 
evaluation. If &A is a null variable, the ex- 
pression &IF &A EQ YES &GOTO -AD- 
DRES will be expanded into &IF EQ YES 
&GOTO -ADDRES, which is an invalid 
statement, since the &IF construct re- 
quires two operands. However, you can 
concatenate a character with the variable 
to make sure that the statement remains 
valid. The example given in the manual is 




&IF .&A EQ .YES &GOTO -ADDRES which, 
in the case of &A being a null variable, will 
expand into &IF . EQ .YES &GOTO -AD- 
DRES, which is valid. I think that this flex- 
ibility may make for some interesting pro- 
gramming tricks and short-cuts, once you 
become adequately acquainted with the 
syntactical possibilities. 

ICL has some other useful capabilities. 
You can display text messages, read data 
from the keyboard, clear the keyboard 
queue, cancel a running program, specify 
a number of options, output text to the 
printer, place text in the keyboard queue, 
or suppress display of text. The options 
mentioned above include: disable com- 
mon video display driver, toggle the 
display of the current ICL line being inter- 
preted, turn on/off the keyboard queue, 
allow for single-byte keyboard requests, 
copy display output to the keyboard 
queue, enable/disable non-alphanumeric 
characters to be present in data taken 
from the queue. ICL also returns an error 
code, displaying the execution state of 
the last procedure. 

The DQ, or direct output to queue, op- 
tion makes ICL a usable product. Since 
you have the &READ command, it is sim- 
ple to run a program and process the out- 



put differently depending on the nature of 
the output. Perhaps a simpler way to say 
this is that you can place a running pro- 
gram's output in the keyboard queue and 
then &READ it, giving you the ability to 
analyse the output of said program and to 
continue processing in a manner appro- 
priate to that output. 

For example, you may have the old 
water-powered disk drives that are, at 
best, flaky. BASCOM is a tedious compiler 
to use with such drives, since it takes a 
long time to run, and if it fails you must 
redo the process. If the problem is in the 
drive, it may just require that you recom- 
pile it, and then it may (or may not) store 
the program correctly. 

Manual control of BASCOM under such 
circumstances can be a real pain. But ICL 
allows you to read the output, and if the 
compilation was unsuccessful, you can 
recompile it until it works. You can further 
check for the type of error made. If it was a 
Fatal Error message, you can &EXIT the 
procedure, but if it was a Parity Error, you 
can retry the compilation process. Then, 
when it finally runs, you can go ahead and 
link it with the linker, and even execute 
your compiled program. All with no user 
intervention! 

ICL is an interpretive job-control 
language for disk operating systems. 
While the language is simple, it is suffi- 
ciently powerful to automate many of the 
more tedious procedures that we all have 
to perform in using our computer. After 
all, computers are supposed to save us 
from work, right? ICL is a good product, 
and may be just what you have been 
waiting for.B 



TDS/DFT 

Bob Withers 

Big Systems Software 

27574 Via Rosalie 

Mount Clemens, Ml 48043 

Models I & III, 16K 

$29.95 and $19.95 respectively 

$40 for both 

by Tim Knight 

If you have a modem for your computer, 
you should not be without TDS/DFT 
(Tape Downloading System and Direct 
File Transfer). 

These two programs are machine-lan- 
guage smart terminal utilities. TDS is simi- 
lar to many "smart terms" on the market, 
but it is extremely easy to use and comes 
with two supplemental programs which 
complement it well. DFT, on the other 
hand, is of a different sort; it can transfer 
machine-language programs directly. 



DFT uses a utility to transfer any kind of 
file without conversion. This is a plus for 
anyone who enjoys downloading and up- 
loading (the process of receiving a pro- 
gram through your modem, and vice ver- 
sa). DFT also has many extra features 
which will come in handy as your exper- 
tise develops. 

Before receiving TDS/DFT, I had never 
used a smart terminal before. Except for 
one initial problem, the well documented 
manuals explained the programs' use 
clearly. My only problem occurred when I 
first loaded TDS and attempted to call up 
the system. I had absolutely no results. I 
soon discovered that with a Model III and 
Lynx modem, I must enter the command 
POKE 16912,56 before using the program. 

TDS Features 

In addition to uploading and down- 
loading, I can access Basic directly by 
pressing Clear. After receiving a Basic 



program via downloading, I can go direct- 
ly to Basic and run, edit or save the pro- 
gram to tape. You cannot LPRINT it since 
LPRINT sends programs to the uploading 
computer. Other useful capabilities are: 
support of all ASCII control codes, in- 
cluding upper and lowercase; 10 different 
transmission speeds; and 10 user-defin- 
able control keys. 

One of the supplemental programs, 
SYSCVT, changes a machine-language 
program to an encoded Basic program. 
This Basic program will not work until you 
use SYSCVT to change it back to a ma- 
chine-language program. This procedure 
allows you to save the Basic version 
to tape. 

What good does this do? Very little if 
the computer operator at the other end 
does not have the TDS package. That 
other operator has to undo your conver- 
sion. If the operator does have TDS, 
transferring machine-language files is 



66 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Several months ago the Kromorfkrom Empire invaded our 
planet and stole some of our newly developed and highly 
efficient "Krotnium" Star Cruiser fuel cells. Your mission is 
to infiltrate the Kromorfkrom Empire and pass yourself off 
as the commanding officer of one of their fuel vessels. 
Eventually you will be discovered and then it's battle time! 
Sound and joystick control make this another winner. 



Cat. No. 3853 
Cat. No. 3854 



Mod. I&IH.16K, cass 
Mod I &lll,32K,disk 



$15.95 
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STELLAR ESCORT 



Five billion light years from Kromorfkrom, Federation 
forces have been at war with the hostile Cretonian Empire. 
Unfortunately, the Cretonians attacked by surprise and now 
your forces are almost out of supplies. It's up to you, the 
Escort fighter pilot, to save the Federation. Sound and 
joystick option are included. 



Cat. No. 3855 
Cat. No. 3856 



Mod I & III, 16K, cass 
Modl&IM,32K, disk 



$15.95 
$19.95 



GALAXY INVASION 



Cruel and crafty invaders have been spotted in battle 
formation warping towards Earth. You must quickly 
eliminate the aliens as they swoop down upon you. In- 
cludes sound and joystick action. 



Cat. No. 3847 
Cat. No. 3848 



Modi &III, 16K, cass 
Mod IS III, 32K, disk 



$15.95 
$19.95 



ATTACK FORCE 



In this fast-paced machine language game, eight alien 
Ramships are warping toward your ship. You must dodge 
them and fire missiles to destroy them before they get you! 
Sound and Joystick options are included. 



Cat. No. 3849 
Cat. No. 3850 



Mod I &III, 16K, cass 
Modi & III, 32K, disk 



$15.95 
$19.95 




Evil robots from the planet Jidya have overtaken one of 
Earth's valuable Space Stations. Space Central is counting 
on YOU to invade the station and conquer the robots. You 
must act quickly and boldly in order to carry out your mis- 
sion. ROBOT ATTACK features sound effects and e^her 
keyboard or joystick control. 



Cat. No. 3851 Mod I & III, 16K, Cass. 
Cat. No. 3852 Mod I & III, 32K, disk 

COSMIC FIGHTER 



$15.95 
$19.95 



Draft those pesky aliens! Your mission is to clear the 
skies of the invading aliens. As soon as space is clear, 
along comes another set. Keep shooting but watch out, 
your fuel is getting low. Good luck. Includes sound and 
joystick capability. 

Cat. No. 3213 Mod I & III, 16K, cass $15 95 

Cat. No. 3213 Mod I & III, 32K, disk $19.95 

METEOR MISSION 2 

Emergency! Your astronauts are in trouble. You must 
maneuver through the asteroids and meteors in order to 
save your men and get them to the space station. Complete 
with sound and joystick option. 



Cat. No. 3214 
Cat. No. 3215 



Mod I &III, 16K, cass 
Modi & III, 32K, disk 



$15.95 
$19.95 



SUPER NOVA 



SUPER NOVA is a fast paced real-time game for one or 
two players. The object is to destroy as many asteroids and 
aliens as possible without getting destroyed. Hitting a large 
asteroid causes it to break into smaller asteroids. Aliens 
and their flagship will appear on the screen and try to shoot 
you out of the sky. 



Cat. No. 3845 
Cat. No. 3846 



Mod I &III, 16K, cass 
Mod I & III, 32K, disk 



$15.95 
$19.95 



TRISSTiCK 



Model I and Model III owners may now use a joystick for 
better response in those fast-action programs. The 
TRISSTICK is compatible with all BIG FIVE software and 
comes complete with instructions for easy implementation 
into your own programs. It features the famous Atari 
joystick and plugs right in to your machine. There's no 
modification or wiring needed! 



Cat. No. 3939 
Cat. No. 3929 



Model I 
Model III 



"EXTRA SPECIAL" SPECIAL 

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BO REVIEWS 



fairly easy. You load the machine-lan- 
guage program, use SYSCVT to change it 
into Basic, save the Basic program, load 
the Basic program with TDS, and send the 
file to the other operator. That operator 
then reverses the procedure. The need for 
both operators to have TDS is a severe 
limitation though. 

The second complementary program is 



bypassing the need to log in manually 
with first name, last name, city and state. 
All I do now is press shift @. 

DFT 

The DFT system is primarily down- 
loading and uploading oriented. Direct 
File Transfer is a simple way of transfer- 
ring Basic and machine-language files as 



"The first option. . . Chat. . . can be used 

when logging on to the host computer, 

or to "chat" with other computer operators." 



AUTOL. This one is easier to understand 
than SYSCVT. After loading AUTOL, you 
type a log-in code (the code which gets 
you into bulletin boards such as Connec- 
tion 80), and use that code whenever it is 
needed. This cuts down time on-line by 



opposed to all the loading and saving re- 
quired by SYSCVT and TDS. After loading 
DFT, a menu is displayed. The first option 
is Chat. Chat can be used when logging on 
to the host computer, or to "chat" with 
other computer operators. 



The second option is the most useful: 
File Transmission. It requires no ASCII-to- 
hex conversion. You can send and receive 
files with File Transmission, and most of 
the procedure is performed by the two 
computers on-line. All you do is hit one 
key and the program either comes to you 
or your program is transferred to the host 
computer. Again, the disadvantage is that 
the host computer must also be DFT 
oriented. 

DFT is becoming more popular, though, 
with more bulletin boards using it. For ex- 
ample, Westside Downland of Detroit, Ml, 
maintained by Ralph Landry, uses the pro- 
gram. Westside Downland's number is 
(313)533-0254, and it is free. 

The third option changes the baud rate 
from 110 to 9,600, alters the Chat-mode 
duplex (half or full), and contains com- 
mands for input/output to the tape record- 
er or disk. A high/low cassette rate option 
is included in the Model III version of DFT. 

I recommend that you buy the two pro- 
grams as a unit; you will save money on 
some excellent utilities. ■ 



EPROM Programmer 
Model AN-551 
Design Solution Inc. 
Box 1225 

Fayetteville, AR 72701 
$99.95 

by Mel Patrick 

With the increasing number of devel- 
opment systems and add-on op- 
tions for the TRS-80 Model I you need an 
economical method of programming your 
own EPROMs. Low cost programming 
units have only recently become available 
to the occasional user. Before that only 
commercial programmers were available, 
but their cost was so high that the hobby- 
ist was hard pressed to justify the 
expense. 

I was only one of many in this position 
and had to have my EPROMs programmed 
by a local electronics firm. Since most of 
these firms charge by the hour for en- 
tering the data into the EPROM, program- 
mer cost is an important factor. I calcu- 
lated that after I had three EPROMs pro- 
grammed I could have purchased my 
own unit. 

The Model AN-551 EPROM program- 
mer manufactured by Design Solution Inc. 
is a simple unit that enables anyone to 
program their own EPROMs with a low- 
cost outlay. 

The Programming Unit 

The EPROM programmer comes as- 



sembled and tested with its own power 
supply and instruction manual. The unit 
will program the two most common EPROMs 
on the market today: the 2716, a 2K byte 
device, and the 2732, a 4K byte device. 

The instruction manual contains all the 
information on the concept, connection 
and programming. Two Basic programs 
enable the user to program the 2716 and 
the 2732 EPROMs. The user must enter 
the programs; they are not supplied on 
cassette or disk (programs are only 17 
lines long). The programs transfer data 
from the TRS-80 memory to the EPROM 
and verify the data to ensure its accuracy. 

Although the initial advertisement for 
the EPROM programmer stated that infor- 
mation could be copied from ROM to 
EPROM or load TRS-80 memory from 
either ROM or EPROM, the software 
listings do not include this facility. How- 
ever, since the programs are in Basic, this 
is fairly easy to accomplish yourself. 

The unit is in a plastic case measuring 6 
by 4 by 1 inches and has a 40-pin edge 
card connector protruding from one side. 
The user must construct a special cable to 
connect the programmer from this bus to 
his system. The cable is simply a ribbon 
cable that has a female 40-pin edge card 
connector on opposite sides of the cable. 
A standard extension cable will not work 
because of the configuration of the 
EPROM edge card bus. 

On the face of the unit are three switch- 
es that control the power on/off, 
write/read, and 2716/2732 mode option. 



Two LEDs indicate the status of these 
switches. There is a standard 24-pin 
socket for the EPROM. No zero insertion 
force socket is provided although the user 
could easily install one. A jack on the top 
of the unit provides a connection for the 
power supply. The power supply is 12 volts 
ac, not dc as you might normally expect. 
The programmer requires 26 volts during 
the programming mode and a dc adapter 
would not supply that, hence the reason 
for the ac transformer. 

Programming Operation 

To program with the unit, you must 
have a blank EPROM. To verify that your 
EPROM is blank simply read all the ad- 
dress locations and make sure their data 
is 0FFH or 255 decimal. If your EPROM is 
not completely blank you must erase it 
with an ultraviolet light. The lamp source 
should have a rating of 2537A (spectrum 
frequency) and deliver a dosage of at least 
12000uW/cm 2 . Using a source like this 
takes about 12-20 minutes to completely 
erase the EPROM. 

This method requires that you either 
have access to such a light or you buy 
one. These light sources are fairly expen- 
sive and hard to justify if you are not going 
to use it much. As an alternative I bought a 
light that is normally used for checking 
stamps. The lamp has two filters for differ- 
ent spectrums of the ultraviolet range. To 
use this lamp, remove the filters and the 
filter holder to expose the bulb. Place the 
EPROMs about 1/2 inch below the bulb 



68 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



w& 



mgmm 










W$K 



Computer experts 
(the pros) usually have big 
computer experience. 
That's why when they shop 
system software for Z80 
micros, they look for 
the big system features 
they're used to. And that's 
why they like Multi-User 
OASIS. You will too. 



DATA INTEGRITY: FILE & 
AUTOMATIC RECORD LOCKING 



The biggest challenge 
for any multi-user system 

is co-ordinating requests 
from several usei 

to change the.sartte-ree©rd 
at 



Without this control, 
unauthorized users could 
access your programs and 
data and do what they like. 
A frightening prospect 
isn't it? 

And multi-users 
can multiply the problem. 

But with the Lo< 
Password am 



memory is needed. Even 
if you have more than 64K, 
your pay-off is cost savij 
and more efficient use 



OASIS IS AVAILABLE FOR 

SYSTEMS: Altos; CompucorpiCromemco^ 

Delta Products: Digital Group; DigitaL 

Microsystems; Dynabyte: G odbou t; 

Index; Intersystems; I 

SD Systems: ' 

Graphic: Vorirt 




/ a.- tiles e, pr dbfe m s . 

'or example: normally 

jsers can view a 
particular record at the 
same time. But, if that 
record is being updated 
by one user, automatic 
record locking will ceny a! 
other users access to the 
record until the up-date is 
completed. So records 
are always accurate, 
up-to-date and integrity 
is assured. 

Pros demand file & 
automatic record locking. 
OASIS has it. 



;eep,a,nrsrory 
ser rias been 
■n, when and 
r how long. 
Pros insist on these 
•.cosrity features. 
OASIS has them. 



EFFICIENCY: 
RE-ENTRANT BASIC 



upports 
inals 
inWs little as 
ry. Or, with 
nk switching, as much 
s 784K. 

ulti-Tasking lets each 
user run more than one 
job at the same time. 

And there's our BASIC- 
a compiler, interpreter and 
debugger all in one. 
An OASIS exclusive. 

Still more: Editor; Hard 
& Floppy Disk Support; 
Keyed (ISAM), Direct & 
Sequential Files; Mail-Box; 



SYSTEM SECURITY: 
LOGON, PASSWORD 
& USER ACCOUNTING 



Controlling who gets on 
your system and what they 
do once they're on it is the 

essence of system security. 



A multi-user system 
is o'ten not even practical 
on computers limited 
to 64K memory. 

OASIS Re-entrant 
BASIC makes it practical. 

How? 

Because all users use a 
single run-time BASIC 
module, to execute their 
compiled programs, less 



Scheduler; Spooler; 
all from OASIS. 

Our documentation is 
recognized as some of the 

best, most extensive, in the 
industry. And, of course, 
there's plenty of 
application software. 

Put it all together and it's 
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pros like OASIS. Join them. 
Send your order today. 




OPERATING SYSTEM 

(Includes: 
EXEC Language; 
File Management; 
User Accounting: 
Device Dtivers; 
Print Spooler; 
General Text 
Editor, etc.) 
SINGLE-USER 
MULTI-USER 



RE-ENTRANT BASIC 

COMPILER/INTERPRETER/ 

DEBUGGER 



DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE 

(Macro Assembler; 
Linkage Editor: 

Derjjgge-) 



DIAGNOSTIC & 
CONVERSION UTILITIES 

(Memory Test; 

Assembly Language: 

Converters: File 

Recovery; Disk Test; 

File Copy Irom 

other OS: etc.) 



COMMUNICATIONS 
PACKAGE 

(Terminal Emulator; 
File Send & Receive) 



PACKAGE PRICE 

(All ol Above) 

SINGLE-USER 

MULTI-USER 



FILE SORT 



COBOL-ANSI '74 



60 CO 



Order OASIS from: 

Phase One Systems, Inc. 

7700 Edgewater Drive, Suite 830 

Oakland, CA 94621 

Telephone (415) 562-8085 
TWX 910-366-7139 

NAME 



STREET (NO BOX 


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MAKES MICROS RUN LIKE MINIS 



SO REVIEWS 



and turn it on. It should take about 12 
minutes to erase the EPROM (which will 
get very warm, so allow it to cool before 
using it). The light source emits a light 
blue light; do not look at it. 

Once the EPROM is blank you have to 
enter the information you want to transfer 
into memory. The software listings will 
not load a program into that location for 
you. You will have to use a machine-lan- 
guage monitor or devise some other 
method of loading the program at 7000H 



(starting address for data transfer). 

Connect the unit to your computer. 
Place the switches in the proper positions 
and run the program. The software pro- 
grams the EPROM and verifies it for you in 
about 300 seconds. If during the verifica- 
tion process you obtain an error all you 
can do is erase the EPROM and try again. 
If errors are still present you may have a 
bad EPROM. 

You should place an adhesive label over 
the window on the EPROM once it is pro- 



grammed. This protects the chip from ac- 
cidental erasure and you can label it for 
reference. 

I have used the programmer for about 
three months and it has operated without 
fail. This excellent device needs a better 
software support program. It should have 
been written in machine language and in- 
cluded the options mentioned in the ad- 
vertisement. This EPROM programmer is 
ideal for anyone who wants to program 
his EPROMs at a low cost.B 



SDS80C Editor/Assembler/Monitor 

The Micro Works 

P.O. Box 1110 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Color Computer, 16K 

$89.95 

by Howard Berenbon 

Anyone interested in developing soft- 
ware for a 6809-based microcomput- 
er system will be interested in The Micro 
Works editor/assembler/monitor pack- 
age—the SDS80C. Its price includes the 
software on a ROM pack cartridge, a com- 
pletely documented 41-page manual, and 
an MC6809-MC6809E eight-bit micropro- 
cessor reference card. 

This is an outstanding program pack- 
age for anyone interested in using a Color 
Computer for software development. The 
Micro Works people have realized the 
value of the Color Computer as an inex- 
pensive tool for the programmer. 

The Editor 

The Editor is screen oriented. What ap- 
pears on the display is what is in the text 
buffer. Editor constantly displays the 
amount of RAM left in the buffer, in 
decimal, at the top right corner of the 
screen. This number reduces as you enter 
text. Since the program is located at hex 
address C000 in ROM, most of the RAM 
memory is available for use by the text 
buffer. 

The Commands 

In order to enter a program for assem- 
bly into the text buffer, type L to enter the 
insert-line mode, next enter the program 
listing. Here is a sample program entered 
to test the editor function: 

NAM CLEAR 
START LDX #$800 START ADDR 

LDA #$00 LOAD 
UP STA 0,X STORE INDEXED 

INX INCREMENT 

CMPX #$900 END ADDR? 

BNEUP BRANCH NOT = 

SWI SOFTWARE INTERRUPT 

END 



This program clears memory by placing 
zeros in each byte, beginning with the hex 
address 0800 and ending with 0900. 

Labels are typed in starting with space 
one on each line, as with START in line 
two and UP in line four of the above pro- 
gram text. After entering a label, entering 
a space moves the cursor to the eighth 
column on your screen, where mnemonics 
are entered. If no label is required on a 
line, just type a space. The program 
moves the cursor to the mnemonic field. 
After entering the instruction, you may 
enter a comment after entering a space. 
Pressing Enter moves you to the next line. 

To get back to the Command mode, 
type Break. Once you're in this mode, you 
have the use of the single-key entry op- 
tions. A particularly useful feature of 
editor is the find-string functions. They 
allow searching through your text buffer, 
finding a desired string, and changing it. 
Other useful features are the move-the- 
block-of-text and the copy-block-of-text 
functions. They save editing time when 
moving a block of program text to another 
area in your buffer. 

Additional features include writing a 
file to cassette and reading a file from 
cassette. Finally, if you must reset the 
machine for one reason or another, you 
may recover your file after reset by enter- 
ing an & sign. 

The Assembler 

The Assembler accepts source state- 
ments in standard 6809 Assembly lan- 
guage and produces object code to tape 
or memory. It expects the source 
statements to be in memory in the format 
used by the Editor. Also, it can produce a 
listing of the source and object code to 
the screen or to a printer. The Assembler 
is entered by calling it from the Editor. 

The manual does not go into great de- 
tail when it comes to 6809 Assembly- 
language programming. It assumes that 
the user is familiar with the language. 
Some of its features and options are: sup- 
port of 6800 instructions for cross assem- 
bly, local labels, conditional assembly, 



and pause/break/speed control of listings. 
The assembler is accessed from the 
editor by entering an @ sign, then any of 
the options for assembly, in any order: 

L Produce listing 
S Produce a sorted symbol table 
M Generate object code to memory 
T Generate an object cassette tape 
! Start listing in single-step mode 

3 Send output to 32-column printer 

4 Send output to 40-column printer 
8 Send output to 80-column printer 
= Do not assemble; go to ABUG 

For samples of the program text assem- 
bled, type @ LM and press Enter when in 
the Editor. This accesses the Assembler 
and first produces a listing on your screen 
and then generates object code to 
memory. The following is displayed: 

0001 066D 

NAM CLEAR 

0002 066D 8E0800 

START LDX #$800 START ADDR 

0003 0670 8600 

LDA #$00 LOAD 

0004 0672 A784 

UP STA 0,X STORE INDEXED 

0005 0674 30001 

INX INCREMENT 

0006 0676 8C0900 

CMPX #$900 END ADDR? 

0007 0679 26F7 

BNEUP BRANCH NOT = 

0008 067 B 3F 

SWI SOFTWARE INTERRUPT 

0009 062C 

END 
ABUG: 

The ABUG Monitor 

ABUG is the monitor program that over- 
sees the execution of programs during de- 
bugging. It is entered from the Editor by 
typing @ = and pressing Enter. It may 
also be entered from the Assembler after 
an object program has been written to 
memory. 

In the above example, after the object 
code was written to memory, the display 
printed: ABUG: Now ABUG is in control. 
You may run the program by entering a G. 
After entering G, the program executes 
and the 6809 registers are displayed. This 



70 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



is caused by the SWI instruction and com- 
mand returns to ABUG. You can verify the 
program has zeroed memory between 
0800 and 0900 by typing M to examine 
memory, and 0800 to display eight bytes 
of memory. 

The cursor may be moved up, down, left 
or right with the arrow keys to display the 
contents of the computer's memory. Hex 
data may be entered or changed in this 
mode. Examining the memory from 0800 
to 0900, by pressing the down-arrow key, 
verifies that all memory in that area has 



m 


( 




S 


) 




nForp 


5™ 


o 



Edit 

Southern Software 

Allen Gelder Software 

Box 11721 Main Post office 

San Francisco, CA 94101 

Models I & III 

$40 

by Tim Knight 



When I first received Scripsit from 
Radio Shack and began learning 
how to use it, I wished that the same easy 
editing capabilities in Scripsit were possi- 
ble with my Basic programs. Things such 
as cursor control, scrolling, and global 
find and replace were so neat to have, but 
were unavailable on the Model III. Well, my 
troubles and the problems of many pro- 
grammers are over now that Edit is avail- 
able in the United States. 

Edit was published originally by South- 
ern Software in England, and I ordered it 
through Allen Gelder Software in San 
Francisco. It will work on almost any 
TRS-80 computer system. 

From the moment I loaded Edit, I 
couldn't believe my eyes. I can now con- 
trol what my programs look like, and I 
plan to use Edit whenever I write a new 
program. 

Of course, the Edit command is avail- 
able in Level II Basic, but the Edit program 
is much more. After loading this machine- 
language program, the computer returns 
to a normal Ready prompt. I may go ahead 
and work with any program just as I al- 
ways would, except that if I want to ini- 



been zeroed. 

The object code may be saved to cas- 
sette by entering an S, the beginning ad- 
dress, the ending address, the starting ad- 
dress, and the file name. The tape can be 
loaded from Basic using CLOADM, and 
run by typing EXEC and pressing Enter. It 
may be loaded from ABUG by L and the 
file name. (During assembly you may gen- 
erate an object cassette, so it may or may 
not be necessary to save a program while 
in ABUG.) To return to the Editor, type an 
asterisk. 



tialize the Edit program, I type in System 
and the starting address of the program 
(specified before loading it). Suddenly, the 
edges of the screen are bordered, and my 
program is listed within. The last line, as in 
Scripsit, is reserved for commands. 

The Commands 

The cursor is mounted on the first char- 
acter of the first line. By pressing any of 
the arrow keys, the cursor moves in the 
corresponding direction. If an arrow key is 
held down, the cursor moves rapidly 
across the screen. 

There are also special keys available in 
the Edit mode. Hitting Break enters you in- 
to the special command mode, while a 
second Break returns you to Basic. Enter 
completes all operations made, while 
Clear erases all operations made after the 
Enter key was last pressed. Oddly enough, 
the"®" sign is the control key, just as it is 
in Scripsit. 

The keypad is very important in Edit, 
too. Pressing "@" and another numberto- 
gether completes functions such as cur- 
sor motions, deleting, inserting, and so 
on. The alphabetic keys are also vital 
since the majority of the commands are 
achieved by pressing the "@" control 
key along with a letter. Line commands 
are easy to perform, with commands for 
functions such as delete line, insert line, 
split line into two lines, or join two lines 
into one. 

One of the features I have found only in 
Edit is the replicate function. This makes 
anew line identical to the one the cursor is 
on. The replicating can be handy for 
things such as repetitive data statements. 
There are even commands to move or po- 
sition lines. 

Block functions are available, also. In 
case you don't know, a "block" is a group 
of program lines (such as lines 100 
through 210). Blocks may also be manipu- 
lated in various ways, which is great for 
large programs. 

Of course, one of the programmer's 



The manual contains some useful infor- 
mation including programming hints and 
techniques. Appendix 2 contains informa- 
tion on the Basic ROM entry points, with 
some of the more useful subroutine calls 
listed. Appendix 3 contains information 
and programs on timing loops, and appen- 
dix 4 contains information on interfacing 
a printer to the Color Computer. 

The Software Development System 
SDS80C is quite a useful software 
package. ■ 



"From the moment I 

loaded Edit I couldn't 

believe my eyes. " 



worst enemies is the dreaded bug. A bug 
is a problem in the program, causing the 
program to crash, not work, or the entire 
system to explode into radioactive frag- 
ments. The "Global Search and Find" fea- 
ture with the Edit program can track down 
and exterminate bugs quickly and effec- 
tively. By pressing Break (special com- 
mand) and typing G or F followed by what- 
ever you are looking for, the cursor goes 
to it. The F key stands for Find, whiletheG 
key stands for Global search and replace. 
For example, if I remember that there was 
a part in my program that didn't work, be- 
cause of some typographical error like 
"FOR 1 = 1 TO 1000: NEXXT" (NEXXT 
should be NEXT), I would hit Break while 
using Edit, and type in the special com- 
mand G NEXXT NEXT. Doing this, the 
NEXXT would change to a proper NEXT, 
eliminating the bug. You must admit, 
it is a lot easier than searching through 
the program, and then executing all of the 
regular editing functions to remove that 
extra X. 

Should I Buy It? 

If you are a programmer looking for an 
easier editing mode, the Edit is right for 
you. If you have used Scripsit before, 
Edits' commands are almost identical to 
Scripsit and you should have no problem 
at all. On the other hand, even if you have 
never worked with a computer before, the 
thorough documentation will teach you 
how to use this utility quite effectively. So, 
to answer the question "Should I buy it?," 
my answer is an emphatic "Yes!"B 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 71 







M—t 




A whole new generation of Epson MX printers 
has just arrived. And while they share the family 
traits that made Epson famous — like unequalled 
reliability and ultra-fine printing — they've got a 
lot more of what it takes to be a legend. 

For instance, they've got a few extra type styles. 
Sixty-six, to be exact, including italics, a handy 
subscript and superscript for scientific notation, 
and enough international symbols to print most 
Western languages. 



What's more, on the new-generation MX-80, 
MX-80 F/T and MX-100, you get GRAFTRAX- 
Plus dot addressable graphics. Standard. So now 
you can have precision to rival plotters in a reli- 
able Epson printer. Not to mention true back- 
space, software printer reset, and programmable 
form length, horizontal tab and right margin. 

All in all, they've got the features that make 
them destined for stardom. But the best part is 
that beneath this software bonanza beats the 



72 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



heart of an Epson. So you still get a bidirectional, 
logical seeking, disposable print head, crisp, 
clean, correspondence quality printing, and the 
kind of reliability that has made Epson the best- 
selling printers in the world. 

All of which should come as no surprise, espe- 
cially when you look at the family tree. After all, 
Epson invented digital printers almost seventeen 
years ago for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. We were 



the first to make printers as reliable as the family 
stereo. And we introduced the computer world 
to correspondence quality printing and dispos- 
able print heads. And now we've given birth to 
the finest printers for small computers on the 
market. 

What's next? Wait and 
see. We're already 
expecting. 



■^97 



EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 







3415 Ka 


shiwa Street • 


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FEATURE 


ORIGINAL 

MX-80 


GRAFTRAX-80* 


ORIGINAL 

MX-100 


MX-80 MX-80 F/T MX-100 
with GRAFTRAX-I'lus 


Bidirectional printing 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Logical seeking function 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Disposable print head 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Speed: 80 CPS 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Matrix: 9x9 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Selectable paper feed 






X 




X 


X 


PAPER HANDLING FUNCTIONS 


Line spacing to n/216 




X 




X 


X 


X 


Programmable form length 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Programmable horizontal tabs 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Skip over perforation 






X 


X 


X 


X 


PRINT MODES AND CHARACTER FONTS 


% ASCII characters 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Italics character font 




X 




X 


X 


X 


Special international symbols 








X 


X 


X 


Normal, Emphasized, Double-Strike 
and Double/Emphasized print modes 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Subscript/Superscript print mode 








X 


X 


X 


Underline mode 








X 


X 


X 


10 CPI 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


5 CPI 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


17.16 CPI 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


8 58 CPI 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


DOT GRAPHICS MODE 


Line drawing graphics 








X 


X 


X 


Bit image 60 D.P.I. 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Bit image 120 D.P.I. 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


CONTROL FUNCTIONS 


Software printer reset 




X 




X 


X 


X 


Adjustable right margin 






X 


X 


X 


X 


True back space 




X 




X 


X 


X 


INTERFACES 


Standard — Centronics-style 8-bit parallel 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Optional - RS-232C current loop w/2K buffer 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


RS-232C x-on/x-off w/2K buffer 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


IF.F.E-488 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



•Tandy TRS-80 block graphics only available with GRAFTRAX 8 

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r»tuvHMBCfff FBHIJKLKHOPQRSTUVMXMbcdtfghijkl mno pqr it uv»* 9 123*367 



• See List ot Advertisers on page 386 



1 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 73 



by Jake Commander 



"There I was resting on my laurels. . . 
when suddenly it's time to write my column again." 



Ring. . .Ring. . .Ring. . .Click! 
"Hello, Jake here. . .Column, col- 
umn. What column? OH THAT column— 
oh yes... Urgent you say... Ready by 
when? You kidding or what? I only just 
finished the last one! ... OK it'll be ready 
by yesterday." 

Click. Silence. Dull uninspiring si- 
lence. Good grief! What happened? 
There I was resting on my laurels, think- 
ing how easy it is to write a magazine col- 
umn, when suddenly it's time to write my 
column again. And I've got to do this 
every month? I think I'll just wait here in 
front of the word processor until some 
revelation drops out of the sky. After all, 
I'm never short of ideas for programs, so 
why should mere words be a problem? 
Hmmm... still nothing. Where are all 
those thousands of ideas I had when I 
volunteered for this project? How do all 
those other authors do it? 

I'm starting to feel terribly guilty about 
all those manuscripts I've read for 80 Mi- 
cro and rejected. Think of all the time and 
effort that's been put into those articles 
only to be rewarded with a not-today- 
thank-you-note. It's all my fault too. Of all 
the things I do for the Wayne Green pub- 
lishing corporation, that's one of the 
most important. Reading and selecting 
articles for the magazine has a profound 
effect on the end result, so it's an awe- 
some responsibility. Now it's my turn to 
be on the keyboard end of things and feel 
the "blank paper" syndrome that has 
faced many an author whose work I've 
ploughed through until the early hours of 
the morning. 

Why would potential authors put them- 
selves through that mill? It must be the 
lure of fame and fortune, or maybe the 
desire to share the latest programming ef- 
fort. You get a really great idea for an arti- 
cle describing your best ever program- 
ming solution. You're sure it is going to 
turn the whole world on its head. You 
squirm in your chair playing at "engineer- 
ing with words" until a semblance of an 
article evolves. A paragraph added here, a 
sentence deleted there; and it's still too 
short. Rewrite the conclusion, rephrase 
the introduction; it's enough to drive you 
out of your tree. 



Eventually your masterpiece is ready to 
present to the unsuspecting public, so 
you cram it into the smallest envelope you 
can possibly stuff the paper into and send 
it to 80 Micro to let fate take its course. 
Fate, in this instance, is me. Not that I re- 
ject a particularly horrendous amount of 
unsolicited material. It's just that while 
I'm sitting here still waiting for some di- 
vine inspiration, I feel awfully bad for all 
the aspiring authors I may have nipped in 
the bud. Don't give up! What are all the 
things that can put off the guy dealing 
with all those submissions? Well I sup- 
pose I'm in an excellent position to tell 
you; and there's a lot to tell. 

Bear in mind that I can only tell you 
what I think on a personal level, since no 
matter how objective I try to be, I'm bound 
to show a bias. Neither do I purport to be 
an expert author who thinks he knows 
best; but I do know when a manuscript 
has been enjoyable reading and have 
some feel as to how that relates to our au- 
dience which now runs in excess of 
110,000 readers. And I'm not without a 
degree of compassion. I too have suffered 
the anonymous rejection slips from unap- 
preciative publishers; I'm especially proud 
of my rejections from Apple Corps— the 
past music publishing empire of the Very 
Beatles Themselves. Nevertheless I may 
be able to purge my conscience as 
regards those rejected articles. 

Considering the sweat involved in cre- 
ating an article (especially the longer 
ones), it's no wonder some people are an- 
noyed at a rejection; we've even had a cou- 
ple of disgruntled writers threaten to can- 
cel their subscriptions. One guy wrote and 
told me he'd analyzed the adhesive tape 
on the program cassette he'd sent and 
had come to the conclusion that we 
hadn't tried his program; ergo, we hadn't 
given his offering a fair crack of the whip. 
All that did was cause me to unseal every 
cassette box, juggle the tape around, 
leave a few fingerprints, get some dirt on 
the cassette case— and then reject the ar- 
ticle anyway. If you were confronted with 
an article which started, "I am an expurt 
on Proggraming," and became progres- 
sively worse and included sundry inaccur- 



acies, would you run the "Proggram" to 
give the "expurt" the benefit of the doubt? 
No. I'll tell you what you'd do; you'd unseal 
the cassette box, juggle the tape 
around. . . 

Of course I'm going from the sublime to 
the ridiculous to make my point. Even if 
the six thousandth home-budgeting pro- 
gram is well written, it may be such over- 
worked material that the cassette remains 
untouched anyway. So there's an impor- 
tant point: If what you have to say has 
been said a thousand times before, then 
why bother to say it again? Keep the ideas 
coming, but keep them new. The world of 
microcomputing as seen through the eyes 
of a TRS-80 user is so multifarious that 
there's no excuse for repetition. I'll repeat 
that. There's no excuse for repetition. One 
garden variety of personal financing pro- 
gram a year is more than enough, thank 
you. 

If you're serious about writing for 80 Mi- 
cro, you should get a copy of our authors' 
guidelines. This leaflet tells you all sorts 
of sensible facts about writing in general 
and how to submit your manuscript. If 
you're unsure whether your article will be 
novel enough to warrant careful consider- 
ation, write in beforehand with an outline. 
This may save hours of toil and "blank pa- 
per blues" like I'm now suffering. Novice 
authors sometimes ignore or misunder- 
stand some obvious facts in the authors' 
guidelines. These are the most important: 
Manuscripts must be in upper and lower 
case. Editors and typesetters cannot work 
with copy which is all uppercase as print- 
ed on old teletype machines. The manu- 
scripts also must be double spaced, 
which (in case you don't know) means that 
every line has to have a blank line below it. 
This is another must for editing purposes. 
And editing is something which will hap- 
pen to your work, so don't get bent out of 
shape when you get authors' proofs con- 
taining all manner of alterations. This is 
done by a staff of professionals to ensure 
the magazine has a consistent style, so 
when you get your proofs, check them for 
accuracy and make any comments you 
have regarding the editing— that's what 
they're for. 



74 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



r 




R 

12 Intergraded Account Receivable Programs 
Tested In Service For Over 3 Years 

User's Comments: • menu driven* increased cash flow* saved over 50 hours a month in secretarial hours* almost completely 
eliminated billing errors • phone supported-ask for Ron. 

LYNN'S A/R SYSTEM WILL 



• print invoices 

• tell you your a/r total, number of invoices outstanding, 
average per invoice 

• tell you at any time how many invoices an individual 
account has open, the total amount owed, the average per 
invoice, the invoice date, and then invoice amount 

• total sales on account for a given month, number of invoices 
sent, average sale per invoice 

• how much an account purchased during month, how many 
invoices were sent, average invoice for month 



Aging Report 01/31 /82 Page 1 



• tell you what percent of sales an account is to total sales 
by month 

• tell you what percent of a/r an account is 

• print mailing labels for your accounts 

• print statements at any time you want them (either individual 
or all accounts) 

• print alphabetical hardcopy of accounts and account numbers 

• print all items sold for month 

• alphabetical sort of items sold by month 

• this set of programs can be custom modified by you or us 

• AND MUCH MORE!! 



Account 


Current 


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60-90 Days 


90+ Days 


Total 


ABC Inc. 


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$ 65.20 


$ 00.00 


$00 00 


$314.20 


Old Co. Inc. 


00.00 


84.40 


165.20 


0000 


249 60 


New Co. Inc. 


97.75 


00.00 


00.00 


00.00 


97.75 


Deadbeat Inc. 


00.00 


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00.00 


345.00 


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Totals 


$346.75 


$149.60 


165.20 


345.00 


$ 1 ,006.55 



Aging reports can be compiled on a daily, weekly or monthly bases. 

\IN'S CHECKBOOK-rD 
LEDGER SYSTEM 

•Phone Supported Ask For Ron* 

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hardcopy of field totals both by month, year to date and end 
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entry • will print hardcopy of checkbook register • debit and 
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perfect tool for storing and maintaining mailing list, 
inventories, menus, collection records, article references, 
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easy to interface to word processors and communication 
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Account Receivable Aging Report 
Checkbook Ledger System 
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Equipment Needed: 48K Model 
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The above programs will workonTRSDOS 1 .2 and 
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^See List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 75 



As regards programs, send both a hard 
copy listing and a magnetic media version 
(preferably disk). The hard copy allows us 
to ascertain the quality of the program- 
ming at the time the article is reviewed 
and gives us a cross check to ensure we 
have an accurate load of what you sent. 
The disk or tape allows us to run the pro- 
gram and to make a camera-ready print- 
out using our own 80 Micro style. If you're 
a disk user, we'll love you even more if you 
send us a duplicate copy of the article on 
disk. This enables us to use the latest edit- 
ing and typesetting techniques with the 
articles we accept. Nevertheless, we still 
need a printout of the article for review, so 
don't exclude it in favor of a tape or disk. A 
disk can be difficult to read at one thirty in 
the morning under the light of a table lamp 
and besides, I don't have 20/20 magnetic 
vision. Not only that, but if we had to run 
off a hard copy of every article submitted, 
we'd never have time to read any. Which 
leads me to another thing. 

We sometimes get comments com- 
plaining about the anonymity of a rejec- 



tion. Unfortunately, this is something 
that's fairly standard in the publishing in- 
dustry, whether it be software, the written 
word, music or whatever. Any noteworthy 
publishing organization has to provide the 
courtesy of as fast a turnaround as possi- 
ble and if every rejection (or acceptance 
for that matter) were accompanied by a 
critique of the work, it would take four 
times longer to process manuscripts. "So 
employ more people," you say. Are you 
prepared to pay more for the magazine to 
pay the extra salaries? 

However, in some cases when an au- 
thor has a hot idea but has executed it 
poorly we may give some direction to get a 
second chance at the idea. All this talk of 
rejections is depressing me— and all be- 
cause I can't think of a topic for this 
month's column. Suffice it to say that hun- 
dreds of authors have received the happy 
news that we want to publish their stuff. It 
does give you a sense of pride and accom- 
plishment to see your creation appear in 
print. And just think: people will read it in 
England, Australia, and even California. 



Evervone knows that each copy of the 
magazine in California is seen by four peo- 
ple; one to read it, and three to share the 
experience. (Sorry, I just couldn't resist it.) 
Someone even sent us a photo of himself 
reading SO Micro on the beach in St. Tro- 
pez in the South of France. People actual- 
ly appear to prefer it to sunbathing. So 
now's the time to sharpen the electric pen- 
cil or load your favorite word processor 
and convince the world about your new 
applications, methods, theories or what- 
ever you think is interesting. 

Ah! The creative juices are beginning to 
flow. Now I'm getting a good idea for this 
month's column. How about if I cov- 
ered . . . What? You mean I got this far al- 
ready? But I only just started. I wanted to 
tell people about this genealogy package 
for the Model II, and what about that Mod- 
el II Star Trek program? Great! I finally get 
the idea for the column and now it has to 
wait until next month. Maybe I should ac- 
cept a few articles to make myself feel 
better. ■ 




A completely refurbished 

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76 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



The saga continues* As a tone Warrior 



fflPP 



by Randatt Don Masietter 

dare to enter the KAIV in quest of an exquisite 



orrery. And you must defend yourself against the scores of hideous creatures that seek to make you 
just another heap of bones in a (onefy corner of . . .the KAIV. 




*^^i 



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NXferriors of RAS is a role-playing series, written in machine language, with graphics. Games can be saved, as well as 
the characters you become. Characters may be used interchangeably between volumes 1 , 2 & 3. 



MODEL I OR 111,48k 



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- Disk Album $29.95 
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liable July 15. 




KifC 




by David Busch 




In a stunning move likely to rock the 
microcomputing industry to its founda- 
tion, Kitchen Table Inc. has introduced a 
line of Mega Upgrades for the TLS-8E/ 
TRS-80 family of computers. These modi- 
fications are simple plug-in devices which 
literally turn any S80 computer into an en- 
tirely different machine. 

The new products were unveiled at the 
1982 Portage County (Ohio) Home Appli- 
ance Faire. Kitchen Table Inc. has chosen 
this forum for important new product in- 
troductions two years in a row. The ficti- 
tious company has found that as the only 
computer-related exhibitor, there is little 
risk of being upstaged by the competition. 

I found the new Mega ROM to be the 
most interesting item. To install this inno- 
vative item, the usersimply pries loosethe 
Level II ROM in a TRS-80, or the Level XXIII 
ROM in the TLS-8E, and substitutes the 
Mega ROM in the sockets. The new chip 
causes the S80 computer to emulate one 
of a variety of other machines, depending 
on the ROM selected. I chose the IBM 370/ 
145 Mega ROM. 

I'll admit that gaining the equivalent of 
an iBM 370 mainframe for the $49.95 ROM 
price appears to be an overwhelming bar- 
gain on the surface, but there are some 
hidden drawbacks. 

• NEWDOS80 and Drossdos 8E are not 
compatible with the Mega ROM's. Kitchen 
Table Inc. supplies a low-cost substitute 
with the new system, DOS/VSE. Although 
it lacks many of Drossdos 8E's features, it 
does have a nice Power spooler. This utili- 
ty allowed me to leave my computer oper- 



ating during my vacation, while it printed 
out 43,000 pages of text I had gotten a bit 
behind on. 

• When used with the stock Z80 or 
Z79A microprocessors, the IBM 370 emu- 
lator is a bit slow. This is due to the slight- 
ly greater power of the 370 CPU when 
compared to the Z-series chips. The eight- 
bit microprocessor has to do a great deal 
of work to simulate the larger mainframe, 
and the bottom line is s-l-o-w operation. 
In benchmark testing, my TLS-370 re- 
quired 48 hours to generate six random 
numbers between zero and 10. Some 
prompts can take more than 30 minutes to 
be printed on the screen. Telecommunica- 
tion is possible at no more than one micro- 
baud. 

• There is no provision with the TLS- 
370 or TLS-4341 for cassette data files. 
While DOS/VSE allows tape storage, for 
some reason the proper commands make 
my CTR80A run at about 1000 RPM. 



"In benchmark testing 
my TLS-370 required 
48 hours to generate 

six random numbers." 



• The vaunted capability of being able 
to attach IBM plug-compatible peripher- 
als to a modified TLS-8E is not of much 
practical use. Kitchen Table Inc. supplies 
no cables, so you have to make up your 
own for the plugs to be compatible. 
Worse, the IBM peripherals are more ex- 
pensive than those already available for 
S80 computers. 

For example, it is probably a better idea 
for a satisfied TLS-8E user to stick with his 
current 100-character per second dot-ma- 
trix printer. Although an impressive 10,000 
lines per minute non-impact printer is 
available, this unit costs more than 
$300,000. Most home computerists and 
many small business operators will not be 



prepared to make that kind of outlay. 

With disk drives, the comparison is 
even more unfavorable. The IBM people 
haven't adapted the 5 1 /4-inch minifloppy 
disk to their 4300 line, even though that 
format has been widely accepted as the 
standard of the industry! Instead, their 
mainframes (and the converted TLS-370 or 
TLS-4341) use some ridiculous disk pack 
device that resembles a trash compactor 
with an acrylic birthday cake inside. 

Even more laughable, these peripherals 
are not very portable. Kitchen Table Inc. 
graciously offered to install the printer 
and two disk drives in my office to demon- 
strate the capabilities of the TLS-370. The 
printer alone took up most of the space in 
my living room. Imagine unhooking this 
gear and trying to take it to a user's group 
meeting! 

If you decide to go this route, I'd recom- 
mend installing one of the Mega Upgrade 
CPU modifications described below. It 
makes little sense to have a 10,000 lines 
per minute printer when your computer 
takes three weeks to fill up its buffer. 

Convert Your Computer to 16-Bit Power 

Many of these problems can be solved 
with another Kitchen Table upgrade, the 
Mega Chip. This modification effectively 
turns the TLS-8E into a 16-bit or 32-bit 
minicomputer. Kitchen Table Inc.'s solu- 
tion is ingenious. To convert the micro in- 
to a 16-bit computer, the user merely pig- 
gybacks an additional Z79A chip onto the 
one contained in the TLS-8E. The result: 
all 8-bit registers become 16-bit registers, 
and all two-byte registers can hold four 
bytes. Adding two more Z79A chips (this 
stack can be as much as three inches 
high) results in a 32-bit mini. An elegant 
idea— I wonder why no one thought of it 
sooner? 

A KTI spokesperson pointed out the 
new 16 or 32-bit processor has the same 
instructions available in the 8-bit Z79A. 
That is because the microprocessor al- 
ready includes more than 40 instructions 
(such as JIGGLE, PLOP, and GROK) which 
the designers didn't know how to use. 
Imaginative programmers may find an ap- 
plication for these instructions. 

The next KTI Mega Upgrade is the Mega 
CHAR, a character generator which in- 
cludes every known alphanumeric, graph- 



78 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Professional/Scientific 





Since introducing QWERTY 3.0 in September, people 
have been calling to ask if we were making 
ludicrous claims. The answer is NO! QWERTY 3.0 
does all we claim it does and more! No other 
software of this type can match QWERTY 3.0, 



«?■ S. 



2 2 

g i J i + y n 

2 2 

i=i x i ^ - f e z 

It is the best. Period. We guarantee you will 
agree! If for some reason you find that this 
program does not meet your needs, return the 
entire package within 14 days for a prompt and 
cheerful refund. 

(Actual QWERTY text above) 



II II. I MUMJMBBEC 



SOME FEATURES OF QWERTY 3.0 

1. Automatically prints in proportional print, with a suitable format. Transitions between 
the three print styles are easy including all expanded print modes. 2. QWERTY 3.0 adds 75 
new symbols, including upper and lower case Greek letters, mathematical symbols such as 
integrals and summations, arrows, brackets, and probability symbols. 3. Any character can 
be used as a subscript or superscript, even simultaneously. Carats, bars, and tildes can be 
placed over any character, with precise position control. 4. Underlining, with or without 
underlining of spaces, including long ratios and mathematical expressions. 5. FOOTNOTES 
can be placed on any page so that they remain on the desired page, even if text is inserted 
later. 6. TABLE commands enable positioning of the print head anywhere on a line. 
Invaluable in printing neat mathematical layouts, tables, columnar material, etc., in 
proportional print. 7. PRETTY commands allow printing of repetitions of a chosen 
character. When combined with TABLE, decorative borders can be produced with ease. 8. 
FOUO format produces output in two or three columns per page, in either proportional or 
16.7 cpi mode. Ideal for newsletters. 9. Supplies a third output mode, in which only 
SCRIPSrT commands are obeyed. Allows printing of special QWERTY commands for future 
reference. 10. PAGE END indicates where pages will end, and the page number, without 
printing the text. One can prepare an almost error-free document without ever using 
paper. 11. Correction of SCRIPSfT's errors and inconveniences, extensive documentation, 
and much more! 

QWERTY 3.0 requires a TRS-80 Model I or Model III, at least one disk drive, a copy of 
SCRIPSIT, and one of the printers specified below. When ordering, please specify which 
model computer, number of drives, and printer you use. For cautious buyers, we offer the 
manual (over 70 pages) for $1 0. When you decide to buy QWERTY, we will credit the full 
manual price. 

QWERTY 3.0 

(for Lineprinter IV, Centronics 737, or Centronics 739) complete package .... $74.95 

BUSY (for Radio Shack Daisy Wheel II) complete package $74.95 

QWERTY 3.0 Manual (specify printer) $10.00 



■H*5= 



Now available 

THE PROGRAM STORE 

in Washington, D.C •* 



mi 



m 




P.O. BOX 3558 CHAPEL HILL, NC 275 
TO ORDER, CALL 1-800-334-5470 




KITCHEN TABLE SOFTWA1 



ic, scientific or imaginary symbol. With 
this mod installed it is possible to write in 
Russian Cyrillic, Greek, Japanese, Chi- 
nese, Sri Lankan and Martian. Symbols 
are included for types of calculus that 
haven't even been invented yet. Tiny Pac- 
men, flying saucers, and other images are 
included for games programmers. All of 
these may be printed in reverse video, as 
well. 

Plastic key caps are supplied, each 
printed with all 73 characters that key can 
invoke. The printing was a little small and 
hard to read, but KTI also thoughtfully in- 
cluded an 11 x 14-inch sheet of acrylic 
plastic. This resembles the magnifiers 
used to enlarge fine text print for the far- 
sighted. Placed on a stand and suspend- 
ed above the keyboard, the magnifier can 
be viewed by the user while typing. It is un- 
likely even the most proficient touch typ- 
ist will learn the keyboard for 73 different 
character sets. 

Mega CHAR has two drawbacks. 

First, it requires 64K of memory. Al- 
though it is in ROM, the Z79A chip can ad- 
dress only 72 thousand memory loca- 
tions, so only 8K of RAM can be used for 
programs with the character generator in- 
stalled. I would have liked to see some 
sort of bank-switching technique used so 
only one character set is available at a 
time. I see little use for being able to mix 
the Pi symbol with a picture of Daffy Duck 
in the same program. 

Second, by an oversight, the standard 
English character set was not included. 
When the Mega CHAR is installed, the 
user has no way of invoking the normal al- 
phanumerics. A minor setback, however, 
if one happens to know Russian or Japan- 
ese—simply write programs or text in 
those languages. 

Another new product was the Mega 
OCR, which turns any line printer into an 
optical character reader through the ap- 
plication of the little-known Reverse 
LPRINT command. This mod requires re- 
placing the print head of your printer with 
an optical sensing device. The change- 
over can take as little as a few seconds if 
you own an Epson MX-series printer, or as 
long as two hours for a Kitchen Table 
printer. Removing the KTI printhead in- 
volves a blowtorch and a hacksaw, and is 
not recommended for the beginner. In- 
stead, take your printer to any muffler 
shop and have it do the job. 

Once the attachment is in place, simply 
feed a document into the printer, type RE- 
VERSE LPRINT (or REVERSE LLIST if it is 
a program listing). Your printer will now 
accept the document, reading each line 
and feeding it back to the computer. Be- 
cause of the high intensity ultraviolet 



light, the original printing is bleached out 
and removed from the paper. It is quite 
amusing to watch the user feed docu- 
ments into the printer, and remove blank 
sheets of paper from the other side. 

I wouldn't have believed this possible 
had not KTI graciously showed me a mo- 
tion picture of the system in use. (No pro- 
totypes were available for a hands-on 
demonstration.) I watched with awe as 
sheet after sheet of blank paper emerged 
from the printer, and carefully folded itself 
in the box behind. Kitchen Table Inc. had 
obviously assembled this demo film in 
haste, because I noticed it had been edit- 
ed rather sloppily. The opening titles read 
"The End." 

I was also unable to test Mega Mod PC, 
which is a color-conversion kit for the KTI 
Pockets Computer. Watch for an in-depth 
report on this product when it becomes 
readily available, or whenever I can figure 
out a useful application for this capability. 

Other Products Foisted on Consumers 

Some minor products were also intro- 
duced at the trade show, which was 
sparsely-attended due to its unfortunate 
scheduling on Easter Sunday. One deser- 
vedly-overlooked item in the Mega Up- 
grade line was a hardware modification 



". . . the trade show 

. . . was sparsely 
attended due to its 

unfortunate 

scheduling on Easter 

Sunday." 



that slows down the TLS-8E's clock speed 
to .1 megahertz. Once installed, the user 
can switch over to the slower speed by the 
command POKE 15360,256. Kitchen Table 
has dubbed the kit Slow POKE, and is mar- 
keting it as a way for inept Space Invaders 
players to finally win a game. 

Kitchen Table Inc. also showed ?Basic, 
which it describes as the first Basic Misin- 
terpreter (see 80 Micro, April 1982). The 
utility is designed for someone with a 
friend intolerably proficient at program- 
ming. ?Basic helps bring down haughty pro- 
grammers a peg by introducing bugs and 
syntax errors without their knowledge. It 
also scrambles (or removes) helpful Re- 
marks, changes variable names, and in- 
serts Parody Errors. 

When paired with Nonsense, a KTI-de- 



veloped language without keywords, syn- 
tax, or operators, and BASBOL, which 
combines the worst features of BASIC 
and COBOL, Kitchen Table has assem- 
bled quite an arsenal of unusual lan- 
guages. I've heard rumors from KTI 
PARQUE that several other high-level idi- 
oms are under development. These in- 
clude Crosstalk and LITHP. 

Kitchen Table is also reportedly work- 
ing on a massive state-of-the-art main- 
frame computer, to be called the 
KLUDGE-1. This new computer will rely 
heavily on what KTI calls "reverse engi- 
neering." The company originally applied 
the reverse engineering concept to the de- 
sign of its TLS-8E, when transistors and 
hard wiring were used in place of the 
"cheaper," less reliable integrated cir- 
cuits. 

With the development of the 
KLUDGE-1, this devolutionary trend has 
taken another step backward. Several pio- 
neering techniques are being considered, 
including an intricate application of vacu- 
um tubes in place of the transistors. 

A KTI spokesperson explained vacuum 
tubes have not been popular in recent 
years because of a shortage of vacuum. 
He blamed the shortfall on the increased 
consumption of vacuum in the engines of 
downsized American cars. In addition, the 
overthrow of the government in Hooveria, 
chief supplier of vacuum to the free world, 
has led to a volatile market for the strate- 
gic non-gas. 

However, Kitchen Table has filled the 
void in the supply lines, and located a reli- 
able Asian source for full-time vacuum 
tube production. 

Some of these products should be arriv- 
ing at your local computer store about the 
time this issue of 80 Micro hits the stands. 
I'd recommend making your purchases 
quickly, because Kitchen Table products 
never remain on the shelves long. Most 
are stocked for a week or two then 
shipped back.B 




80 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



i^££§^*4L' : iVi 



■ 



n you thought it was sale to go back to the keyboar 



^fciutHM* 




%3fl§§ 



PSm 



Hns 



ture continues. The graphics, wizardry of 
d the deadly imagination of William Denman 
have once again joined forces to produce a world of evil 
genius. Hordes of maddened army ants will pick your 
bones. Killer clowns will send you screaming. Clever 
guards will tax your ingenuity. And a hundred other 
confrontations with a nightmare world may leave you a 
babbling idiot. 

Graphics are instantaneous and three-dimensional. 
The building has over 1500 locations. Full English sen- 
tences may be entered, with comprehension surpassing 
the legendary Asylum I. 



, lum I in order to master 
Asylum II. You will need cunning and stealth to survive 
this newest world of insanity. 

The industry greeted Asylum I with one word. Incred- 
ible. For Asylum II, only one word is required . . . 

awesome! ^,.# : :^^3 : ^£^ 

TRS-80 Model I/Model III / Tape: B 19.95/Disk: 822.95 



P.O. BOX 3558, CHAPEL HILL, NC 27514 
TO ORDER, CALL: 1-800-334-5470 ^83 






GENERAL 



From the man who wrote the book on it. 




ta Co- 





Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 
P.O. Box 691 
Herndon, VA 22070 



Ever wonder what modems and message 
systems are all about? In this article, Frank 
Derfler, "Dial-Up Directory" columnist for 
Microcomputing magazine, presents an in- 
troduction to data communications. If you 
are interested in more information, Frank's 



latest book, TRS-80 Data Communications, 
is being released by Prentice-Hall books 
this summer. — Eds. 

When 80 Micro asked me to write an 
article introducing computer commu- 
nications, I considered several approaches. 
I thought about telling you of the new and 
exciting technologies and careers that are 
springing out of the marriage of communi- 
cations and computers. This kind of ap- 
proach would allow me to throw around 
words like Telematics, Compunications, 




Photo 1. The Lynx is a versatile and proven bus-decoding modem which operates with ei- 
ther the Model I or Model III. When used with a Model III, the address of the modem can be 
easily changed so it can be used in addition to or instead of an RS-232C port. If the standard 
port address is used, the Lynx operates with all types of TRS-80 terminal software. The 
Lynx provides complete auto-dial and auto-answer capabilities. It sells for about $300 with 
terminal and host software. The Lynx is available from computer stores and retailers. 

82 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



and many others which have only been 
coined in the last two years. 

I also thought about dealing with the fun- 
damentals of communications: signaling, 
data alphabets, and data transfer. We could 
investigate ASCII, EBCDIC, RS-232C and 
handshaking protocols. 

Finally, however, I had a blinding flash of 
insight (provided by a phone call from the 
editor) which told me to keep it simple. This 
article will describe the reasons why you 
might want to give your TRS-80 a data com- 
munications capability and A?owyou can go 
about it. 

Why Communicate? 

There are two basic reasons why you 
would benefit from providing your TRS-80 
with a serial port, modem and communica- 
tions software: to exchange files and to re- 
ceive information and messages. 

I don't have to tell TRS-80 owners about 
the limitations of exchanging programs and 
files on cassette tape or floppy disk. Tapes 
require good recorder head alignment or 
some special equipment to ensure a reli- 
able information transfer. The various DOS 
packages and disk arrangements can cre- 
ate great confusion when disks are used to 
transfer information. 

There is one way to transfer programs 
and files that doesn't care what DOS you 
are using or even if you have a disk drive. 
Using a serial RS-232C port (or, as I'll de- 
scribe later, a bus-decoding modem) to ex- 
change data does away with disk, DOS and 
cassette compatibility problems. It also al- 
lows the transfer of data files (such as text 
files) between any other kind of computer 
and your TRS-80. 

The second reason for providing your 
TRS-80 with a communications capability is 
to allow you to receive information and ex- 
change messages over the information util- 



ities and electronic message systems avail- 
able around the nation. 

There are several information utilities 
available to private individuals. The three 
most common are The Source, Compu- 
Serve and the Dow Jones Information Ser- 
vice. The Source and CompuServe have very 
similar information features. These include 
the latest news stories from various wire 
services and media sources, discount shop- 
ping plans, stock prices and analysis, spe- 
cial interest newsletters, a real-time com- 
munications capability, and an electronic 
mail service. Both of these systems use 
mainframe computers to provide these ser- 
vices. Customers can also use the comput- 
ing power of these systems to run large pro- 
grams or to use computer languages not 
normally available on microcomputers. 

The customers connect into the comput- 
ers over data-communications carriers 
reached through their home telephones. A 



"Using a serial RS-232 port to exchange data 

does away with disk, DOS and 

cassette compatibility problems." 



major consideration when selecting one of 
these systems to subscribe to is the avail- 
ability of a communications carrier entry 
point within your local telephone calling 
area. The Source uses either Telenet or 
Tymnet to reach its customers. Compu- 
Serve uses its own carrier network or Tym- 
net. These carriers do not cover the same 
geographical areas. Many parts of the na- 
tion are not served at all. If there is no entry 
port within your local telephone call area, 
then the cost of a long-distance phone call 
must be added to the basic charge for the 
use of the information utility. This basic 
charge can run from $4.50 to $25 an hour 
(about $6 average) depending on the time of 
day and the way you enter the utility. 

Each of these systems has features and 
faults. CompuServe stresses a menu-driven 
approach which is friendly to the new or in- 
frequent user, but frustrating to the experi- 
enced user who wants to get to a service 



quickly. They have instituted a series of di- 
rect commands which improve the move- 
ment through the data bases for experi- 
enced users. The Source started with no 
menus. It stressed the direct command 
mode which provided great flexibility for ex- 
perienced users, but which could leave be- 
ginners faced with mysterious and frustrat- 
ing error messages. They have installed a 
menu system which is a big help to new 
users, but can be quickly bypassed when 
experience is gained. Both systems contin- 
ue to add features and to try new formats to 
improve their services. 

The Source and CompuServe offer stock 
quotes and various kinds of information. 
But if you have a special interest in invest- 
ments, you might consider the Dow Jones 
Information System. The service provides 
news from the Wall Street Journal, 
Barron's, and the Dow Jones News Service. 
It has several very nice functions including 





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see List of Advertisers on page 386 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 




83 



"The program download services allow users 
to withdraw programs from a library 
and capture them for their own use." 



a data base dating back to 1979 which can 
be searched by words, phrases or dates. 
This service is more expensive than The 
Source and CompuServe, but for certain 
persons it is a good investment. 

If you are interested in subscribing to one 
of these information utilities, check the list 
of manufacturers and suppliers for their ad- 
dress and phone number. Be sure to get the 
details about gaining access from your lo- 
cal area. 

Electronic Message Systems 

You may have heard a bewildering bliz- 
zard of buzzwords associated with micro- 
computer communications such as CBBS, 
ABBS, Forum 80, Connection 80 and the 
like. These names all refer to electronic 
message systems which are run by private 
clubs and individuals and are usually avail- 
able to all callers with no charge. At last 
count, there were nearly 300 of these sys- 
tems available throughout the United 



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DEALERS: INQUIRIES WELCOME 

For dealer nearest you. write ICROM Enter- 
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* Tandy Corp Trademark 

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States and Canada and about six in Europe. 

The first successful electronic message 
system in the country was the Computer 
Bulletin Board System (CBBS) developed in 
Chicago by Randy Suess and Ward Chris- 
tensen. This started out as little more than 
an electronic replacement for the cork bul- 
letin board maintained by the local comput- 
er club. It was a place where people could 
post notes and answer them. It was quickly 
followed by the Apple Bulletin Board Sys- 
tem developed by Craig Vaughan and Bill 
Blue. Bil] Abney wrote the software for the 
Forum 80 systems which use TRS-80 Mod- 
els I or III as system hardware. Connec- 
tion-80 is another system for the TRS-80 
Model I available from B.T. Enterprises. 

These systems' features have grown con- 
siderably since the first "tack it up" sys- 
tems were brought on line. Modern mes- 
sage systems may include automatic sign- 
on for frequent users, automatic sorting of 
messages by name or subject, password 
protection of certain messages, sub-groups 
or conferences containing special interest 
information, and even program upload and 
download services. 

The program download services allow 
users to withdraw programs from a library 



and capture them for their own use. Upload- 
ing allows users to add their own programs 
to the central library. Obviously, this pro- 
vides a convenient way to exchange pro- 
grams and files without worrying about disk 
formats and other incompatibilities. 

If you are interested in a list of available 
message systems, you can write to Jim 
Cambron, P.O. Box 10005, Kansas City, MO 
64111. Jim publishes the On-Line Computer 
Telephone Directory. It is impossible to 
keep a completely accurate directory of all 
of the available message systems (I tried!), 
but Jim has one of the best available. Be 
sure to include $2.85 for the latest issue. 

So far, I have given you a very brief why of 
computer communications. There are many 
sophisticated uses for communications 
systems, but the broad generalizations of 
program transfer and information access 
cover most of the common uses. Now, let's 
see how you would go about giving your 
system this capability. 

How? 

There are three basic ingredients needed 
to convert your TRS-80 into a data commu- 
nications terminal: a modem, a serial port, 
and terminal software. In some cases, the 




Photo 2. The Microconnection modem comes in several different models. The most com- 
plex device attaches to the expansion port of a Model I and provides it with a modem and 
RS-232C capability. Other versions attach to existing RS-232C ports for more conventional 
operation. Microconnection prices start at about $200 and run to over $300. The Micrope- 
ripheral Corporation maintains a bulletin-board service for their customers on Compu- 
Serve. 



84 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



"A modem converts the electrical signals 

used inside your computer into sound 

so they can be sent over the telephone lines." 




Photo 3. COMM80 from Micromint is not a modem. It attaches to the expansion port of a 
Model I and provides the computer with a full RS-232C serial port capability without the use 
of an expansion interface or serial card. Optionally, it can be used with an expansion inter- 
face and serial card to provide another RS-232C port a t a different da ta address for use with 
a printer, plotter or other serial device. 




Photo 4. The CAT modem from Novation has become a standard in the industry. It is cer- 
tainly the most widely used acoustically coupled modem. Several different manufacturers, 
including Radio Shack, have marketed the CA T with their label. In operation, the telephone 
handset is placed in the rubber cups on the modem. All coupling to the phone line is done 
with sound. This method of coupling is handy for portable or temporary operation if loud 
outside noises are avoided. Decorator-style telephones with different handsets cannot be 
used with a CA T. The CA T modem is often available for under $150. 

^See List of Advertisers on page 386 



serial port and modem may be combined in- 
to one unit. 

The word "modem" comes from the com- 
bination of the words "modulator" and "de- 
modulator." A modem converts the electri- 
cal signals used inside your computer into 
sound (modulator) so they can be sent over 
the telephone lines. It translates the re- 
ceived sounds into electrical signals your 
computer can use (demodulator). It hooks 
between the telephone line and your com- 
puter and translates between them. 

Modems with several different features 
are available for TRS-80 systems. These 
features relate to both how the modem 
hooks to the telephone lines and how it con- 
nects to the computer. Let's look at the tele- 
phone end first. 

A modem which connects directly to the 
telephone line with a wall plug is called a di- 
rect-connection modem. Another common 
kind of modem holds the telephone handset 
against a small speaker and receiver and 



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GRAFTRAX into an exquisite curve plotting 
instrument with a graphics resolution of 480 x 
192. You only write a small BASIC subroutine 
and AUTOPLOT plots your functions or tabulated 
data automatically — yes, even VISICALC or 
SCRIPSIT files. By pressing a few extra keys you 
can select from many options as explained in the 
clear and lucid 46-page manual. Our customers 
are enthusiastic: "SUPER PROGRAM! BEST 
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TRS-80: TM ot Tandy Corp MX 80, GRAFTRAX: TM of EPSON Inc. 

80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 85 



"Connection to a serial port is as simple 

as plugging one end of the cable into the modem 

and the other end into the computer." 




Photo 5. The D CAT is a direct-connection version of the CAT. It lists for about $200, but is 
available for about $170. An auto-answer option adds about $80. Both the CAT and D CAT 
require the computer to have an RS-232C serial port for interface. CAT modems are avail- 
able from computer stores and retail dealers. 




Photo 6. The Prentice Star modem has been providing some competition in the acoustically 
coupled market. It has deep cups to help suppress outside noise and four light-emitting di- 
odes which provide a visual picture of the data flow. It is available from 80 Micro advertisers 
such as The CPU Shop for $125. 



couples to the telephone line using sound. 
This is known as an acoustically coupled 
modem. Acoustically coupled modems are 

86 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



susceptible to interruption from loud local 
sounds, but they provide good portable op- 
eration and may be a bit less expensive 



than direct-connection devices. Direct-con- 
nection modems may have other optional 
features such as auto-dial and auto-answer. 

On the computer side of the modem, the 
most common devices connect to the com- 
puter through the RS-232C serial port. This 
kind of port is optionally available on the 
Models I and III, but comes standard on the 
Color Computer and Model II. Connection 
to a serial port is as simple as plugging one 
end of the cable into the modem and the 
other end into the computer. The Model I 
needs an expansion interface to use the 
standard serial-port circuit card. 

There are alternative ways to hook a mo- 
dem to a Model I or III. The first way is to 
substitute some device for the serial card 
and expansion interface for the Model I 
which provides the RS-232C signaling, 
avoiding the cost of an expansion interface. 
One device which does this is the COMM80 
from Micromint, Inc. COMM80 can be used 
on a Model I instead of a serial port and ex- 



"... the term direct 

connection refers to 

how they hook to the 

telephone lines. " 



pansion interface. It provides an RS-232C 
port at any one of 16 data addresses. If you 
have a requirement for more than one RS- 
232C port you could stack up to 16 
COMM80S on a Model I. 

A second way to connect to the computer 
without buying the serial port is through the 
use of a bus-decoding modem such as the 
Microconnection or Lynx. These modems 
are also called "in the bus" modems, or 
sometimes integrated modems. They are 
also called direct-connection modems for 
the wrong reason by people who don't real- 
ize that the term direct connection refers to 
how they hook to the telephone lines. Inci- 
dentally, all bus-decoding modems are di- 
rect connection. 

A bus-decoding modem attaches directly 
to the data bus of the computer and 
changes the parallel data addressed to it on 
the bus into modem tones. No serial port 
card is required. In another operation mode, 
the bus-decoding modem can be attached 
to the data bus while a standard serial card 
serves a printer or other RS-232C device in a 
normal manner. 

The choice of what kind of modem is right 



"Dumb terminal software only allows 

the TRS-80 to display the received data 

and transmit characters typed on the 

keyboard out through the RS-232C port." 




Photo 7. The Kesa Dataspeak modem is a new entry into the direct-connection modem 
field. This is an RS-232C direct-connection modem with two major features: size and price. 
This small modem soils for $129 I he use of dual phone-line jacks allows the modem to be 
put in series with the telephone and avoids purchasing a separate dual connection for the 
telephone wall plug. This makes installation easier. Some direct-connection modems such 
as the Lynx and D CAT also have this feature, but many do not. The Dataspeak sells for $129 
and is available from the Kesa Company and selected dealers. 



for you depends upon your use, the system 
you have, and the price you can pay. 

Software 

The final critical portion of your commu- 
nications system is the software which 
makes your computer look like a data-com- 
munications terminal to the remote system 
you are working with. There are two kinds of 
data communications terminal software: 
dumb and smart. There is no firm definition 
for these categories. Dealers and distribu- 
tors define smart in different ways. 

Essentially, dumb terminal software only 
allows the TRS-80 to display the received 
data and transmit characters typed on the 
keyboard out through the RS-232C port. It 
will not store or capture the data. When the 
received data scrolls off the screen, it is 
gone. A dumb terminal program usually pro- 
vides the TRS-80 with the ability to transmit 
special characters called control codes 
which signal certain functions in the remote 
systems and printers. TRS-80S do not have 
keyboard keys for these codes, so the pro- 
grams use combinations of keys such as 

sSee List of Advertisers on page 386 



the shift and up arrow to designate control 
characters. Some terminal programs pro- 
vide a lowercase transmission capability 
for the TRS-80. A simple terminal program 
usually allows the operator to change cer- 
tain transmission parameters. Most of this 
software is available on tape and will oper- 
ate with microcomputers containing a mini- 
mum of RAM. 

Radio Shack supplies a very simple dumb 
terminal program called Term with the Mod- 
el I RS-232C card. They market several dif- 
ferent videotext program sets which pro- 
vide dumb terminal capabilities for the 
Model I or III, the Model II, orthe Color Com- 
puter (catalog numbers 26-2200/1/2). These 
packages include membership and one free 
hour in CompuServe and the Dow Jones In- 
formation Service. They sell for $29.95. The 
programs come on cassette tape, but they 
are easily saved on disk. These videotext 
packages contain smooth running simple 
terminal programs which are a very good 
value. 

The Microconnection and Lynx bus-de- 
coding modems also come with simple and 



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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 87 



"A dumb terminal program 
could meet the needs of a data- 
communications user for years." 



- 







years. The simplicity of a dumb terminal is 
very appealing. There are some functions, 
however, which frequent data communica- 
tions users find convenient and which call 
for a much more complex program. These 
functions include capturing programs and 
files as they come in through the data port 
and transmitting stored programs and files 
out the data port. The smart terminal func- 
tions also include transmitting frequently 
used strings of characters such as those 
found in passwords and sign-on codes by 
simply touching one or two keys. 

The program capture and transmission 
functions provide an easy way to exchange 
software. But these functions also provide 
the ability to save items gained from the in- 
formation utilities (such as stock histories) 
in text files and to prepare electronic mail 
messages for fast, accurate and economi- 
cal transmission to a message system or in- 
formation utility. 



Photo 8. The Racal-Vadic Modemphone is a unique device which combines a modem and 
telephone into one unit. Installation and operation are simple and the combined package 
takes only the space of a regular telephone. The list price is between $250 and $350 depend- 
ing on the options, but it is often discounted. 



reliable terminal software. These programs 
are in an easy-to-use menu-driven format. 
The Emterm program which comes with the 
Lynx has some features, such as the ability 



to send and receive Basic programs, which 

might qualify it as pretty bright if not smart. 

A dumb terminal program could meet the 

needs of a data-communications user for 



Omniterm 

Omniterm is a very powerful program 
written and distributed by David Lindbergh. 
Instant Software's Super Terminal is a re- 
packaged version of Omniterm. Omniterm 
is loaded with features and a full descrip- 
tion would require a complete software re- 
view, but it has become the standard for 
TRS-80 terminal software. It provides full 
data-capture and data-transmission fea- 
tures. These include the ability to transmit 




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• Certify cassette tapes for B1 7 use. 
$24.95 Specify Model 1/3 16K/32K/48K RAM. 
Inexpensive Upgrades available. 3rd year of sales. 

B1 7 DISK/BAS is a Disk version. Lets you save any 
disk file to cassette at 3000 baud. Inexpensive way 
to backup your files. Works with any DOS. Includes 
tape certifier. Requires 32K RAM-up. 
$19.95 Specify Model 1/3. 

WORDSMITH Word-processing program in BASIC. 
A 'Trainer' for more complex W/P programs. Easy- 
to-use. Specify Tape/Disk version. Tape version 
requires B1 7 Tape Operating System (above). Disk 
version requires 32K RAM-up. UsesMX-80 Printer. 
$19.95 Specify Model 1/3. 

Add $1.50 postage/handling per item. *-173 



TRS-80 MODEL I™ 

GOLDPLUG-80 

Eliminate disk re-boots and data 
loss due to poor contact problems 
at card edge connectors. The 
GOLD PLUG - 80 solders to the 
board card edge. Use your ex- 
isting cables. 
CPU/keyboard to 

expansion interface $18.95 

Expansion interface to disk, prin- 
ter, RS232, screen printer 

(specify) $9.95 ea 

Full set, six connectors. . . $54.95 



EAP COMPANY 

P.O. Box 14, Keller, TX 76248 

(817)498-4242 

*TRS-80 is a trademark of 

Tandy Corp. 



-216 



VECTOR/FIX 

MODEL I/III 

• Puts machine language programs on 
cassette to disk and adds a patch to 
make them run! 

•Ideal for programs which wipe out 
DOS such as Deathmaze, Eliza, 
Galaxy Invasion, etc.* 

•Scan in uppercase & lowercase ASCII, 
or HEX — send to printer. 

•High speed string search. 

• Even patches programs saved to disk 
by other load module programs (above 
81FFH). 

• Either version will dump the ROM & 
DOS area to printer in ASCII or HEX. 
Min. Req. 32K, 1 disk drive, TRS-80** 
Model I Disk $19.95 
Model III Disk $23.95 

Includes Shipping and Handling 
Send Check or Money Order To: 

MICRO-MEDIA 

P.O. Box 538, Linden, MI 48451 " 

• Not designed to load protected' lapes. 

* 'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 



88 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



files in the line-by-line mode required by 
many message and mail systems. It has a 
buffered printer port so you can print the re- 
ceived data as it comes in. 

The program allows the one-key trans- 
mission of a pre-stored sign-on code. This 
code and the special operating parameters 
for various remote systems can be stored in 
special command files. Unique features of 
the program include a received-text buffer 
which allows the user to review received 
data that has already scrolled off the 
screen and a graphic picture of a bell which 
appears on the screen whenever an atten- 
tion bell signal is received from the remote 
system. The receive buffer review capability 
makes the program especially nice for the 
electronic mail users. It is much easier to 
formulate a reply when you can look back at 
the incoming mail to see what was said. 
Omniterm has a very nice menu display 
which makes it easy for both experienced 
and novice users to operate. 

The documentation for Omniterm is ex- 
cellent. The manual runs over 75 pages and 
includes a complete glossary, index and ta- 
ble of contents. The Omniterm program 
costs about S100. 

There are several other smart terminal 
packages available for TRS-80 computers. 
One of the first on the market was the ST80 
series written by Lance Micklus. These pro- 
grams have several different levels of capa- 



"It is much easier to formulate a 

reply when you can look back at the 

incoming mail to see what was said." 




Photo 9. The Hayes Stack SmartModem is a new modem device which has leaped into pop- 
ularity in the past year. It is called smart because it provides many capabilities that were 
provided by computer software and hardware in the past. In fact, this modem contains its 
own Z8 microprocessor and internal programming. The unit receives commands by moni- 
toring the data line from the RS-232C serial port of the computer or terminal. It will auto- 
dial, auto-answer, provide for speaker monitoring of the data, and perform other functions 
on command. This very versatile modem lists for about $300, but it is often available at dis- 
counts of about $50. 



DISCOUNT 



TRS-80 ™ Model I & III 
External Mini Disk Drives 



• Tandon 40 Trk Disk Drive, w/pwr supply & case . • $259 

• Tandon 40 Trk Bare Disk Drive ...... . ........ $220 



Verbatum DataLife (Box of 10). ... ... . $29 



• 2 Drive Cable, Model I or III . . . 

• 4 Drive Cable, Model I only . ... . I , «, , > 



We accept Master Card, Visa, cashier's check, & money orders. 120 DAY 
WARRANTY & FREE Shipping & handling on orders delivered in con 
tinental U.S. For Foreign, FPO or APO orders add 15% for shipping. Texas resi- 
dence add 5% sales tax. TRS-80 is a Trademark of Tandy Corp. 



13010 Research Blvd., 

Suite 207 
Austin, Texas 78750 

• 252 



v'See List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 89 



"In full duplex a host system echoes 
characters back to the remote terminal. In 
half duplex the terminal displays its own 
transmitted characters on the screen." 



bilities. They are available from Lance Mick- 
lus or from the Small Business Systems 
Group. 

Two smart terminal programs, Uniterm/ 
80 and Modem80, are worthy of special 
mention because of their unique features. 

Uniterm/80 

Uniterm/80 was written by Pete Roberts 
and is distributed by Apparat, Inc. It is a 
powerful smart terminal with all of the fea- 
tures listed above for Omniterm except the 
bell and review buffer. Uniterm/80 has a 



unique capability to configure itself to the 
data-communications port being used by a 
Model I or III. When the program is initial- 
ized, it examines the data bus to determine 
if devices like the Microconnection or Lynx 
are available for use. Then it looks for the 
RS-232C standard port address. This capa- 
bility provides great flexibility and it elimi- 
nates the need for specially addressed soft- 
ware to use devices like the Microconnec- 
tion. 

Uniterm/80 is designed to be used with 
Apparat's NEWDOS80 operating system, 



Computer Communications Terms 



acoustic coupling: Coupling to the 
telephone line through the use of 
sound. The telephone handset is usu- 
ally physically held over a small speak- 
er and transmitter on the modem or 
data coupler. 

answer: (see originate/answer below) 

ASCII: American Standard Code for In- 
formation Interchange. A data alpha- 
bet which gives meaning to strings of 
0s and 1s. 

auto-answer: The modem automatical- 
ly picks up the phone line when it rings 
and provides an answer tone to the 
calling party. 

auto-dial: The modem automatically 
dials the telephone in response to a 
command from the terminal or micro- 
computer serving as a terminal. 

baud: A measure of transmission 
speed. Three hundred baud is the most 
commonly used. 

direct connection: Connected electri- 
cally to the telephone line. 

duplex: Capable of transmitting and re- 
ceiving at the same time. It also has to 
do with the echoing of characters from 
a host system. In full duplex a host sys- 
tem echoes characters back to the re- 
mote terminal. In half duplex the termi- 
nal displays its own transmitted char- 
acters on the screen. If you are receiv- 
ing two or more characters, then some- 
thing (your modem or terminal soft- 



ware) is in half duplex. Full duplex is 
the standard operating mode. 



IEEE-488: An electrical signaling stan- 
dard used in Commodore computers 
and commonly found in test equip- 
ment. Not compatable with the more 
common RS-232-C standard. 

originate and answer: The two sets of 
tones used by a modem to communi- 
cate over a telephone line. Microcom- 
puters serving as terminals operate in 
the originate mode. If two individuals 
are communicating together, one must 
be in the originate mode and the other 
must be in answer. 

parity: A method of error detection and 
correction used in commercial and mil- 
itary data communications. Seldom 
used in microcomputer communica- 
tions. Parity is usually set to off. 

RS-232C: A standard method of volt- 
age signaling. Voltages range between 
plus and minus 12 volts. A voltage 
change indicates a digital or 1 . These 
0s and 1 s are encoded by a data alpha- 
bet (see ASCII). 

serial: Transmission of data in a serial 
stream as opposed to the parallel 
stream found on the computer's data 
bus. 

word length: The number of bits used 
to transmit one character. Usually set 
to 7 in microcomputer communica- 
tions. 



but it will function with other operating sys- 
tems while retaining most of its features. 
The program has a good operating manual 
and sells for about $90. 

Modem80 

Modem80 is unique in that it provides the 
TRS-80 with a very accurate means of trans- 
ferring files that was previously available 
only to users of the CP/M operating system. 
It has all of the features commonly associ- 
ated with smart terminal software, but it 
also transfers files using a unique error-de- 
tection and correction format. This special- 
ly formatted file transfer can only be ac- 
complished with another Modem80- 
equipped TRS-80 or with a CP/M system 
running a common program called Modem, 
but it still provides a unique and valuable 
capability. Non-format file transfer is also 
available. 

Modem80 was written and is distributed 
by Leslie Mikesell. It is available for an 
amazingly low $39.95. 

TRS-80 Message Systems 

There are several message systems soft- 
ware packages available for the TRS-80 
which allow your system to receive, store 
and transmit messages or information to 
anyone calling in. They range from simple 
and essentially free to very sophisticated 
and costing several hundred dollars. All of 
these software packages require an auto- 
answer modem. 

A simple and free system comes as a util- 
ity with Les Mikesell's Modem80 program 
described above. Hostl turns any TRS-80 
Model I or III into a remote operation system 
which allows callers to operate the host 
system to run, load or transfer data. Hostl 
doesn't have any sophisticated passwords 
or data protection, but it is a very effective 
utility program. A similar program, called 
Host, comes on a cassette with the Lynx 
modem. 

The Small System Business Group sells a 
number of more sophisticated message 
programs with different capabilities. These 
include ST80 message programs written by 
Lance'Micklus. ST80-X10 integrates the mo- 
dem port with the computer operating sys- 
tem. It is a simple host program that is re- 
quired for the operation of the other ST80 
message system software. ST80-X10 sells 
for $50. ST80-PBB is an elementary bulletin- 
board system that operates from either disk 
or tape and sells for about $40. ST80-CC is a 
more sophisticated disk-based system sell- 
ing for $100. 



90 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



A Computei 




rograms 



What will they think of next..? 



Your computer is fantastically fast, once it knows what 
to do. You probably realize that a computer is really 
the combination of hardware and software, working 
together smoothly, to give you what you want. Either 
one alone is useless. Software is really the key. ..the 
"mind" of a computer system. Every project or task 
you want to do requires a new specific software ap- 
plication to make it behave exactly the way you desire. 

Of course, you may be able to "force-fit" an application 
into some existing canned program you have, but to 
really get results, you need a separate application 
program to run on your computer. 

Until now, that meant you were forced to pay money 
for application software off the shelf, or if you could 
afford it, have it custom written for you, or, if you are 

qualified, do it yourself. ..spending endless hours 
figuring it out and writing it. Now, your computer can 
write individual application programs for you. These 
programs are each separate, unique software programs 
that run in standard Basic on your computer. 

A company named FutureSoft has developed this ex- 
citing and long awaited remarkable working tool for 
you. There are two versions called Quikpro+Plus and 
standard Quikpro. Both of them create unique separate 
Basic programs for you. ..to do exactly, precisely, what 
you want to do. And listen to this. ..you create a new 
program in minutes instead of hours. 

You can quickly generate a new program when you 
want it. You can generate thousands of different 
unique programs, each one standing alone as a com- 
plete program that runs in Basic. Best of all, you do not 
have to be a programmer to do it. The Quikpro soft- 
ware becomes your personal programmer, waiting to 
do your work for you any time of day or night you 
choose to use it. 

The custom programs you generate from this software 
provide for: Data Entry, Additions, Changes, Record 
Locating & Searches, great variety of Computations, 
and Report Printing (if you have a printer). It lets you 
decide what data to manipulate and how to manipulate 
it. It lets you decide the formats you want to appear on 
your screen and/or to print out in a report. It lets you 
use differing formats on the same data base. It lets you 
make calculations from data within records without 
altering the data base. It lets you report results with or 
without including the base data from which results 
were calculated. 

All this is included in the ability/power of the program 
you create. You do it by simply answering questions 
that appear on your screen. Instantly, the Qui'lcpro soft- 
ware instructs the computer to perform complex and 




error free instructional sequences. You get the im- 
mediate benefits of professionally written software for 
your application. 

The resulting custom program is truly a separate Basic 
program. You can list it, you can modify it, you can ac- 
tually see what makes it tick. You can even ask it to 
print out its own operating instruction manual so others 
can run it for you. Finally, you can really tap the speed 
and power of your computer the way you really want. 
You can create new programs for every use you have in 
Business, Science, Education, and Hobby areas. And 
you can start now. 

The software is available immediately from the 
creators. It comes in two versions. If you want to 
generate separate Basic programs with all the data 
handling plus Calculations and Report Printing 
features, you want Quikpro+Plus. Specify to run on 
TRS80 Model I and Model III at only $149; to run on 
TRS80 Model II at $189. 

If you do not need Calculation ability or Report Print- 
ing in the separate Basic programs you will create from 
this program generating software, then standard Quik- 
pro will do the job for you. Standard Quikpro to run on 
TRS80 Model I or Model III is $89; to run on TRS80 
Model II is $129. (Later on you can always trade up to 
the Plus Versions for only the cost difference between 
the two). 

Both programs are available to run on many other 
computers besides TRS80. Details are available by 
calling or writing. 

You can order right now by phone or mail. If you have 
Visa/Mastercard, call toll-free from: 

All States except CA-AL-HI 1-800-824-7888 OP# 441 

From California call 1-800-852-7777 Op# 441 

From Alaska/Hawaii call 1-800-824-7919 Op# 441 

Operators on duty 24 hours daily. Operators can not 
answer technical questions. If you need technical in- 
formation or want to order from Canada or other 
nations, call 1-904-269-1918 during office hours, Eastern 
Time, Mon.-Fri. 

Send mail orders with check, money order or credit 
card information to: FutureSoft, P.O. Box 1446-D, 
Orange Park , Florida 32073. FutureSoft gives you a 
satisfaction or your money refunded guarantee for 10 
days from delivery. You can run the software yourself 
on your own computer and see with your own eyes 
what it can do for you. Order now. ^66 



• See List of Advertisers on page 386 



ADVERTISEMENT 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 91 



"Terminal software, a serial port, and a modem can 
open a new world of electronic information and 
information for business, education or pleasure." 



The Connection-80 message system soft- 
ware for the TRS-80 is growing in popularity. 
It is available from B.T. Enterprises for 
about $200. 

The top of the line in TRS-80 message 
systems is the Forum 80 software. This pro- 
gram package requires two disk drives in 



the Model I and three in the Model III. Check 
with the Small Business Systems Group for 
more details. It sells for $350. 

Putting It All Together 

Providing your microcomputer with a 
data communications capability gives you 



many good answers when someone asks, 
"but what do you do with a computer?" 
Adding some terminal software, a serial 
port, and a modem to your TRS-80 can open 
a new world of electronic information and 
information for business, education, or 
pleasure. ■ 



Suppliers and Services 


Communications Software Suppliers 


Kesa Company: Dataspeak modem 


Apparat, Inc.: Uniterm/80 
4401 S. Tamarac Parkway 
Denver, CO 80237 


774 San Miguel Ave. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 746-2738 


Toll Free (800) 525-7674 




B.T. Enterprises: Connection-80 
171 Hawkins Road 
Centereach, NY 11720 
(516)981-8568 


Micro Mint: Comm80 RS-232C port 
917 Midway 
Woodmere, NY 11598 
(800) 645-3479 


Instant Software: Super Terminal 
Peterborough, NH 03458 
(800) 258-5473 


Microperipheral Corporation: Micro- 
connection modem 
P.O. Box 529 


Lance Micklus, Inc.: ST80 Software 
217 South Union Street 


Mercer Island, WA 98040 
(206) 454-3303 


Burlington, VT 05401 




Leslie Mikesell: Modem80 


Novation: The CAT modem 


32466 SR541 


18664 Oxnard Street 


Walhonding, OH 43843 


Tarzana, CA 91356 


Lindbergh Systems: Omniterm 




41 Fairhill Road 
Holden, MA 01520 
(617)852-0233 


Racal-Vadic: Modemphone and other 

modems 

222 Caspian Drive 


Radio Shack: Videotex Communica- 


Sunnyvale, CA 94086 


tions Packages 




All stores and computer centers 


Radio Shack: Modem I and Modem II 


Small Business Systems Group: 


All stores and computer centers. 


ST80 and Forum 80 Software 
6 Carlisle Road 


Information Utilities 


Westford, MA 01866 


CompuServe 


(617)692-3800 


Personal Computing Division 
5000 Arlington Centre Boulevard 


Modem Hardware Companies 


Columbus, OH 43220 


Emtrol Systems, lnc.:i.YNX Modem 


Dow Jones information Services 


123 Locust Street 


PO Box 300 


Lancaster, PA 17602 


Princeton, NJ 08540 


(717)291-1116 


(800)257-5114 


Hayes Microcomputer Products: 


Source Telecomputing Corporation 


Smartmodem 


1616 Anderson Road 


5835 Peachtree Corners East 


McLean, VA 22102 


Norcross, GA 30092 


(703) 734-7500 



92 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 




■Ml dK«^£Hi 

Buy direct from the manufacturer and save on high performance 
disk systems and other enhancements for Model I, II, and III. 



Whether your TRS-80 is a Model I, II. or III, 
you've probably wished for more disk capacity. 
Now Lobo gives you that— and much more— at 
low, manufacturer-direct prices. With uncom- 
promising quality, and the protection ofLobo's 
unique 1 -year warranty 




Special for Model I owners: 
the LX-80 Expansion Interface 

Radio Shack may have forgotten you, but 
Lobo hasn't! Our LX-80 expansion interface 
(plus LDOS operating system) gives your 
Model I more features and more expandability 
than a Model II or III. The sturdy steel enclosure 
fits under your monitor and adds: 

• 32k additional RAM 

• Interfaces for standard Radio Shack mini- 
floppy drives and Lobo high-performance 
diSK systems 

• Ccnt r onics-type printer port plus sceen 
Drinter port 

• Two RS-232C serial ports (optional) 

• Plus a real-time clock, sockets for custom 
ROM, and a heavy-duty power supply for your 
keyboard unit 

Discover the real power and potential of 
your Modei I, with the bargain-priced I oho 
LX-80 1 
LX-80 with LDOS 

operating system (required) $510.00 
LX-80 without LDOS 

(for current LDOS users) $460.00 

Dual RS-232C serial 

port option $100.00 



LDOS: the ultimate TRSDOS- 
compatible operating system 

One of the few software products ever to 
receive a perfect box score from Infoworld 
magazine. Fhe reviewer said: 'I DOS 5.1 is 
awesome! ... It performs nearly perfectly . . . 
a straightforward and simple system to use 
... the best manual for software I've ever 
seen or reviewed, bar none ... This DOS takes 
she TRS-80 from the hobby category and 
endows it with features that many a so-called 
business system does not have. . . . LDOS 
offers unparalleled versatility and function." 

LDOS includes a powerful extended disk 
BASIC, smart terminal emulator, and many 
other useful utilities that make it worth far 
more than its low price. It -ens on any Model 
I or Model III with at least one disk drive. 

LDOS operating system 
(specify Model I or Model III) $ 1 29.00 




Add-on 8 floppies for Model II 

Why pay Radio Shack prices to expand your 
Model ll's disk capacity? The Lobo 8202C2 
adds two 8" double-density floppy drives, for a 
total of 1 .1 megabytes of additional storage. 
Installation and operation are identical, and 
you get the added benefit of Lobo's 1 -year parts 
and labor warranty 8202C2 dual-drive 
8" floppy system for Model II $1 269.00 



8" floppy systems for Model I 
and Model III 

These rugged dual-drive systems attach to 
any Model I with LX-80 expansion interface, or 
any Model III, and add the mass storage you 
need for the big jobs. Double density recording 
stores 535kB on one side of the disk. Using the 
LDOS operating system (required) you get full 
compatibility with standard TRSDOS plus 
greatly increased capabilities. 

8202C3 two single-sided drives 

(1.1 MB total) for Model III $1625.00 

8202CX same as above, for Model I 

with LX-80 (sold separately) $1249.00 

5202C3 two double-sided drives 
(2.2 MB total) for Model III $2025.00 

5202CX same as above, for Model I 
with LX-80 (sold separately) $1 749.00 



Add-on minifloppy drives for Model I 

Completely compatible with all Model I 
hardware and software, but with an extra 5 
tracks tor data storage. Requires a Mode! I with 
either the Radio Shack expansion interface or 
the Lobo LX-80 (see left) 
4401 C Add-on 5Ya" drive 
for Model I $305.00 

High-capacity minifloppy for LX-80 

An economical way to get a big storage 
boost foryour LX-80-equipped Model I. The 
double-sided, 96 track/inch drive stores 720 
kB. and eliminates most tedious disk swapping. 
Model 4801 C high-capacity 5V*" drive 
for LX-80 $465.00 




Winchester disk systems for 
Model I and Model III 

The ultimate mass storage devices! Enor- 
mous capacity and impressive speed give your 
system a dramatic performance boost. Add the 
impressive file-handling capabilities of LDOS 
(included), and you can outperform systems 
costing far more. IMPORTANT: Many Winchester 
disks now being sold have no provision for file 
backup. Lobo systems include a built-in high- 
density floppy drive that can store the entire 
contents of the hard disk on just 6 or 7 floppies. 
rhis backup dove is also usable for additional 
on-line storage of programs and data. 



5Va" Winchester System 

Compact and exceptionally reliable, with 
4.8 megabytes of high-speed Winchester stor- 
age plus a 720 kilobyte floppy drive. The value 
i easier in mass storage. 
950T for Model III or Model I 
with LX-80 (sold separately) $3633.00 

8" Winchester System 

Over 9 million bytes of storage accessible in 
milliseconds: 8.2 MB on an 8" Winchester drive 
and another 1.1 MB on the backup floppy drive. 
Unsurpassed for maintaining very large data 
bases. 

1850T for Model III or Model I 
with LX-80 (sold separately) $4459.00 



Ordering Information 

A! 1 prices include shipping and handling 
California residents add 6% sales tax. Credit 
card orders shipped within 24 hours. Personal 
checks require 2-3 weeks for clearance before 
shipment. 



The Lobo Warranty 

All Lobo hardware products carry a lim- 
ited 1-year parts and labor warranty. Call or 
write for complete warranty statement. 



TRS-80 and TRSDOS are trademarks ol Tandy Corporation. 

(ci 1982 Lobo Drives International 

Infoworld quote © 1982 Popular Computing/lnc 

Subsidiary— CW Communications/lnc. 

TOLL-FREE ORDER NUMBERS: 
U.S. (except California); 

800-235-1245 

In California: 800-322-6103 or 

800-322-61 04 Hours: 7AM-5PM Pacific Time 
Write f or free catalog: 

Lobo Drives 
International 

Dept. MC6 

358 S. Fairview Ave. 

Goleta, CA93117 



"clrii/es 

INTERNATIONAL 



& 



• 535 



■See List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 93 




Our sophisticated 
programs make sight 
and sound seem 
simultaneous — you're 
never disappointed when 
you select a program 
from us. And, our 
customer service is 
unparalleled in 
excellence. 




Everyone 

Whether you want 
games, adventure 
programs, word 
processing enhancement 
programs, teaching 
programs, utility 
programs that help 
serious programmers 
improve their 
programming and get 
more out of their 
computers . . . 
Acorn has them all. 








mm 




Instant 
Sort/Seai 



By Gordon Hatton 

An easy-to-use fast information manager 
for home, personal or small business use. 
Even a novice can make full use of this 
program and it's extremely "user-friendly" 
in helping minimize operator errors. ISS 
comes in 3 parts: (1) lets you create, 
examine and save your custom-formatted 
data base; (2) sorts and searches the data 
base so you can pick out and print just the 
information you need; (3) provides powerful 
editing commands so you can modify and 
update your existing data files. Also 
includes "DEMO", a 500 record demonstra- 
tion data file that lets the first time user 
familiarize himself with the command set. 
ISS handles both alphabetic and numerical 
data in a variety of combinations. 

16KTape 

or 32K Disk. 

TRS-80 I & III 

plus $2.00 shipping and handling 



TRS-80 is a Registered 
Trademark of Tandy Corpora- 
tion. Atari is a Registered 
Trademark of Warner Commu- 
nications. IBM is a Registered 
Trademark of International 
Business Machines. 



System Savers 

By Tom Stibolt 

Two machine language utility programs 
designed to make your use of SYSTEM 
format tapes easier and more enjoyable — 
you can make backup copies of standard 
SYSTEM tapes on either tape or disk. 
System Savers has two different programs 
on the cassette: FLEXL and TDISK. 
FLEXL lets you merge two or more SYSTEM 
tapes into a single tape, merging machine 
language routines into one file. On the Model 
III, baud rates can be changed, allowing low 
baud rate tapes to be re-written to take advant- 
age of the Model Ill's high baud rate. FLEXL 
enables the user to make and verify backup 
copies of programs written in the TRS-80 
SYSTEM format. 
TDISK allows the user to save programs 
from SYSTEM format tapes onto disk. It's 
specifically designed to allow saving and 
running disk programs that reside in the 
same location as TRSDOS. TDISK will 
automatically load programs with non- 
contiguous blocks. 

16K Tape (transferable to disk) 

TRS-80 

Model I & III 

plus $2.00 

shipping and 

handling 



Money 
Manager 

By Andrew Bartorillo 

In today's economy, we all need to 
monitor our expenses more closely. 
Money Manager will help you keep track 
of your income and expenses and give you 
an easy way to manage your budget. You 
define the categories according to your 
needs, including tax-deductible expenses 
... a great help at tax time. You can also 
reconcile your checkbook with the bank's 
balance. Full lineprinter capability allows 
you to print items by each category. 

32K (Minimum) Disk. 

TRS-80 I & ni;<fcQQ QT 

Atari; IBM PCyUViW^ 

plus $2.00 shipping 

and handling 



$19.95 



V \Vjl 



4^M 



II 



NEW! 




Your Mysterious 
Adventures Begin 
With Arrow of 
Death, Part I. 

By Brian Howarth 

Acorn searched the world until we found a 
SUPERIOR Adventure Series in MACHINE 
LANGUAGE. We discovered this exciting new 
series in England — and because the author 
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depair and hatred fill the hearts of the 
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Lost Colony 

By David Feitelberg 



You are the Economic Manager of the 
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quotas, determine pay scales and taxes 
for the most productivity —you're armed 
with maps and charts. 10 levels of 
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Everest Explorer 

By William Godwin 
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TUTORIAL 



Make friends on CompuServe's CB simulator. 



Breaker 19 



David D. Busch 
70060, 137 
"Charlie Chaplin' 



Almost without fail, every time I run 
CompuServe's CB Simulator I see mes- 
sages on the order of: "Hi there, I'm new! 
How do I work this, anyway?" Though help 
is available at the press of a few keys, most 
first-time users of this exciting time-sharing 
gabfest wander around aimlessly, trying to 
figure out what Talk is, or at worst, how to 
end the session. 

I would like to provide a few tips and ex- 
plain some of the more esoteric features. 
This discussion applies directly to CB Simu- 
lator Version 3(26). New features and com- 
mands are added at intervals, but the 
basics I will describe have remained stable 
for a long time. 

Why CB? 

There are many reasons why the CB Sim- 
ulator has attracted so many participants. 
You may find sparkling conversation or 
downright sillyness at times. Somebody is 
likely to know somebody who can solve 
your most pressing problem. It is like elec- 
tronic mail, but in real time. CB also resem- 
bles a wild, long-distance conference call, 
except that you type instead of talk. You 
can talk across the country for about eight 
cents a minute. 

Using the CB is unlike using the tele- 
phone. Because you cannot hear the speak- 
er's voice, you do not know if you are talking 
to a male or female, youngster or oldster. 

Some people use CB to meet others, and 
eyeball meetings are common. More isol- 
ated types find that the simulator is their 
only direct contact with other computer 
hobbyists. Whatever the reason, CB is 
good, clean fun. 

You Can Get There From Here 

If you have used the CompuServe In- 
formation Service (CIS for short) you know 

96 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



that both menu-oriented functions(DISPLA) 
and Micronet Personal Computing are of- 
fered. From the menus, you can go directly 
to CB by typing GO CIS 39, which points to 
the page at which CB's entry point resides. 
From the Personal Computing area, you 
can get there by typing R CB. 

Once you get hooked, you may want to 
run the DEFALT program and specify that 
every time you log in to CIS, you will go dir- 
ectly to CB after the current bulletins are 
displayed. DEFALT may be accessed by 
choosing menu option "Change Terminal 
Parameters" from the customer infor- 
mation page. DEFALT interactively leads 
you step by step through the options— you 
may also want to change to transmitting 
lowercase as well as upper if you have that 
capability in your machine. In DEFALT, you 
may also request that menu options within 
CB (and certain other special interest 
groups) not be displayed every time you are 
asked foracommand. Dothisonlyafteryou 
no longer need to be reminded which entry 
is needed for which feature. 

Another option for the veteran user is to 
log in to the system by adding a handle. 
This name is then displayed under the user- 
status table within CB. The procedure is as 
follows: USER ID: 70060,137,C Chaplin. 

You can enter more characters as a han- 
dle, but only 11 are displayed in the table 
(more on that later). 

Once you enter CB, you are asked for a 
handle (if you have not logged in with one), 
and told the number of channels in use and 
the users tuned in to each. There are 36 
channels available, but only a few are used 



at any given time. Here is a typical prompt: 

(Channel) users tuned in 
(10)4,(19)2,(33)4 
Which channel: 

Enter 10, and you are in business. Your 
screen will display a sometimes fast-mov- 
ing series of quips and comments from the 
residents of that channel. The channel num- 
ber, and handle of each speaker is dis- 
played first: 

(10,C Chaplin) Hello there. Anybody home? 
(10,** Null **)Hi, CC. How are you? 

As you can see, handles may include 
characters other than letters or numbers. 
Certain handles are reserved by CIS, and 
you should follow good taste. To change 
your handle, type /HANDLE, or /HAN for 
short. Commands can be abbreviated to 
three letters, and should be preceded by the 
slash character. The system will respond: 
What's your handle: Charlie Chaplin. 

Your log-in handle will remain in the user 
table. I always sign in with the short version, 
and then change when I get into CB. What is 
the user table, you ask? When you type 
/USTAT, the system scrolls through a list of 
all users presently participating in the Mul- 
tiplayer Host (see Table 1). 

The actual USTAT table is usually much 
longer than this, with 20 or more users list- 
ed. Note that there are many blanks in the 
Account ID column; those users did not 
sign in with a handle. Anyone looking at this 
table can see at a glance who is using the 
system, what channels they are tuned into, 
their nodes (originating city), and user ID 
number. Some will not be using the CB. 



Job 


User ID 


Prog. Talk Account ID 


Node 


5 


70060.137 


CB 10 C CHAPLIN 


TO1AKR 


7 


70000,000 


DECWAR 


T1 ISFA 


15 


70000,001 


MPHOST SUPERMAN 


r03PIT 


22 


70000,002 


TALK any ANONYMOUS 


1 02A ! L 


25 


70000,03 


CBIG 

Table 1 


T04HOU 



They might be visiting CBIG (CB Interest 
Group), playing DECWAR, having a one-on- 
one talk, or just idling in command mode 
(MPHOST). 

You may tune into any channel you wish 
by typing TUN xx, where xx is the channel 
number. To go from channel 10 to channel 
19, simply type /TUN 19. How do you decide 
where to go? Most users watch what activ- 
ity is going on in all the other channels by 
entering /STA. That command gives you the 
status of the other channels and how many 
are tuned in at the present time. 

You may also monitor two additional 
channels. The messages for these appear 
on the screen simultaneously with those of 
the channel you are tuned to. To monitor, 
enter /MON 19, and so on up to the limit of 
two. To cancel this, type /UNMON 19. Then, 
/STA will mark your status by placing a 
pound sign next to the channel you are 
tuned to, and an asterisk next to one that is 
being monitored: 

/STA 

(10)6M19)12*,(21)3,(33)8 

During busy times, your screen will rap- 
idly fill with messages, and you must 
be quick to keep up with them. Here is 
a brief rundown on all the commands avail- 
able in the release of CB Simulator in use at 
the time this article was prepared (we have 
already discussed /TUN, /MON, /UNMON, 
and /STA): 

• /WHO— This returns the User ID number 
(called PPN in jargon, for Programmer 
Project Number) of the last speaker in the 
CB system. If you see a message from 
Charlie Chaplin, and want to know who 
he is, type /WHO, and you will see: Char- 
lie Chaplin/70060,137. If you are not fast 
enough, however, you may see the PPN 
of some other talker on a different chan- 
nel. Keep trying until you find out what 
you want to know. Getting the PPN al- 
lows contacting the user individually for 
a talk, to determinetheir node(out of curi- 
osity) if their handle is not displayed in 
USTAT, or for sending EMAIL. 

• /HAN— Change your handle. 

• /SCR xyz— Scramble on key "xyz." This is 
used by individuals who wish to talk as a 
group, but privately. Only those who have 
typed in the /SCR command followed by 
the correct combination code can see or 
transmit these messages. 

• /XCL xyz— You transmit unscrambled, so 
everyone may read what you enter, but 
you can receive scrambled transmis- 
sions. 

• /UNS— Turn off scramble. 

• /HELP— Display list of CB commands. 

• /SOU abc— Squelch handle "abc." If a 
weird 12-year old gets on your favorite 
channel and tries to monopolize it, you 
can turn off that individual. Entering 

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Now. . .from Dr. David Lien, 
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TRS-80 <* 

Face it. Until you can talk to and 
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You need help to harness your 
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And that's just what you get from 
Learning TRS-80 BASIC. 

Written by David Lien, author of the popu- 
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BASIC Handbook, Learning TRS-80 BASIC is at once entertaining, 
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In Learning TRS-80 BASIC, David Lien gives you simple, step- 
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Included are short Question and Answer sections which help 
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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



"Another evening, I had a cogent 
discussion of Taoism with a devotee. 



/SOU IDIOT, means that all transmis- 
sions by the person with the handle Idiot 
are ignored by your system. Everyone 
else can see his ravings, however, until 
they apply /SQU on their own. The system 
works by PPN, so changing handles will 
not help; Idiot by any other name still re- 
mains invisible to your tired eyes. 

• /TALK— go to two-person talk. This is a 
one-on-one private discussion, not using 
the public CB "airwaves." 

• /SPCWAR— go to the SPACEWAR game. 

• /EXIT — leave the CB program. 

You may also exit CB by typing Control C. 
Once you leave, you will be presented with 



the Multi-Player Host menu, which looks 
something like this: 

Welcome to the multi-player host. 
Options: 

help 

1 list other users 

2 run CB 

3 run SPCWAR 

4 talk to another job 

5 return to primary computer 

6 log oft the system 

7 CBIG (CB Interest Group) 

8 run DECWARS 

Option 1 gives you a look at USTAT. You 
may see a user (Job) you wish to talk to, or 
be told that a Job has requested to talk with 
anyone. You can enterTalk by responding Y 




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to the "Do you wish to talk?" prompt (if 
asked), or by entering menu option 4. 

In talk, you communicate directly with 
the other user, chatting or shooting the 
breeze as you wish. Exit this module by typ- 
ing Control Z. 

Enter option 2 and you are back in CB. 
Numbers 3 or 8 take you to one of two 
games available, while entering a 7 trans- 
ports you to the strange world of CBIG, run 
by an interesting East Coaster named 
CHRISDOS, who reigns as SYSOP for the in- 
terest group. The games and CBIG are too 
complex to get into here. Each has their 
own extensive documentation. 

You may also go back to the Micronet 
Personal Computing Area by entering 5 at 
the prompt, or log off the system entirely by 
inputting a 6. 

What Can You Expect? 

I like CB because it is so varied. I meet 
many talented and interesting people. One 
evening, I carried on a lengthy conversation 
with one user in Swedish, even though I 
don't speak the language. The pauses in the 
conversation (while waiting for answers to 
be typed) were sufficient to allow me to look 
up phrases in a Swedish dictionary I keep 
by my desk, and then compose answers 
from a ready-made phrase book. 

As a writer, I keep many reference vol- 
umes in my office, and they come in handy. 
Another evening, I had a cogent discussion 
of Taoism with a devotee who did not know I 
was madly reading my encyclopedia to de- 
cipher his or her meaning between ques- 
tions. 

Other sessions have been silly. One 
night, in my guise as Charlie Chaplin, I in- 
sisted on pantomiming my communica- 
tions by using character keys to denote var- 
ious words or phrases. Another evening, the 
users of one channel dressed up as rabbits 
(by changing handles to things such as Ras 
Rabbit, or Charlie Chapbunny) and going 
hop hop for several minutes. It sounds 
weird, but it is a fun way to blow off steam, 
trying to think of cute ways of topping the 
other users. 

When I was having trouble using a 
1200-baud modem with a certain operating 
system, I inquired on CB, and discovered 
that one of the participants was an engi- 
neer with AT & T, knew modems and the 
DOS, and was well equipped to help me 
solve my problem. Other CBers have ex- 
plained a sticky Assembly-language point 
to me, or advised on the relative worth of the 
latest software releases. 

I use the Charlie Chaplin handle as well 
as Kitchen Table, Inc., and I am most fre- 
quently found on CB on weeknights after 1 1 
p.m. Eastern Time. I hope to see many of 
you there. ■ 



98 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Tired of typing in all 





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Begin your subscription with the June/July 1 982 cassette or disk. 

disks are TRSDOS 2.3 formatted, single density and flippy-sided. They will not contain an operating system. Single 
drive users need a single drive copy utility; Model III users need the TRSDOS 1.2/1.3 Convert utility. Source code files may not 



be useable on the Model III. 

"Frankly, after hundreds of hours of frustration, I 
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"This is why I started a new series of cassettes called 
LOAD 80. Each cassette will have program dumps of the 
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but the very short program listings will be on the LOAD 
80 cassettes. Thus, you will be able to save hours of 
inputting programs and even more of debugging your 
keyboard errors." 



Wayne Green 

Pubtlthw, K Micro 




The LOAD 80 cassette is simply the program listings 
that appear in the articles in 80 Micro. It was created to 
save you the time involved in typing the listings yourself. 
Successful loading of the programs depends on reading 
the documentation in the articles. If you have your current 
magazine at hand when you load the cassette or boot up 
the disk, you should have no difficulty. If you still have 
problems, please return the tape or disk for replacement. 

LOAD 80 began with the April 1981 issue. To order back 
issues, look for the bak issue advertisement in this 
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To order LOAD 80, fill in the attached card and we will 
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You can't wrap fish in it, but. 




Electronic 
xperiment 



Jay Chidsey 

205 E. Adams St. 

Green Springs, OH 44836 



A fascinating experiment in electronic 
publishing has been underway in the 
small northwest Ohio county-seat town of 
Tiffin since February 1. "You can't wrap fish 
in it," noted Editor and Publisher, a major 
publishing industry magazine, but if the 
videotext Advertiser-Tribune were trans- 
ferred to newsprint, with a normal comple- 
ment of advertising, it would land on your 



doorstep with a thump much like that of a 
big-city daily. Currently offering over 650 
32-character by 16-line video pages, the 
daily publication is equivalent to 150 paper 
pages of over 35,000 words. 

Both Advertiser-Tribune Editor/Publisher 
Kaj (pronounced Kai) Spencer and Video- 
text Version Manager and Editor Sherry 
Skufca insist that the video version should 
not be thought of as an electronic twin of 
the print version. "We are doing everything 
we can to dispel the idea that we are an 
electronic newspaper," says Skufca. "We 
are an instant electronic information ser- 
vice. We don't have permanence, you can't 
browse through our pages, there is no room 




Videotext Advertiser-Tribune Assistant Editor Steve Dillon prepares a file for update on 
the two-disk Model II editing computer. To his left is the line printer which shares the output 
of the Compugraphic system data banks (the two tall cabinets seen beyond the Model II). 
Back to back with the editing computer is a four-disk Model II (the video version data bank), 
and next to that the eight-line Tandy Multiplexer. Out of camera range at right is a Videotex 
terminal used to check video output. 

100 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



for long commentaries. We have no art or 
pictures." She adds, "A new Japanese cam- 
era system which captures pictures on disk 
rather than film could bring pictures to 
videotext systems soon, though." 

Available at start-up only to Radio Shack 
Videotex terminal owners and to TRS-80 
Color Computer owners who purchased 
Tandy terminal software, new software writ- 
ten by Gary Sams of Tiffin's Computer Club 
now permits access by TRS-80 Models I and 
III. No other computers or terminals are 
served thus far. 

What makes this experiment so exciting 
to journalists and TRS-80 owners is that this 
is the first known attempt on the part of a 
small-town newspaper to integrate local 
and world news and national information 
bases into an information service for town 
and farm people. It is also one of the first 
such services to be initiated by the news 
publisher, as opposed to a big-city daily 
making its news available to an indepen- 
dent information provider. 

Starting from a newspaper base offers a 
significant advantage. Local, area and 
state news is typed directly into Compu- 
graphic computers in the paper's news- 
room by print staff people, and national and 
world news comes in from United Press In- 
ternational (UPI) via satellite in Compu- 
graphic form. So convenient is this comput- 
er base that most of the material intended 
only for the video version, such as school 
news or public service information, is typed 
in on Compugraphics in the newsroom by 
the video staff rather than being entered di- 
rectly on the two-disk Model II editing com- 
puter. Skufca estimates that fully 95 per- 
cent of the content of the video version's 
data bank comes down the line from Com- 
pugraphic storage rather than from direct 
entry. Late-breaking world and local news, 
just-in sports scores, weather warnings and 
updates, and winter school closings are 
usually entered directly on the editing com- 
puter, 

Reader Service lor lacing page ^84-~ 













625Q Middlebelt • Garden City, Ml 48135 • SOC 

Written by Larry Ashmun 

Copyright 1982 Soft Sector Marketing. Inc. 

Prices per Game: TRS-80 16K Level II Mod I/Mod III Cassette $15.95 

TRS-80 32K Level II Mod I/Mod III Diskette S19.95 

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. 



". . . the economics of electronic 
publishing are radically different 
from those of print publishing." 



The area news and UPI material is edited 
on the Compugraphics, and sent directly to 
the Tribune's typesetting computer to be 
printed in cold-type columns for offset print 
reproduction. Sending it to the editing com- 
puter is not quite so simple. There is provi- 
sion in the Compugraphic use codes for 
sending the characters to a line printer, and 
the video version makes use of this output. 
The Compugraphic sends a 43-character 
line, inserts a line feed, sends another 43 
characters, and so on. 

The two-and-a-half-person staff (two edi- 
tors and one half-time newswriter) spend 
much of their time formatting the Compu- 
graphic output to 32-character, 16-line 
units, and even inserting a Model II text-be- 
gins ASCII symbol for every page. After for- 
matting, each item is assigned a menu des- 
ignation and sent to a second Model II. This 
four-disk unit is the data bank. Though 
there is room for up to 2,70X) pages, the Tri- 
bune now uses over 650. Of these, 1 70 or so 
are what Skufca calls floats— weekly items 
which stay on line until replaced. Cafeteria 
menus (for 22 schools), the Friday money 
fund report, and the weekly Chicago grain 
market summary are examples. There are 
450 to 500 new pages every day, and as 
many as 200 of these are updated once or 
twice again during the course of each day. 

To gain access to the data bank, the sub- 
scriber must have a Tandy Videotex termi- 
nal, or a TRS-80 Color Computer plus Tandy 
software and a modem, or a Model I or III 
plus an RS-232 and modem. (A Model I re- 
quires an Expansion Interface also.) The 
user loads a short software program (30 
seconds at 500 baud) that asks which menu 
items are desired. The software also pro- 
vides handshaking and protocols request- 
ed by the Tandy eight-line Multiplexer. The 
Tribune provides a Videotext Listings Guide 
(a menu) with over 100 entries from which 
the user may select. 

During the set-up period, there was a 
problem with the Videotex software. It had 
been written by CompuServe and marketed 
by Tandy. The Advertiser-Tribune was star- 
tled to discover that Tandy Videotex would 
not connect a Tandy Color Computer or any 
TRS-80 with a Model II data bank. Conster- 
nation! Tandy modified the Videotex soft- 
ware to work with the Color Computer, and 
the Tribune commissioned connection soft- 
ware (free to subscribers) for Models I 
and III. 

A 4K Videotex terminal or Color Comput- 
er owner can select no more than eight 
pages from the menu, but a 16K Model I or 
III owner can select up to 24 pages. Soft- 
ware on order will make up to 58 pages pos- 
sible to TRS-80s with 32K memory. After se- 
lecting, the subscriber enters a password 
and an identification number and then dials 

102 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



the access telephone number with the mo- 
dem on line. The subscriber's machine is 
now in contact with a Radio Shack Multi- 
plexer. 

The Multiplexer calls up the menu pages 
requested from the data bank computer at 
9,600 baud, stores them in its 64K internal 
buffer, and sends them at 300 baud via tele- 
phone line. Once the information transfer is 
complete, the Multiplexer terminates the 
phone call, and the subscriber can use up 
and down arrows to scroll the information 
for reading, or he can print it. 

How fast is information transfer? Skufca 
gave me the figure of eight pages in 40 sec- 
onds; one subscriber estimated two min- 
utes for eight pages. Each character re- 
quires a start bit, eight character bits, and a 
stop bit; 10 in all. At the 300-baud transfer 
rate (300 bits per second), 30 characters are 
transmitted each second; I timed an eight- 
page NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) 
closing report at about two minutes' trans- 
fer time. 



The Future 

In thinking about a system like this, and 
about its potential for setting patterns for 
the future, it is important to recognize that 
the economics of electronic publishing are 
radically different from those of print 
publishing. 

It costs money to print every page, and 
thus every column inch, of a print newspa- 
per. Print editions can be squeezed for 
space; video versions aren't. It would be 
unthinkable for a print paper to carry the 
same story every day for a week: the week- 
ly "What's New in Stocks?" or the "Friday 
Mutual Fund Report" for example. Rerun- 
ning an article doesn't cost the video ver- 
sion a dime. Fast-breaking print newspa- 
per stories are no longer updated in extra 
editions by newsboys shouting "Huxtry, 
Huxtry" on city streets— not since radio 
and tv stole that show. The video version 
can steal some of it back with a Scripsit 
paragraph deletion and a direct rewrite in- 
sertion of late-breaking world or local 
news, weather warnings, winter school 
closings, and so forth. 

There are long NYSE and AMEX and over- 
the-counter stock reports and farm price 
quotations which Spencer sees as being of 
great interest to area business and agricul- 
tural people, but which the print paper can't 
afford to publish every day. The video ver- 
sion, by contrast, carries 15 major stock 
and bond listings plus another dozen busi- 
ness commentary sections and 10 agricul- 
ture sections, many of them replaced or up- 
dated daily. 

With a combination of Compugraphic-set 
news from the print paper newsroom and 



relatively inexpensive wire service feed in 
Compugraphic-ready form, the video ver- 
sion is two or three times the size of the 
26-page newsprint version using 1/4 of its 
data bank capacity. 

That is the good news for the electronic 
publisher: virtually unlimited space and in- 
expensive information. The bad news is 
that advertising, which is the financial 
backbone of printed newspaper publishing, 
will have to be rethought if the whole cost of 
the news and information offered by an 
electronic information service is not to be 
borne by the subscriber alone. 

Print media thrust the advertising at the 
reader by putting it on the same page with 
the news and features. Television and radio 
intermixed it with the programs. Neither 
method works for a medium which is menu- 
driven, where the user can choose exactly 
what he or she wants to see. 

Spencer calls the solution "Market 
Place." If advertising is to have a significant 
role in paying for the subscriber's use of the 
medium, then that subscriber must be per- 
suaded to ask for the advertising. A half- 
time advertising sales person has joined 
the video staff, and the target is the sale of 
"yellow page ads." These are half-page ads 
listing the name, address, phone number, 
and services of a business, categorized by 
type of business. An advantage for advertis- 
ers is that new services or products, 
changes of address or phone number, can 
be made in seconds rather than in next 
year's phone book. Available now are video 
classified ads, with an option to list in both 
media for a few cents more. 

Spencer is optimistic about the potential 
of charts and graphics in the video publica- 
tion; Skufca is more restrained. The differ- 
ent TRS-80s and the Videotex terminal han- 
dle graphics input differently, she points 
out. What is a circle to one is a flattened 
oval to another. X-Y axis curves are affect- 
ed in the same way. Bar graphs are no prob- 
lem, but pie charts are somewhere beyond 
the next hill. 

Spencer is also enthusiastic about the 
concept of on-demand publishing. Software 
is being written to determine which menu 
items are most frequently requested by sub- 
scribers. Despite the enormous amount of 
unused capacity, least requested items will 
be dropped. "We want to use our limited for- 
matting time on the items people are look- 
ing at," Skufca explains. 

The videotext Advertiser-Tribune is an ex- 
periment, one that is planned to run at least 
three years. It is an attempt to combine the 
electronic news services available to all 
news media with the local focus of a rural 
area and small circulation newspaper. Can 
a video news and information service sur- 
vive in a small Ohio town, population 

Reader Service for lacing page ^84— 







G250 Middlebelt (Garden City, Michigan 48135 

800-521-6504 / (313] 4E5-4020 



Written by Larry Ashmun, Copyright 1981 Soft Sector Marketing, Inc. 

Prices Per Game: TRS-80 16K Level II Mod I/Mod III Cassette $15.95 

TRS-80 32K Level II Mod I/Mod III Diskette $19.95 

Talking and sound effects are playable through the cassette AUX plug. High scores are 
automatically saved after each game on disk versions. 
Call or write for our complete catalog. 

10% discount for 2 items, 15% for 3 or more. Please add $2.50 per order for , — t=t-. ~- 

postage ft handling. Michigan residents add 4% sales tax. Outside USA Mottwcord 
(except Canada) please add $10.00 per order for postage (t handling. L=i_ 



"The Tribune expects to 
operate in the red for at least a 
couple of years on this project. " 



20,000, print newspaper circulation 11,500? 

Spencer and Skufca insist that the video- 
text version is not an electronic newspaper, 
and they are only too right. In its present 
form, the videotext Advertiser-Tribune is a 
data bank which offers much information 
not carried in the print edition plus short 
news items and summaries which have the 
effect of directing the subscriber to the 
print newspaper for the full story. It does 
have the potential, however, of becoming 
an electronic newspaper. 

There are tens of thousands of kilobytes 
of unused space in the existing system; 
more than enough room for every word that 
now goes into the print newspaper. And 
every word is directly available in Compu- 
graphic form. There is space to carry items 
in two sizes: a short version of only the lead 
paragraphs as well as a complete version of 
the story. There are at least three problems 
associated with a policy of full news cover- 
age. 

First, the 43-characters-per-line output of 
the Compugraphic is manually reformatted 
to the 32 character line required by TRS-80s. 
Carrying every story from the print version 



would greatly increase the time required for 
such formatting if it were to be done manu- 
ally. There are at least two fixes for this out- 
put problem. New software could be creat- 
ed to transform the 43-character Compu- 
graphic output to word-sensitive 32-charac- 
ter lines, or the Compugraphic itself could 
be set to output 32-character lines. Such an 
adjustment would interfere with the Com- 
pugraphic's feed to the typesetting comput- 
er, but if there is a time when all the type is 
set for the day's edition, the video version 
could still have the news first in the sub- 
scriber's home. 

Second, the system is not interactive; it 
does not offer a menu on screen, accept 
user choices, and then deliver requested 
material all in one operation. The subscrib- 
er chooses from a printed menu (the List- 
ings Guide) and requests items from that 
list. This is a tougher problem. Menu selec- 
tion prior to connection is essential to the 
low flat-rate subscription which makes this 
service so attractive. Interactive connection 
would require time-on-line charging— a 
quite different kind of service. 

Finally, it is difficult to escape the im- 



pression that newspaper people have a 
print bias. An electronic newspaper worth 
buying in its own right could be threatening 
to them. I'm convinced that print-oriented 
publishing people will have to recognize 
and work through this bias if a newspaper- 
based video news facility is ever to become 
popular, or profitable. 

Is It Profitable? 

The Tribune expects to operate in the red 
for at least a couple of years on this project. 
Projected three-year operating costs, ac- 
cording to best estimates, are around 
$140,000, of which $25,000 is up-front equip- 
ment cost (mainly two Model Ms with disks 
and a RadioShack eight-line telephone Mul- 
tiplexer). The rest goes for supplies and 
staff. Income will be from' subscriptions at 
$6 per month, just about equal to newsprint 
edition price, and some (it is hoped) from 
advertisers. 

Subscribers can call in 24 hours a day. 
The Multiplexer will handle up to four calls 
at once, and is expandable to eight. Sub- 
scribers outside Tiffin pay long-distance 
charges, but at off-peak hours these are 






What is The Alternate Source? 

TAS is your one-stop supplier for software and information for 
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We guarantee your satisfaction completely. If, after examining 
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THK A l)\ KM I KK SYSTKM - \ comprehensive tool for games or educational 

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3) ...A wide selection of software from a variety of vendors, 
including Soft Sector Marketing (Lazy Writer). Big Five 
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constantly monitor our inventory, discontinue the bad and 
add the good. 

1) ...A growing line of quality products. Our latest addition: 
The Arranger, a disk librarv program that allows vou to read 
everything (LDOS, NEWDOS/80. DOSPLL'S and TRSDOS, 
Model I and III versions) if you are running double density. 
Allows updating for diskettes already on file (instead of 
redoing the entire library), won't hang if an unrecognized 
format is encountered and includes standard features such as 
sorting, searching for files or free grans, printing, etc. The 
Arranger was written by Dan Foy with consultation by Jesse 
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5) ...An 800 number for your convenience: (800)218-0281. 

Put The Alternate Source to work for you! Request our 
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- 1-800-248-0284 




704 North Pennsylvania Avenue 

Lansing. Michigan 18906 

Phone 1-517-182-8270 or 1-800-218-0281 



^ 69 



104 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



"The initial subscription 
response has been encouraging. 



small, even for the subscriber in Seattle, 
Washington. From there, and after 11 p.m., 
a direct dial call costs 22 cents for the first 
minute and 16 cents for each additional 
minute of connection. Wherever you live in 
the continental U.S., you might want to 
check out this electronic service; just send 
$6 to The Advertiser-Tribune, Tiffin, OH 
44883. 

Spencer estimates, based on national 
data, that there are 200 to 300 home com- 
puters in the Tribune's service area now. He 
projects subscriptions at 600 to 800 in the 
next three years, and the lower estimate 
would cover operating costs plus equip- 
ment amortization. The initial subscription 
response has been encouraging. After a 
month and a half into the experiment, there 
were 25 subscribers: two farmers, a few 
people monitoring the system with an eye 
to opening a similar information service, 
and about eight TRS-80 hobbyists and eight 
area businessmen. 

The success of this experiment will de- 
pend upon several factors: 

• There must be a significant increase in 
the number of computers (and terminals) 



owned by area people during the next three 
years. Industry estimates for new micro 
sales in 1982 are nearly three million. If this 
growth trend continues, and if Tandy holds 
its market share, that means a lot of new 
TRS-80s in use; many of them in the Trib- 
une's service area. 

• The Tribune must add service to non- 
Tandy rigs. Software for the Model II, Apple, 
and IBM computers is now in the planning 
stage. 

• A major barrier to many potential sub- 
scribers is the cost of the Expansion Inter- 
face, RS-232, and modem. The Tribune is 
hoping to develop software which will elim- 
inate the need for any peripheral except a 
modem. 

• The service must be worth subscribing 
to. A full-coverage news service will be pos- 
sible if and when the Tribune gets software 
(it is under study) which will permit direct 
feed from Compugraphic to the editing 
computer without manual formatting. Since 
there is no practical space constraint, many 
UPI stories and features which the print ver- 
sion does not use could be added, once the 
formatting problem is solved. ■ 



Coordinated 
Business Software 

D.B. Software Co. announces a new 
line of coordinated business software 
designed for the Model III TRS-80. 
The BASE system consists of a Gen- 
eral Ledger System with Accounts 
Receivable and Accounts Payable. 
Other modules can be purchased 
and added as needed. 

BASE System (GL-AR-AP) $200.00 

Coordinated Modules: 

Payroll $ 75.00 

Order Entry $125.00 

Inventory $129.95 

Purchase Order Entry $1 25.00 
Inventory (special for 

Auto Parts Suppliers) $1 29.95 

Also available: 

Job Costing with GL and AP 

(Payroll optional) $500.00 

Mailing Lister $100.00 

Coming soon: 

Apartment Management System, 
Fixed Assets System, Manufacturing 
Inventory Management System 

Send S.A.S.E. for more information 
D.B. Software Co. 

1 1840 NE Brazee, Portland, OR 97220 

Phone (503) 255-7735 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 




It's your choice: 

do it the hard way, or 
get the information you need from 



feSii .*??* 






VOLUME I 

The most complete book yet 
on the math routines of the 
BASIC ROM, Models I & III. 
Contains a wealth of detail 
about integer, single and dou- 
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and assembly language inter- 
facing, with examples. In- 
cludes commented listing 
(0708H-1607H), plus a highly 
detailed map of the ROM and 
reserved RAM. 



I&ll 

Comprehensive Guide to TRS-80* Assembly Language Routines 

Each Volume Priced At $14.95 Plus $1.50 Shipping/Handling 
VA residents add 4% tax • Foreign: send U.S. funds, add $4 ea. for overseas delivery 

"Trademark of Tandy Coro. 



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P.O. Box 7086, Dept. SUM3 • Alexandria, VA 22307 

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VOLUME II 

Packed full of useful informa- 
tion on the model I input/ 

output routines, with de- 
tailed listings to illustrate the 
commented source code. 
Learn to control and 
manipulate the keyboard, 
video, printer port, and 
cassette port. Essential for 
assembly language program- 
mers, you caf write youi own 
routines or use the many pro- 
gramming examples included. 



■See List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 105 



GRAPHICS 



You've gawked at the result— now learn the technique. 



Spiromania— Part II 







Program 


Listing 1. Machine Code Routine 


0001 


0600 






NAM SPIRALS 




0002 


0600 






SETDP 




0003 


0600 






ORG $7C00 




0004 


7C00 


BDB3ED 


STRT 


JSR 5B3ED 


USR ARG TO D 


0005 


7C03 


8E02D0 




LDX #360*2 


#DEGS EVEN 


0006 


7C06 


C501 




BITB #1 


EVEN ARG? 


0007 


7C08 


2703 




BEQ A§ 


IF SO 


0008 


7C0A 


8E0168 




LDX #180*2 


#DEGS ODD 


0009 


7C0D 


AF8C48 


A@ 


STX <CIRC+1,PCR 




0010 


7C10 


9E8A 




LDX <$8A 


•CONSTANT ZERO 


0011 


7C12 


4F 


STEP 


CLRA 


IGNORE MSB 


0012 


7C13 


3416 




PSHS A,B,X 


LOBES/ANGLE 


0013 


7C15 


BD9FB5 




JSR $9FB5 


D*X TO Y,U 


0014 


7C18 


1F30 




TFR U,D 


RSLT TO D 


0015 


7C1A 


1700A1 




LBSR SIN1 


SIN(LOBES*ANG) 


0016 


7C1D 


8600 




LDA #0 


# TIMES 


0017 


7C1F 


2706 




BEQ B@ 


IF NONE 


0018 


7C21 


5A 


A a 


DECB 


OR WHATEVER 


0019 


7C22 


12 




NOP 




0020 


7C23 


12 




NOP 




0021 


7C24 


4A 




DECA 


DONE ALL? 


0022 


7C25 


26FA 




BNE A? 


NO 


0023 


7C27 


3404 


Be 


PSHS B 


SAVE RADIUS 


0024 


7C29 


8D32 




BSR XY 


GET COORDS 


0025 


7C2B 


3261 




LEAS 1,S 


RSTR STK 


0026 


7C2D 


2108 




BRN DOT 


USE BRA FOR DOTS 

Program continues 



by Jake Commander 

80 Micro Technical Editor 



Eds. note: This is the second part of a 
two-part series on color graphics. Part one 
appeared in the May issue of 80 Microcom- 
puting. 

The machine code routine in Listing 1 
works by performing the sine/cosine 
evaluations for a complete spyrographic 
loop. Each point is plotted at half-degree 
increments in order to increase the resolu- 
tion of the final pattern. This is why the 




106 



Photo 1 
80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Photo 2. Hearts 



'. . . 256 lobes produces a delicate resemblance 
of a souffle prepared with too much milk." 



table is 180 bytes long— one entry for each 
half-degree from zero to 89.5 degrees. De- 
spite the fine resolution, dots soon appear 
with gaps between them at fast-changing 
portions of spirographs. This can be used to 
great effect to produce some nice interac- 
tions between apparently unrelated dots, 
but if it irks you (as it sometimes did me) I 
have provided an option that will join the 
dots using the line-draw routine in ROM. 
This is the same technique as the Circle 
command produces patterns with no gaps 
between the dots. Be aware that with some 
patterns, using lines tends to fill the screen 
too fast, detracting from otherwise more 
delicate possibilites. Let your own taste 
decide. 

Machine Code Run-down 

Here's how the machine code works with 
reference to the line numbers in the source 
listing: 

Line 4 uses a ROM routine to pick up the 
number of lobes called for in parentheses in 
the USR call from Basic. This is returned in 
register D of the 6809. (Register D is 
registers A and B used together as a 16-bit 
pair.) 

Lines 5-9 set up the number of degrees 
required to complete a spirographic loop. 
For patterns with odd numbers of lobes 180 
degrees does the job, for even numbers 360 
is required. Both these numbers are multi- 
plied by two to facilitate plotting at half- 
degree increments. You should note that 
patterns using even numbers produce 
designs with twice the number of lobes as 
the number you input; 4 produces 8 lobes, 
and so on. 

Line 10 initializes the plotted angle to zero. 
Advantage is taken of the fact that Color 
Basic uses RAM location $8A as a 16-bit 
zero constant. Change location $8B to a 
one and Basic gets all its sums wrong! 

Line 11 ensures no more than 256 lobes 
are allowed. This is a more than adequate 
number, even with the highest resolution 
attainable. The maximum of 256 lobes pro- 
duces a delicate resemblance of a souffle 
prepared with too much milk. 

Lines 12-15 get the sine values of the 
number of lobes multiplied by the current 
plotting angle. This is the simulated circular 
motion of the small wheel inside the larger. 
The number returned determines how the 
radius changes as the pattern is spun 
through 360 degrees. 

Lines 16-22 are for your self-indulgent 
pleasure. You can process the radius in reg- 
ister B with any code you like for your own 



Program continued 












0027 


7C2F 


AE62 




LDX 2,S 


; ANGLE 


0028 


7C31 


260D 




BNE C@ 


,-IF NOT 1ST 


0029 


7C33 


97C4 




STA <SC4 


; SETUP LINE STRT 


0030 


7C35 


D7C6 




STB <$C6 


;Y LINE STRT 


0031 


7C3 7 


97BE 


DOT 


STA <$BE 


;X DOT COORD 


0032 


7C39 


D7C0 




STB <$C0 


;Y DOT COORD 


0033 


7C3B 


BD9374 




JSR $9374 


;SET PIXEL 


0034 


7C3E 


2013 




BRA D@ 




0035 


7C40 


3406 


ce 


PSHS A,B 


;X,Y COORDS 


0036 


7C42 


96C4 




LDA <SC4 


;PREV LINE STRT 


0037 


7C44 


D6C6 




LDB <$C6 


; DITTO Y COORD 


0038 


7C46 


97 BE 




STA <$BE 


;LINE STRT X 


0039 


7C48 


D7C0 




STB <$C0 


;LINE STRT Y 


0040 


7C4A 


3506 




PULS A,B 




0041 


7C4C 


97C4 




STA <SC4 


;LINE END X 


0042 


7C4E 


D7C6 




STB <SC6 


;LINE END Y 


0043 


7C50 


BD94A1 




JSR S94A1 


;DRAW LINE 


0044 


7C53 


3516 


D@ 


PULS A,B,X 


; LOBES/ANGLE 


0045 


7C55 


3001 




LEAX 1,X 


,-BUMP ANGLE 


0046 


7C57 


8C02D0 


CIRC 


CNPX #360*2 


;DONE CIRCLE? 


0047 


7C5A 


25B6 




BCS STEP 


;NOT YET 


0048 


7C5C 


39 




RTS 




0049 


7C5D 


EC65 


XY 


LDD 5,S 


;CRNT ANGLE 


0050 


7C5F 


8D5A 




BSR SIN 


;SIN TO B 


0051 


7C61 


A662 




LDA 2 , S 


; RADIUS 


0052 


7C63 


8D1B 




BSR SRAD 


; GYRATE X 


0053 


7C65 


8D38 




BSR SCL 


; SCALE FOR VID 


0054 


7C67 


CB20 




ADDB *32 


;RSTR CENTER 


0055 


7C69 


3404 




PSHS B 


;SAVE X COORD 


0056 


7C6B 


EC66 




LDD 6,S 


;CRNT ANGLE 


0057 


7C6D 


8D49 




BSR COS 


;COS TO B 


0058 


7C6F 


53 




COMB 


;INVRT FOR VID 


0059 


7C70 


A663 




LDA 3,S 


; RADIUS 


0060 


7C7 2 


8D0C 




BSR SRAD 


; GYRATE Y 


0061 


7C7 4 


8D29 




BSR SCL 


; SCALE FOR VID 


0062 


7C7 6 


CB00 




ADDB *0 


;Y OFFSET 


0063 


7C7 8 


C1C0 




CMPB #192 


;> MAX? , 


0064 


7C7A 


2502 




BCS A@ 


;NO 


0065 


7C7C 


C0C0 




SUBB #192 


;WRAP AROUND 


0066 


7C7E 


3582 


A@ 


PULS A, PC 


;GET X & RTS 


367 


7C80 


3402 


SRAD 


PSHS A 


; RADIUS 


0068 


7C82 


4D 




TSTA 


;>127? 


0069 


7C83 


2B01 




BMI Ay 


;YES 


0070 


7C85 


43 




COMA 


;MAKE > 127 


07.1 


7C86 


8080 


A@ 


SUBA #128 


;GST 0-127 


8072 


7C88 


3404 




PSHS B 


;CRNT SIN/COS 


0073 


7C8A 


5D 




TSTB 


;>127? 


0074 


7C8B 


2B01 




BMI B@ 


; YES 


0075 


7C8D 


53 




COMB 


;MAKE > 127 


0076 


7C8E 


C080 


B@ 


SUBB #128 


;GET 0-127 


0077 


7C90 


3D 




MUL 


; (7 BIT) 


0078 


7C91 


58 




LSLB 


;GRAB 


0079 


7C92 


49 




ROLA 


; EXTRA BIT 


0080 


7C93 


8B80 




ADDA #128 




0081 


7C95 


1F89 




TFR A,B 


jRSLT TO B 


0082 


7C97 


3582 




PULS A 


;CRNT SIN/COS 


0083 


7C99 


A8E0 




EORA ,S+ 


;RADIUS SIGN 


0084 


7C9B 


2A01 




BPL C@ 


;SrGNS SAME 


0085 


7C9D 


53 




COMB 


;ELSE RVRSE RSLT 


0086 


7C9E 


39 


C@ 


RTS 




00 87 


7C9F 


86FF 


SCL 


LDA #255 


; SCALE FACTOR 


0088 


7CA1 


8DDD 




BSR SRAD 


; SCALE RADIUS 


0089 


7CA3 


5D 




TSTB 


;=0? 


0090 


7CA4 


2601 




BNE A@ 


;NO 


0091 


7CA6 


5A 




DECB 


;ELSE -1 


0092 


7CA7 


1F98 


Ay 


TFR B,A 




0093 


7CA9 


8403 




ANDA #3 


;SAVE LO BITS 


0094 


7CAB 


3402 




PSHS A 


;TC STK 


0095 


7 CAD 


54 




LSRB 


J 1/2 


0096 


7CAE 


54 




LSRB 


;i/4 


0097 


7CAF 


3404 




PSHS B 




0098 


7CB1 


EBE4 




ADDB ,S 


;2/4 


0099 


7CB3 


EBE0 




ADDB ,S+ 


;3/4 


0100 


7CB5 


EBE0 




ADDB ,S+ 


;+ LO BITS 


0101 


7CB7 


39 




RTS 










♦ENTRY 


D=ANGLE*2 (DEGS 


<=65536) 








*EXIT 


B=SIN. - 255 




0102 


7CB8 


C300B4 


COS 


ADDD #90*2 


; COSINE EP 


0103 


7CBB 


C30000 


SIN 


ADDD #0 


; ANGULAR OFFSET 


0104 


7CBE 


3416 


SIN1 


PSHS A,B,X 


Program continues 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 107 



MODELS I & III 
DISK BASIC PROGRAMS 

RANDOM ACCESS PAYROLL VER. 1.1 



• No complicated initials. 

• EDIT & LIST 

• NO SPECIAL CHECKS 

• USES NEB 9020 checks 

• PAY any employee anyt 

• STATE-FICA— FED TAXES — SAVINGS 



• SALARIED or hourly 

• SPECIAL PAY -special hours 

• TWO SAVINGS— including RIA 

• CLASSED by occupation or depl 

• PAYSTUB shows Year toDato 



SEND YOUR STATE TAX SCHEDULE- 
FREE— customized to your state tax 

Documentation Jto 00 
Disk S Documentation $95 00 

RANDOM ACCESS DEPRECIATION 

• LISTS any one year s depreciation 

• OR complete list of all property 

• PRINTOUT shows— ID. Number— description— 

• Yt. purchased— life— method— 
1st yr. additional depreciation— 

• Reg. deprec — deprec prior yrs— balance 

• SUMMARY — total value prop -additional 1st yr 

• REGULAR deprec —deprec prior yrs 

• PERMANENT records tor your taxes 

Documentation SI 5 00 

Disk S Documentation $195 00 

MIN 32K- 1 DISK-PRINTER/132CPI 

TERMS. Personal checks require 3 weeks to clear 

USE— VISA— MASTER CHARGE— MONEY ORDERS 

TEL T PM-9 30 PM EASTERN— (617) 359-2364/63/0 

SEND. SASE tor additional information 

MEDFIELD COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

39 GREEN ST. MEDFIELD. MA 02O52 ^215 



EDUCATIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

For TRS-80* Color Computer, PET, Apple II, 



ELEMENTARY 

SCIENCE 

GEOGRAPHY 

ECONOMICS 

FOREIGN LANG. 

GRAMMAR 



MATH 
HISTORY 
ACCOUNTING 
BUSINESS ED. 
FARM RECORDS 
COIN INVENTORY 



Write for FREE Catalogue: 
MICRO LEARN1NGWARE^209 

BOX 2 1 34. N. MANKATO MN 56001 
507-625 2205 



VISA «. MASTER CHARGE ACCEPTED 

We pay I 5*0 royalty for Eclucarional 

Programs listed with us 

Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Co. 

TRS-80 Is a registered trademark of TANDY COUP. 

Pet Is a trademark of Commodore Bus. Machines. 



PILE FORCE 

A Disk File Program Designed lor the Small Businessman 

File Force is designed to readily keep track ot all your bus 
and programs By utilizing all the power ol your TRS-80 
Basic This program is specially designed to cc— — "■" - 
disk utility the speed ot random access and 
general database manager 

File Force will automatically read the in'— 
allow you to search the masterlile by 

the name ot the disk 



any e«tenson such as a date CMO «-* 310 

Other special features include easy updating Where 
houses have protected their disks to make them u. 
Force will lei you assign a disk name and enter those 
names It will also create a master printout ol all business 
records on your disks lor sale keeping and better manage 
your resources 

System Requirements TRS-80 Model I 48K One Oisk Drive 
TRSOOS Version 2 3 S19 95 Please add S2 tor handling and 
postage S5 overseas lor your convenience you may phone in VISA 
or M/C orders 

SOFTWAREHOUSE INTERNATIONAL 

We've Moved! P.O. Box 1383 • '»nd»co.p 

Clovis. CA 93613: (209) 2517877 



108 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Program continued 












0105 


7CC0 


830168 


A@ SUBD 


*180*2 


;ANGLE>180? 


0106 


7CC3 


24FB 


BCC 


A§ 


;SUB TIL < 180 


0107 


7CC5 


C30168 


ADDD 


#180*2 


;THEN READJST 


0108 


7CC8 


108300B4 


CMPD 


#90*2 


; ANGLE > 907 


0109 


7CCC 


2507 


BCS 


B@ 


;IF ANGLE < 90 


0110 


7CCE 


3406 


PSHS 


A,B 


; ANGLE TO STK 


0111 


7CD0 


CC0168 


LDD 


#180*2 


;180 DEGS 


0112 


7CD3 


A3E1 


SUBD 


,S++ 


; MINUS ANGLE 


0113 


7CD5 


308C1C 


B @ LEAX 


<SINTBL 


PCR ;=> TBL 


0114 


7CD8 


3A 


ABX 




;»> SIN VAL 


0115 


7CD9 


E684 


LDB 


,X 


;GET SIN VAL 


0116 


7CDB 


3510 


PULS 


X 


; ORIGINAL ANGLE 


0.117 


7CDD 


3404 


PSHS 


B 


;HOLD SIN 


0118 


7CDF 


1F10 


TFR 


X,D 




0119 


7CE1 


8302D0 


Ce SUBC 


#360*2 


;ANGLE > 360? 


0120 


7CE4 


24FB 


BCC 


ce 


;SUB TIL <360 


0121 


7CE6 


C302D0 


ADDD 


#360*2 


; READJUST 


0122 


7CE9 


10830168 


CMPD 


#180*2 


;ANGLE >180? 


0123 


7CED 


3504 


PULS 


B 


;RSTR SIN 


0124 


7CEF 


2501 


BCS 


D@ 


;IF < 180 


0125 


7CF1 


53 


COME 






01 26 


7CF2 


3590 


D6 PUL£ 


X , PC 


;RSTR X & RTS 


0127 


7CF4 


80 


SINTBL FCB 


128 




0128 


7CF5 


81 


FCB 


129 




0129 


7CF6 


82 


FCB 


130 




0130 


7CF7 


83 


FCB 


131 




0131 


7CF8 


84 


FCB 


13 2 




0132 


7CF9 


86 


FCB 


134 




0133 


7CFA 


87 


FCB 


135 




0134 


7CFB 


8 8 


FCB 


136 




0135 


7CFC 


3 9 


FCB 


137 




0136 


7CFD 


8 A 


FCB 


138 




0137 


7CFE 


8B 


FCB 


139 




0138 


7CFF 


8C 


FCB 


140 




0139 


7D00 


8D 


FCB 


141 




0140 


7D01 


8E 


FCB 


142 




0141 


7D02 


8F 


FCB 


143 




0142 


7D03 


91 


FCB 


145 




8143 


7D04 


92 


FCB 


146 




014 4 


7D05 


93 


FCB 


147 




3145 


7D06 


94 


FCB 


148 




0146 


7D07 


95 


FCB 


149 




0147 


7D08 


96 


FCB 


150 




0148 


7D09 


97 


FCB 


151 




0149 


7D0A 


98 


FCB 


152 




0150 


7D0B 


9 9 


FCB 


153 




0151 


7D0C 


9 A 


FCB 


154 




0152 


7D0D 


9B 


FCB 


155 




01 53 


7D0E 


9D 


FCB 


157 




0154 


7D0F 


9F. 


FCB 


158 




0155 


7D10 


9F 


FCB 


159 




0156 


7D11 


A0 


FCB 


160 




0157 


7D12 


Al 


FCB 


161 




0158 


7D13 


A2 


FCB 


162 




0159 


7D14 


A3 


FCB 


163 




0160 


7D15 


A 4 


FCB 


164 




0161 


7D16 


A 5 


FCB 


165 




0162 


7D17 


A 6 


FCB 


166 




0163 


7D18 


A7 


FCB 


167 




0164 


7D19 


A 8 


FCB 


.16 8 




0165 


7D1A 


A 9 


FCB 


169 




0166 


7D1B 


AA 


FCB 


170 




0167 


7D1C 


AB 


FCB 


171 




0168 


7D1D 


AC 


FCB 


172 




0169 


7D1E 


AE 


FCB 


.1 7 4 




0170 


7D1F 


AF 


FCB 


175 




0171 


7D20 


B0 


FCB 


17 6 




0172 


7D21 


Bl 


FCB 


177 




0173 


7D22 


B2 


FCB 


178 




017 4 


7D23 


B3 


FCB 


179 




0175 


7D24 


B4 


FCB 


180 




0176 


7D25 


B5 


FCB 


181 




0177 


7D26 


36 


FCB 


182 




0178 


7D27 


B7 


FCB 


183 




317 9 


7D28 


B8 


FCB 


184 




0180 


7D29 


B9 


FCB 


185 




0181 


7D2A 


BA 


FCB 


186 




0182 


7D2B 


3B 


FCB 


187 




0183 


7D2C 


BC 


FCB 


188 




0184 


7D2D 


BD 


FCB 


1 89 




0185 


7D2E 


BE 


FCB 


190 




0186 


7D2F 


BF 


FCB 


191 




0187 


7D30 


C0 


FCB 


192 




0188 


7D31 


C0 


FCB 


192 




0189 


7D32 


CI 


FCB 


193 




0190 


7D33 


C2 


FCB 


194 




0191 


7D34 


C3 


FCB 


195 




0192 


7D35 


C4 


FCB 


196 




0193 


7D36 


C5 


FCB 


197 




0194 


7D37 


C6 


FCB 


198 




0195 


7D38 


C7 


FCB 


199 




0196 


7D39 


C8 


FCB 


200 




0197 


7D3A 


C9 


FCB 


201 




0198 


7D3B 


CA 


FCB 


202 




0199 


7D3C 


CB 


FCB 


203 




0200 


7D3D 


CC 


FCB 


204 




0201 


7D3E 


CC 


FCB 


20 4 




0202 


7D3F 


CD 


FCB 


205 




0203 


7D40 


CE 


FCB 


206 




0204 


7D41 


CF 


FCB 


207 




0205 


7D42 


D0 


FCB 


208 




0206 


7D43 


Dl 


FCB 


20 9 


Program continues 



Reader Service for facing page ^31- 






THE 
SWITO 

SWITCH T0 5 '^8"DOUBLE DENSITY 

IKDtmbler S/S 



FEATURES 

• 5- and 8-inch* disk drives 

• Single- & double -density 

• Any size and density in any mix 

• Read Model I, II* and III disks 

• 5- or 8-inch* system disk 

• Single & double sided disk drives 

• DOS+ 3.3.9 included, with Disk 
BASIC. 

• 6 month warranty 

• Up to 3.75 megabytes online 

• Easy installation - plug-in & run 

• Analog phase lock loop data 
separation 

• Precision write precompensation 

• Regulated power supply 

• Guaranteed operation at 4MHz 

• All contacts gold plated 

• Solder masked & silk screened 

• Runs under DOS+ 3.3.9, TRSDOS 
2.3, NEWDOS 2.1, NEWDOS/80 
1.0, LDOS, NEWDOS/80 2.0 r 
and ULTRADOS 

• Reads 40- and 35-track disks on 
80-track drives 

• FD1791 controller + your FD1771 

• Fits Model I expansion interfaces 

• Fits LNW expansion interfaces 

• Track configurations to 80-tracks 

• 5 inch disk storage increased to: 

161,280 bytes - 35-track SS/DD 
322,560 bytes - 35-track DS/DD 
184,320 bytes - 40-track SS/DD 
368,640 bytes - 40-track DS/DD 
368,640 bytes - 80-track SS/DD 
737,280 bytes - 80-track DS/DD 

• 8 inch disk storage increased to: 



591,360 bytes - 77-track SS/DD 
1,182,720 bytes - 77-track DS/DD 
SS: single-sided DS: double-sided 
SD: single-density DD: double-density 

COMPLETE - The LNDoubler 5/8, 
switches your Model I or LN W-80 
into the most versatile computer you 
can own. The LNDoubler's switch 
allows you to boot from 5- or 8-inch 
system disks, and it's accessible from 
outside the interface. The LNDoubler 
5/8 comes with a double-density disk 
operating system (DOS+ 3.3.9), 
complete with BASIC and utility 
programs . . . ready to run your 
software NOW! 

VERSATILE - Whether you want 
single-sided, double-sided, single- or 
double-density, 5- or 8-inch operation, 
complete versatility is here today! 
Any combination of 5- and 8-inch disk 
storage is possible with the 
LNDoubler 5/8. Each of your present 
40-track, single-sided 5-inch drives 
will store up to 184,320 bytes 
(formatted storage) - that's an 80% 
increase in storage capacity for only 
half the cost of just one disk drive. 
With three 8-inch double-density, 
double-sided drives your Model I will 
have 3.75 Megabytes of online storage 
- that's more storage than a Model II 
or Model III! 

ADVANCED - The LNDoubler 5/8 
is the most technically advanced, 
tested and reliable double-density 



board you can buy. The LNDoubler 
5/8 has more features, more options 
and more software support than any 
other product of its kind. 

EASY TO INSTALL - The 

LNDoubler 5/8 is easy to install. 
There are no traces to cut, no wiring 
to do, just a screwdriver and a few 
minutes of your time is all that is 
required. The instructions are fully 
illustrated for all interfaces. In 
minutes you will be 'up-and-running', 
and enjoying your computer as never 
before. 

COMPARE - Compare features, 
compare quality, compare value, and 
make the SWITCH today! 
Immediate delivery from stock - at 
your dealer NOW for only 



219.95 



DEALERS - You too can 
make The Switch. 




USU^RESEARCH CORPORA TION 



2620 WALNUT Tustin, CA. 92680 (714)544-5744 (714)641-8850 

*8" drive operation requires special cable, 8" double-density requires 3.55MHz CPU speed-up modification or LNW-80 4MHz computer. TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 











Program continues 








0207 


7D44 


D2 


FCB 210 


0208 


7D45 


D2 


FCB 210 


0209 


7D46 


D3 


FCB 211 


0210 


7D47 


D4 


FCB 212 


0211 


7D48 


D5 


FCB 213 


0212 


7D49 


D6 


FCB 214 


0213 


7D4A 


D7 


FCB 215 


0214 


7D4B 


D7 


FCB 215 


0215 
0216 


7D4C 
7D4D 


D8 
D9 


FCB 216 
FCB 217 


0217 


7D4E 


DA 


FCB 218 


0218 


7D4F 


DB 


FCB 219 


0219 


7D50 


DB 


FCB 219 


0220 


7D51 


DC 


FCB 220 


0221 


7D52 


DD 


FCB 221 


0222 


7D53 


DE 


FCB 222 


0223 


7D54 


DE 


FCB 222 


0224 


7D55 


DF 


FCB 223 


0225 


7D56 


E0 


FCB 224 


0226 


7D57 


El 


FCB 225 


0227 


7D58 


El 


FCB 225 


0228 


7D59 


E2 


FCB 226 


0229 


7D5A 


E3 


FCB 227 


0230 


7D5B 


E3 


FCB 227 


0231 


7D5C 


E4 


FCB 228 


0232 


7D5D 


E5 


FCB 229 


0233 


7D5E 


E5 


FCB 229 


0234 


7D5F 


E6 


FCB 230 


0235 


7D60 


E7 


FCB 231 


0236 


7D61 


E7 


FCB 231 


0237 


7D62 


E8 


FCB 232 


0238 


7D63 


E9 


FCB 233 


0239 


7D64 


E9 


FCB 233 


0240 


7D65 


EA 


FCB 234 


0241 


7D66 


EB 


FCB 235 


0242 


7D67 


EB 


FCB 235 


0243 


7D68 


EC 


FCB 236 


0244 


7D69 


EC 


FCB 236 


0245 


7D6A 


ED 


FCB 237 


0246 


7D6B 


ED 


FCB 237 


0247 


7D6C 


EE 


FCB 23 8 


0248 


7D6D 


EF 


FCB 239 


0249 


7D6E 


EF 


FCB 239 


0250 


7D6F 


F0 


FCB 240 


0251 


7D70 


F0 


FCB 240 


0252 


7D71 


Fl 


FCB 241 


0253 


7D7 2 


Fl 


FCB 241 


0254 


7D73 


F2 


FCB 242 


0255 


7D74 


F2 


FCB 242 


0256 


7D7 5 


F3 


FCB 243 


0257 


7D76 


F3 


FCB 243 


0258 


7D77 


F4 


FCB 244 


0259 


7D78 


F4 


FCB 244 


0260 


7D7 9 


F4 


FCB 244 


0261 


7D7A 


F5 


FCB 245 


0262 


7D7B 


F5 


FCB 245 


0263 


7D7C 


F6 


FCB 246 


0264 


7D7D 


E6 


FCB 246 


0265 


7D7E 


F7 


FCB 247 


0266 


7D7F 


F7 


FCB 247 


0267 


7D80 


F7 


FCB 247 


0268 


7D81 


F6 


FCB 248 


0269 


7D82 


FB 


FCB 248 


0270 


7D83 


F6 


FCB 248 


0271 


7D84 


F9 


FCB 249 


0272 


7D85 


F9 


FCB 249 


0273 


7D86 


F9 


FCB 249 


0274 


7D87 


FA 


FCB 250 


0275 


7D88 


FA 


FCB 250 


0276 


7D89 


FA 


FCB 250 


0277 


7D8A 


FB 


FCB 251 


0278 


7D8B 


FB 


FCB 251 


0279 


7D8C 


FB 


FCB 251 


0280 


7D8D 


FB 


FCB 251 


0281 


7D8E 


FC 


FCB 252 


0282 


7D8F 


PC 


FCB 252 


0283 


7D90 


FC 


FCB 252 


0284 


7D91 


FC 


FCB 252 


0285 


7D92 


FD 


FCB 253 1 


0286 


7D93 


FD 


FCB 253 


0287 


7D94 


FD 


FCB 253 


0288 


7D95 


FD 


FCB 253 


0289 


7D96 


FD 


FCB 253 


0290 


7D97 


FE 


FCB 254 


0291 


7D98 


FE 


FCB 254 


0292 


7D99 


FE 


FCB 254 


0293 


7D9A 


FE 


FCB 254 


0294 


7D9B 


FE 


FCB 254 


0295 


7D9C 


FE 


FCB 254 


0296 


7D9D 


FE 


FCB 254 


0297 


7D9E 


FF 


FCB 255 


0298 


7D9F 


FF 


FCB 255 


0299 


7DA0 


FF 


FCB 255 


0300 


7DA1 


FF 


FCB 255 


0301 


7DA2 


FF 


FCB 255 


0302 


7DA3 


FF 


FCB 255 


0303 


7DA4 


FF 


FCB 255 


0304 


7DA5 


FF 


FCB 255 


0305 


7DA6 


FF 


FCB 255 


0306 


7DA7 


FF 


FCB 255 


0307 


7DA8 


FF 


FCB 255 


0308 


7DA9 




END 


110 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 





The Scott Adams 
Adventure Series 

AN OVERVIEW 






■ MM 



£ 



I stood at the bottom of a deep chasm. CooJ air 
sliding down the sides of the crevasse hit waves of heat 
rising /rom a stream of bubbling Java and /ormed a mist 
over the sluggish flow. Through the swirling clouds I 
caught glimpses of two ledges high above me: one was 
bricked, the other appeared to lead to the throne room 
I had been seeking. 

A blast of fresh air cleared the mist near my feet 
and like a single gravestone a broken sign appeared 
momentarily. A dull gleam of gold showed at the base 
of the sign before being swallowed up by the fog again. 
From the distance came the angry buzz of the killer 
bees. Could I avoid their lethal stings as I had managed 
to escape the wrath of the dragon? Reading the sign 
might give me a clue to the dangers of this pit. 

I approached the sign slowly. 

And so it goes, hour after hour, as you guide your 
microcomputer through the Adventures of Scott 
Adams in an effort to amass treasures within the 
worlds of his imagination. 

By definition, an adventure is a dangerous or 
risky undertaking; a novel, exciting, or otherwise 
remarkable event or experience. On your personal 
computer. Adventure is that and more. 

For the user, playing Adventure is a dangerous or 
risky undertaking in that you better be prepared to 
spend many addictive hours at the keyboard. If you 
like challenges, surprises, humor and being 
transported to other worlds, these are the games for 
you. If you dislike being forced to use your common 
sense and imagination, or you frustrate easily, try 
them anyway. 

In beginning any Adventure, you will find yourself 
in a specific location: a forest, on board a small 
spaceship, outside a fun house, in the briefing room of 
a nuclear plant, in a desert, etc. 

By using two-word commands you move from loca- 
tion to location, manipulate objects that you find in the 
different places, and perform actions as if you were 
really there. The object of a game is to amass treasure 
for points or accomplish some other goal. Successfully 
completing a game, however, is far easier to state than 
achieve. In many cases you will find a treasure but be 
unable to take it until you are carrying the right com- 
bination of objects you find in the various locations. 

How do you know which objects you need? Trial 
and error, logic and imagination. Each time you try 
some action, you learn a little more about the game. 
Which brings us to the term "game" again. While call- 
ed games. Adventures are actually puzzles because 
you have to discover which way the pieces (actions, 
manipulations, use of magic words, etc.) fit together in 
order to gather your treasures or accomplish the mis- 
sion. Like a puzzle, there are a number of ways to fit 
the pieces together; players who have found and 
stored all the treasures (there are 13) of Adventure #1 
may have done so in different ways. 

In finding how the pieces fit, you will be forced to 
deal with unexpected events, apparent dead ends and 
Scott's humor, which is one of the best parts of the 
puzzles. 

If you run into a barrier like not being able to 
discover more rooms, don't give up. Play the game with 
some friends; sometimes they'll think of things you 
haven't tried. 

While I pondered how to reach the throne room — 
which I was sure contained the treasures of Croesus — 
the fog grew thicker and the hours passed. I realized 1 
would not be able to outwit Adams today.. .but maybe 
tomorrow. I marked my present location on my tattered 
map and began the long trip to the surface. As I drag- 
ged myself off to bed, I thought about other possible 
Adventures. 

But enough for tonight. Tomorrow — another 
crack at the chasm. —by Ken Mazur 

Reprinted with permission from 
PERSONAL COMPUTING MAGAZINE, FEB. 1980 

Copyright 1980 PERSONAL COMPUTING MAGAZINE 
1050 Commonwealth Ave.. Boston, Mass. 02215 



The 12 Scott Adams Adventures " 19 

Adventureland • Pirate Adventure • Mission Impossible 
Voodoo Castle • The Count • Strange Odyssey • Mystery 
Fun House • Pyramid of Doom • Ghost Town • Savage 
Island-Part 1 • Savage Island-Part 2 • Golden Voyage 






I 




the seeker of lost treasures in an enchanted 
realm of magical beings? Perhaps you're an 
astronaut, thousands of light years from 
earth, searching the galaxy's rim for 
the fabulous treasures and ad- 
vanced technologies of a 
long-dead civilization. Maybe 
you're the plunderer of 
ancient pyramids in a 
maddeningly dangerous 
land of crumbling ruins, 
and trackless desert 
wastes. 




QjuEgflZEb 



you wish to soar to 
other worlds, to behold 
wonders never beheld 

by mortal eyes, to dream 

unrestrained to the 

furthest limits of your 

^imagination. 



©GLT3E? 

The ADVENTURE SERIES 

by Scott Adams has been 

reviewed by every major 

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receiving only the highest 

praise for its mind-puzzling 

challenge & refreshing originality. 

Tens of thousands of adults and 

children have matched wits with 

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turn, if you crave the challenge and 

panorama of the exotic, touched with 

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©85DDGG© 



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: TRS-80 software? 
Here's a CHEAP CURE! 



The prescription for the Model I and III: 
CLOAD Magazine! 

A CASSETTE TAPE with 6 to 8 programs a month! 

Some past sensational medications 
Game — Caterpillar, Suns, CIA Adventure, Reversi. 
Practical — Securities, Energy, Tape Directory, Checkbook. 
Utility — Variable Dump, Display, Edit, Code It. 

Tutorial - Planets, Spell Eqq, Atomic Tabie, Geometry 

At about 75 cents a program, a subscription to CLOAD 
Magazine is just what the doctor ordered. 



The Bottom Line: 

1 year (12 issues) $42.00 

6 months (6 issues) $23.00 

Single copies 

Back 6SL.es $ 4.50 

Good Games #1 $12.00 

Adventures #1 . $ 1 3 CO 

•Temperature and prices rising July 1, 1982 

California residents add 6% to single copies 
North Amenca — First Class Postage Included 
Overseas — add $'0 to subscriptions, and 
$1 to single copies. Sent AO rate. 



The Fine Print 

All issues from Oct 78 on available 
— ask for list (24 Level I issues also). 
Programs are for I6K Level II, 16K 
Model III, and occasionally for disks. 
TRS-tO is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 

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.--103 



112 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



"Lines 16-20 are for your 
experimental delight" 

experimental delight. The code at this point 
is normally set up to bypass itself. If the 
byte at location $7C20 is changed to a value 
greater than zero your loop will be executed 
that number of times. I've tried shift and 
rotate opcodes to good effect. 

Lines 23-25 calculate the actual X and Y 
coordinates of the pixel to be set using the 
current angle in conjunction with the calcu- 
lated radius at that angle. 

Lines 26-43 use the available ROM rou- 
tines to either set the pixel or draw a line to 
that pixel. The option to draw a line or a dot 
is taken at line 26 with a "do branch always 
or do a branch never" instruction. This is set 
from within the accompanying Basic code. 

Lines 46-48 continue the pixel-setting 
loop until a complete pattern is drawn. At 
that point a return is made to Basic. 

Lines 49-66 comprise a subroutine to de- 
termine the X and Y coordinates, based on 
the current radius. The Y coordinate is 
closely watched to ensure it doesn't stray 
above 191. If it does, the routine wraps it 
back around to the top of the screen. 

Lines 67-86 perform the task of multiply- 
ing a number (either the radius or a scaling 
factor) by a sine-cosine value, as given in 
my trig table. As sines in normal trigonome- 
try take on values from minus one to plus 
one, and my table returns values from zero 
to 255, this routine ensures the calculations 
work out right with those non-trig values. 

Lines 87-101 are a kludge which allow the 
current X or Y coordinate to be scaled down 
even after it's been through the required 
sine/cosine calculations. There are two rea- 
sons for needing a scaledown routine. It 
allows you to compress the X and Y coordi- 
nates so they fit squarely inside a 192 by 
192 pixel grid. Anything above this would 
lose the pattern at the top and bottom of the 
screen. Also, the whole pattern may be re- 
peated at a smaller scale to give the effect 
of patterns within patterns. You'll see an ex- 
ample or two of this in the photographs. 

Lines 102-126 are the routine which ex- 
tracts the sine or cosine value from the 
table according to a given angle. The rou- 
tine determines which quadrant the angle 
lies in and alters the returned value as per 
the mirror-image idea previously discussed 
in Part 1 of this series. 

Lines 127 onward are the sine values 
from zero to 89.5 degrees in half degree 
increments. Remember, the sine of zero de- 
grees is zero, which I take to be the center of 
the screen on the X axis. Hence, I return a 
value of 128 for zero degrees and increase 
as the angle approaches 90 degrees. Let me 



"Let me reiterate that this is the wrong 
way around for normal Y axis plotting. " 




Photo 3 



Photo 4 



reiterate that this is the wrong way round 
for normal Y axis plotting. This is taken care 
of at line 58 in the source code. 

Crunched Numbers 

The machine code does the number- 
crunching required to do a fast single 
pattern. Once that's done, it returns to the 
Basic program. In the current setup it's 
the Basic program in Listing 2 that controls 
the parameters which are POKEd into the 
machine code program. 

The Basic program decides what sort of 



spirograph will be drawn. Each time the pat- 
tern is drawn by the machine code, the Ba- 
sic program can change one or more quali- 
ties of the spirograph and use the machine 
code to draw that variation, allowing layer 
upon layer to be put down with subtle or not 
so subtle changes. You also have the option 
to pause or break execution accord- 
ing to your artistic judgement during the 
times the Basic program is in control. Once 
the machine code starts it can't be stopped 
until it completes the loop. 
One of the fascinations of this design 



process is watching the changes occur and 
observing as unexpected features come 
and go. The creation of heart shapes in 
Photo 2 is an example of this. The hearts 
magically appear out of nowhere and final- 
ly disappear like Valentine's day. 

There's not much to explain regarding 
the workings of the Basic code, which sim- 
ply asks for the required parameters and 
POKEs them into the machine code. If 
changes are required between patterns, the 
program ensures no invalid numbers are 
POKEd by monitoring sensitive values at 




Photo 5 



Photo 6 
80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 113 



". . . in the highest resolution mode, when using black 
and buff, the television gets confused. " 



lines 360 to 420. Like the program in the 
March issue ("The Editor's Choice," page 
78), this is meant to be an experimental 
setup— a computerized arts lab. 

If you really try hard you can crash the 
program especially in the machine code 
phase. Take extra special care with the 
user-defined radius modifications. These 
are contained in the Basic program listing 
as a Remark statement; be sure you have 
some idea of what you're doing before you 
unlock them. If the program starts drawing 
circles over the ceiling or the cat, it's 
probably crashed. Some of the photograph- 
ic examples — notably the butterfly 
shape— were obtained with the user radius 
modification, so you may get some ideas 
how to use this facility. 

Here's an overview of some points of in- 
terest in the program: Line 20 protects the 
machine code routine at hex 7C00 and 
above, defines the entry point of the routine 
and sets a scale factor. This scale factor 
determines the size of the first drawn 
design; it's normally set at 255 (maximum) 
but you can change it to lesser numbers to 
create smaller patterns. A Remark state- 
ment follows, containing the user repeat 
factor and opcode to use for your ex- 
perimental purposes. The X Step and Y Step 
entries change the center of each suc- 
cessive pattern by the number of pixels you 



choose. If you opt for no X Step, the 
spirograph will be drawn dead center; if you 
specify a step rate, it will be drawn starting 
at the left hand side. The Angular Offset en- 
try allows you to lay each pattern down at a 
different rotational angle from the 
preceding one. This can be a positive or 
negative number of degrees, respectively 
achieving clockwise or counter-clockwise 
steps. The Scaledown factor lets you 
reduce the size of each spirograph until it 
disappears and then reappears inside out. 
This is input as a pixel value; e.g., an input 
of five reduces each successive radius by 
five pixels or its diameter by 10 pixels. 

Those of you without an assembler will 
have to POKE in the machine code from a 
For. . . Next loop in Basic or from any 6809 
machine code monitor. You should start 
POKEing from hex address $7C00. The 
bytes to POKE are found in column three of 
the source code listing. You can use a dif- 
ferent origin if you like, as the code is writ- 
ten using the 6809's relocatable opcodes, 
but you'll need to change all the corre- 
sponding POKEs in the Basic program. 
Rather you than me. 

Color Arty-Facts 

In line 160 of the Basic program you'll see 
that I use PMODE 4,1 to get the highest pos- 
sible resolution. This can be changed to 



20 CLEAR50,&H7C00:DEFUSR=&H7C00:SC=255':UR=1:OC=87 

40 INPUT"* LOBES" ; NL 

60 INPUT"LINES OR DOTS ( L ,D) " ; LD$: IFLEFT$ ( LD$ , 1 ) ="L"THENPOKE&H7C 

2D,33ELSEIFLEFT$(LD$,1) <>"D"THEN60ELSEPOKE&H7C2D , 32 

80 INPUT"X STEP";XS:IFXS=0THENXO=32 

100 INPUT"Y STEP";YS 

120 INPUT"ANGULAR OFFSET" ;AO:AO=AO*2 : IFAO<0THENAO=720+AO 

140 INPUT" SCALEDOWN ";SD 

160 PMODE4,1:PCLS0:SCREEN1,1 

180 POKE&HB5,255 'COLOR BYTE 

200 POKE&HB6,0 'PMODE BYTE 

220 POKE&H7ClE,UR:POKE&H7C21,OC 'USER DEFINED RADIUS MODIFICATIO 

N 

240 'POKE&H7C65,32:POKE&H7C66,0 'DISABLES X-AXIS SCALING. 

141 & 31 REENABLE IT. 
260 IFAN>255THENPOKE&H7CBC, AN/256 : POKE&H7CBD ,AN-INT ( AN/256) *256E 
LSEPOKE&H7CBC , : POKE&H7CBD , AN 
280 POKE&H7C68,XO 
300 POKE&H7C77,YO 
320 POKE&H7CA0,SC 
340 X=USR(NL) 

360 XO=XO+XS:IFXO>255THENXO=XO-256 
3 80 YO=YO+YS : IFYO>255THENYO=YO-256" 
400 AN=AN+AO:IFAN>65536THENAN=0 
420 SC=SC-SD:IFSC<0THENSC=255 
440 'UR=UR+1 'USER'S MOD 
460 GOTO220 

Program Listing 2. Basic Code 



114 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



PMODE 3 or less if you want to experiment, 
but the machine code doesn't take into ac- 
count any mode other than 4. Nevertheless, 
it's worth a try; I've produced some interest- 
ing patterns this way although I always 
revert to PMODE 4. 

Here's a thought: In PMODE 4 with 
Screen 1,1, there's supposed to be only two 
colors— black and buff. Where do all those 
blues and reds come from? I hate to say it, 
but I found the answer not from our friends 
at Radio Shack but from a piece of literature 
from Atari Inc. Those blue and red pixels are 
what's known as color artifacts; somewhat 
of a misnomer, considering that they're un- 
intended. It appears that in the highest re- 
solution mode, when using black and buff, 
the television receiver gets confused. The 
incoming video pixel information changes 
so fast and contains sc much high-fre- 
quency content that the color receiver 
thinks it has something to decode other 
than a luminance signal. It mistakenly inter- 
prets this high-speed video transition as a 
chrominance signal and decodes it as such, 
producing a color which at a given pixel lo- 
cation is not under control of the computer. 

This phenomenon occurs only during the 
video-voltage transition caused by a single 
pixel— once a number of pixels run into 
each other, the color decoder correctly rec- 
ognizes the chrominance information and 
displays the buff color. However, by spac- 
ing single pixels at every other interval, the 
overworked decoder thinks the color is 
something other than what it should be. By 
setting pixels at even dot locations you'll 
get one color, at odd locations you'll get the 
other. By placing two together you get yel- 
low, and as more are added, the color fades 
to buff. 

Color artifacts are something we can 
definitely use to advantage. By spacing our 
patterns two pixels apart, the dots will 
stretch out into lines of a definite color. By 
starting the same pattern from an odd or 
even dot position, the colors will be differ- 
ent in each pattern. Also, by judicious mix- 
ing of black, blue, red, yellow and buff, 
many other colors can be obtained. That ex- 
plains the myriads of colors appearing in 
some of my designs. Don't ask me to ana- 
lyze each individual color in those patterns, 
though; some of the color combinations de- 
fy easy analysis. Suffice it to say that some 
bedazzling combinations of color can be 
conjured from a palette of black and buff. 

Pep Talk 

I have a feeling some readers may have 



dropped out on the way. To those of you 
that made it this far: congratulations! 
Those of you that skipped the heavy stuff 
just to get to the icing on the cake— shame 
on you, but enjoy it anyway. I've derived 
some pleasure from sharing my enthusi- 
asm for a fascinating subject. 

Now for the best part: entering the code 
and trying out some of those creations for 
yourself. Table 1 lists the parameters to use 



"/ am acting under inspiration to 
take this one step further. . . " 



to recreate the designs we've published; to 
use the variables UR and OC, don't forget to 
remove the remark apostrophe in line 20 of 
the Basic code. Then enter the variables 
directly into the same line. 

As far as I'm concerned, that's only the 
start. I'm acting under pure inspiration to 
take this one stage further to a Spiro com- 
mand which would be executable from with- 
in a Basic program. The idea is to be able to 



create true spirographs of almost any 
shape and size by specifying the parame- 
ters from ordinary Basic variables. ■ 



A tape of the source and object code with 
the Basic program including data to run 
these and other patterns is available from 
the author for $15: P.O. Box 495, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 























Pholo# 

1 


Lobes 
7 


D/L 

D 


X Y 
Step Step 




Ang 
Offset 

5 


Scale 
Offset 

10 


Comments 

Pause when retouches 
edge 




2 


2 


L 


2 








39 loops 


3 


2 


L 


32 








To completion 


4 


6 


D 


16 








To completion 
(UR= 1:0C = 87) 


5 


2 


L 


16 








To completion 
(UR = 3:0C = 87) 


6 


7 


D 
D 








12 


16 loops 

(UR = 2:0C = 87) 


7 


2 








3 


15 loops 

(UR = 90:OC = 90) 






















Table 1. Design Parameters 



Photo 7 



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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 115 



REVIEW 



From Computerware in California. 



Color Computer Utilities 



Power Pack and Color Diagnos- 
tics, Editor and Assembler 
Computerware 
Encinitas, CA 92024 
Color Computer 
$179.95 16K 

Scott L. Norman 
8 Doris Rd. 
Framingham, MA 01701 



Although Color Computer 
owners can be perfectly 
happy programming in Basic, 
eventually there comes the time 
todig into theother possibilities 
offered by the machine. You 
may want to experiment with 
machine language, or perhaps 
with word processing. If so, you 
are going to need at least some 
of the elements of a program- 
mer's tool kit— namely a moni- 
tor, editor and assembler; sever- 
al of these have recently be- 
come available. 

The Computerware system in- 
cludes both hardware and soft- 
ware elements for the 16K ver- 
sion. Owners of 32K machines 
or disk systems need different 
versions. 

The Power Pack and Monitor 

The heart of the system is its 
hardware component: a plug-in 
cartridge called the Power Pack, 
containing a monitor program in 
2K of ROM plus another 6K of 
static RAM (2716s and 2114s, re- 



spectively). The cartridge fits in- 
to the Color Computer's expan- 
sion ROM port. Since the ma- 
chine scans this port immedi- 
ately when turned on, it "wakes 
up" in the Monitor instead of in 
Basic; the prompt is MON: plus 
a non-flashing block cursor. 
There are commands to return 
you to Basic immediately so the 
Power Pack can be left plugged 
in all the time. Both ROM and 
RAM in the pack occupy loca- 
tions out of the range normally 
addressed by Basic: ROM, 
$C000-$C7FF (49152-51199 
decimal); RAM, $D000-$E7FF 
(53248-59391 decimal). RAM is 
available to Basic programs via 
POKE and PEEK commands and 
can also be used to hold pro- 
tected machine-language pro- 
grams if the proper loading ad- 
dress or offset is given. That is 
exactly what is done with the 
Color Editor. Like all monitors, 
the Color Monitor is a tool allow- 
ing the programmer to examine 
and change memory. This, 
augmented with additional com- 
mands, allows the Color Monitor 
to: have direct access to the 
6809's registers, save and load 
binary cassette files, use the 
RS-232 port to communicate 
with another terminal or with a 
printer in an echo mode, and de- 
bug software by setting break- 
points for program execution. 

The Commands 

Color Monitor commands 
consist of a single alphabetic 
character possibly followed by 



one or more hex arguments. 
Simply typing R (without using 
Enter) produces a display of the 
contents of the 6809's registers, 
while a jump to a specified ad- 
dress requires typing J and the 
address. Blocks of memory can 
be initialized to a given value by 
using the I command: I <starting 
address> <final address> <val- 
ue>. 

Memory can be opened, ex- 
amined and changed if desired 
by simply entering M and the ad- 
dress. You can then load memo- 
ry by typing valid hex charac- 
ters. 

With these commands alone, 
you can enter your own hand-as- 
sembled machine-language pro- 
grams or published programs. In 
the latter case, you would use 
the bytes in the second column 
of a standard Assembly- 
language program listing. 

Here is a quick example. Let's 
start by initializing all of the 
Power Pack's RAM to 3F (soft- 
ware interrupt): I D000 E7FF 3F. 
The Monitor provides the 
spaces as it recognizes each 
valid entry. This particular ini- 
tialization results in hash on the 
screen. Hitting Reset brings 
back the MON prompt, and we 
can enter a program starting at 
the bottom of Power Pack RAM 
with M D000. 

Next begin typing the ma- 
chine code; after every two 
bytes, the display scrolls up and 
shows the new address. When 
finished, the enter key brings 
you back to the Monitor. To exe- 



cute the program, use J D000. 

This is not the way to enter 
lengthy programs; use the Edi- 
tor/Assembler for those. Never- 
theless, I have found the Moni- 
tor very useful for quickly enter- 
ing and testing short segments 
of debugged machine language. 
Its real value becomes evident 
when working with it over a 
period of time and using its com- 
mands to probe the operation 
and status of the 6809 and the 
Color Computer's memory. 

The manual, while concise, 
offers a few goodies, such as a 
table of indirect addresses 
through which various Monitor 
routines can be accessed by the 
user. Presumably, these could 
even be called from Basic via 
the DEFUSR and USR(N) com- 
mands. 

Color Diagnostics 

The Color Diagnostics pro- 
gram is provided as a binary 
cassette file loading and auto- 
executing through the Monitor's 
L command. It is stored in low 
Power Pack RAM; you can reen- 
ter it from the Monitor by enter- 
ing J D000, as long as the pertin- 
ent memory has not been writ- 
ten over. 

The diagnostics are organ- 
ized around a set of nested 
menus. You needn't perform the 
tests in any specific order and 
there are plenty of quit options 
allowing you to exit whenever 
you please. The major tests, in 
order of presentation on the 
master menu, are: 



116 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



• (P) Power Pack— tests both 
ROM and RAM, via a secondary 
menu. The ROM test calculates 
a checksum on the Monitor and 
displays the result (97 for very 
early Color Computers, 52 for 
more recent models). If the RAM 
test is selected, a third-level 
menu comes up offering the op- 
tions of rotating bit, conver- 
gence, and latency tests. 
Should an error occur in any of 
these, an appropriate diagnos- 
tic message is printed. 

• (M) Memory — Test RAM in 
the Color Computer itself, just 
as for the Power Pack. 

• (R) RS-232— Test the serial 
I/O Port if a shorting plug has 
been inserted. 

• (J) Joysticks— Checks the 
left and right joysticks and their 
associated A/D circuitry using 
the secondary menu. 

• (B) Basic ROMS— Test both 
standard and Extended Color 
Basic ROMs by calculating 
checksums (2B and 1D, respec- 
tively, for the 1.0 versions of the 
interpreters). 

• (T) Tape— Tests the I/O ca- 
pabilities of the cassette inter- 
face by recording and reading 
cassette file. If everything is sat- 
isfactory the screen briefly dis- 
plays a complete alphanumeric 
and graphic character set, fol- 
lowed by the message "Cas- 
sette Tests Good." 

• (S) Sound— Causes two 
musical scales to be sounded 
while displaying a piano key- 
board graphic followed by the 
five-note Close Encounters 
theme with a similar display. 

You may invoke menu selec- 
tions at any point by entering 
the first character of the test 

name. 

Color Editor 

The next program in the hier- 
archy, the Color Editor, provides 
powerful commands for manag- 
ing text: Assembly-language 
source code, Basic or English. 
The program searches for and 
changes strings of characters in 
one or many lines of text, and 
moves lines of text within a file, 
meaning it serves as an elemen- 
tary word processor, as well. 

The Editor (which shares a 
cassette with the Color Assem- 
bler) is also loaded with the 

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Monitor's L command. It resides 
in the Power Pack RAM between 
D000 and E0B7. Autoexecution 
begins with the prompt EDT: 
plus a static cursor, identifying 
the command mode used for al- 
most all operations except text 
entry. For this, use the input 
mode accessed by the com- 
mand I from command mode. 

The simplest way to become 
familiar with the Editor's use is 
to follow the manual's example 
and enter something. Hitting the 
I command gives you a machine- 
generated line number and co- 
lon for a prompt. In my version of 
the tape the first line number is 
10, this may vary. Note that this 
is not a Basic line number. It just 
identifies each line of text to the 
Editor itself. A new identifica- 
tion number is generated each 
time you signal the end of a line 
by pressing Enter. In my tape the 
increment is also 10. 

To illustrate the syntax for 
some of the most useful com- 
mands, use the Editor to write a 
simple Extended Color Basic 
Program— one which draws a 
high-resolution circle at the cen- 
ter of the screen. Remember 
that the Basic line numbers 
have to be entered as though the 
Editor were not involved. After 
entry, the display might look like 
this: 

10: 100 PMODE 4,1:PCLS:SCREEN 1,1 
20: 200 CIRCLE(128,96),50 
30: 300 GOTO 300 
40: 

At this point, the Break key re- 
turns you to the command 
mode. To write this program to 
tape (as an ASCII file) enter: 
CS "filename". 

You can not run programs di- 
rectly from the Editor. 

Editing 

Suppose you want to change 
the radius of the circle from 50 
to 75 units, move to line 20 (use 
the identification numbers, not 
the Basic line numbers) by an- 
swering the EDT: prompt with 
20. The syntax for changing the 
target string 50 to 75 is: 

C/50/75/. 
This works if there is only one 
occurrence of "50." As you 
might suspect, there are op- 
tional additions to this com- 
mand letting you pick one out of 



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many occurrences. You can also 
change a target string in each of 
a specified number of lines with 
a single command. 

If you want to draw a smaller 
concentric circle, and have it ap- 
pear first in the Basic program, 
the Editor requires that you 
specify the line after which you 
want to make an addition, so in 
this case our command is 101. 
The result is a prompt of 1 1 . You 
can now go ahead and enter, 
say, 11: 150 CIRCLE(128,96),25 
before exiting by hitting Break. 
If you decide at this point that 
the new circle should be drawn 
after the old, merely use the Edi- 
tor's Move command. In its most 
general form, it allows starting 
at any line and moving a speci- 
fied group of lines to a position 
following another. For this ex- 
ample enter: 1 1 MO #20 1 to start 
at line 1 1 and move one line to a 
position betfind line 20. 
Remember to change the Basic 
line number, though. 

This much of the Editor's ca- 
pability may not seem too im- 
pressive. After all, Extended Col- 
or Basic has some powerful 
editing commands of its own, al- 
though they do not include the 
selective movement of lines of 
code. Remember though that 
the Editor can operate just as 
easily on any sort of input mate- 
rial. Its command suite com- 
prises a total of 36 commands, 
which may be grouped into: 

• Line display and movement 
commands for screen display or 
printouts. Lines may be refer- 
enced by number, scrolled to by 
use of the up and down-arrow 
keys, or searched for according 
to their contents. 

• Line modification and re- 
placement commands, includ- 
ing those for line movement, de- 
letion and insertion. 

• Pattern modification and 
replacement commands for 
editing strings within a line. 

• Cassette commands for 
saving, loading or writing, which 
outputs a portion of a text file in 
memory to a cassette. All cas- 
sette files are in ASCII form, and 
the Editor chains files read in 
succession— no need for the 
POKEs and PEEKs used to 
chain standard tokenized Basic 
files. 



There are also some miscella- 
neous commands, such as 
those used to clear the text area, 
renumber lines of text, turn off 
the line numbers for printing, ex- 
it to Basic or the Color Monitor. 

This is the sort of control you 
need to enter Assembly-lan- 
guage programs of any length. 
Do not be too quick to downplay 
the Editor's usefulness to the 
Basic programmer. The ability 
to find every occurrence of a 
variable name, and perhaps 
change it, can be very handy. 

As a Word Processor 

All of the editing features 
work just as well with English 
text as they do with anything 
else. The people at Computer- 
ware are obviously aware of the 
appeal of plain language pro- 
cessing, and they have included 
a few commands which are es- 
pecially useful for this kind of 
work. These make the Color 
Computer emulate a typewriter 
in some respects, and they add 
at least a measure of printer 
control for generating a pleas- 
ing output format. 

Two of the most useful are the 
Tab and Bell commands. The 
former sets the column(s) to 
which the final text indents in re- 
sponse to the tab key (Shift-®), 
while the latter causes a tone to 
sound when the text being en- 
tered reaches a preset column. 
A line of text may be up to 107 
characters long, depending on 
your printer. The Editor operates 
on physical lines, not logical 
lines, meaning a carriage return 
(Enter) is required whenever you 
reach the end of your printer's 
line length, even if your sen- 
tence isn't finished. You just 
pick up on the next line, as you 
would with a typewriter. The Tab 
command sets the indentation 
for the left margin, as well as for 
the start of paragraphs, sub- 
headings, and so on. This 
means you must follow each En- 
ter with a Shift-® to align your 
left margins. 

This sounds more complex 
than it is; let's run through an ex- 
ample: Start by defining the tab 
positions. Let's say you have an 
80-column printer, so an average 
line should be 60 characters 
long and start at column 10. 



118 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Paragraphs should be indented 
an additional five spaces. The 
appropriate command is: TAB 
10 15. You can set as many as 20 
tab positions. 

Next, set the bell. If a typical 
line is to end at column 70, we 
can get five spaces worth of 
warning with: BE 65. 

The whole setup procedure is 
geared to the printed page for- 
mat; the 32-column screen dis- 
play width never comes into 
play. 

You are now ready to enter 
text. The next command is I, 
as for the previous Basic exam- 
ple. The familiar Shift-0 com- 
mand toggles you into a type- 
writer-like mode, in which lower- 
case is the normal output and 
you must press the shift key 
every time you want an upper- 
case character (until Shift-0 is 
entered again, of course). With 
this done, you can start typing. 
Hit Shift-® twice to get to the 
indentation for your first para- 
graph; these are "logical tabs," 
meaning the cursor doesn't 
move in the input mode, but the 



final text will still look right. 
Type until the tone sounds and 
hit Enter. The Editor-assigned 
number for the next line comes 
up to prompt you. You have to 
remember to begin each line 
with the Shift-® for the left 
margin if you are using it, 
though. If you would like the 
printout to be double spaced, 
the text must be padded with a 
blank line between each line of 
print by using two Enters in suc- 
cession. 

You can use any of the Color 
Editor's commands to refine the 
text, with the line numbers serv- 
ing as location references. The 
up and down arrows help you 
scroll, and using them in con- 
junction with the shift key takes 
you to the top or bottom of the 
file from any position. This 
holds for printing, too. For clean 
print, you can toggle the line 
numbers off by responding to 
EDT: with LN. Then turn on your 
printer and enter: (Shift-up ar- 
row)P(Shift-down arrow). You 
will get a printout of your entire 
text file. You can use leading 



and trailing line numbers in- 
stead of the arrows with the P 
command if you want only a par- 
tial printout. 

This application of the Color 
Editor can be very useful even if 
it isn't a full-blown word proces- 
sor. It will not automatically cen- 
ter or right-justify material, nor 
will it send control characters to 
a Printer. Its strengths lie in its 
editing capabilities, but at the 
very least it allows Color Com- 
puter owners to get a taste of 
electronic text manipulation. 

Color Assembler 

The final component of the 
Computerware Tool Kit is a resi- 
dent two-pass assembler for the 
conversion of 6809 Assembly- 
language programs into ma- 
chine language. It loads with the 
Monitor's L and occupies about 
8K of Color Computer RAM— 
specifically, from $0600 to 
$2600. Full 139 Motorola-de- 
fined mnemonics are supported, 
as are several directives and 
pseudo-ops. The former are 
commands which do not pro- 



duce object code upon assem- 
bly, but rather alter the action of 
the Assembler itself. Examples 
are: END, which terminates the 
reading of the input file; EQU, 
used to define labels; and OPT, 
which allows the source code to 
set various assembler controls 
for program listing, pagination, 
and so on. Pseudo-ops, on the 
other hand, are used to generate 
numeric or string constants, 
they cause the generation of ob- 
ject code, although they them- 
selves are not part of the 6809 in- 
struction set. 

The manual, 18 pages plus ap- 
pendices, presents complete 
syntax listings for both direc- 
tives and pseudo-ops. There are 
several options for most of 
them. The convention followed 
in their printed description is 
that requires spaces, argu- 
ments, and so on are enclosed 
in angular brackets, options in 
square brackets. Thus the prop- 
er syntax for the END directive 
is: 

<space(s)> END [<(space(s)> 
<expression>]. 




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All this says is than when typing 
in the directive as part of an As- 
sembly-language program, lead 
off with at least one space be- 
fore typing END. If you wish to 
add an optional expression 
(which in the case of this direc- 
tive is interpreted as the transfer 
address), then the expression 
must be separated from END by 
one or more spaces. 

It is quite possible to write (or 
at least copy) Assembly-lan- 
guage programs without using 
many of the options available. 
The Assembler manual contains 
as an appendix a short program 
which accepts a character 
string from the keyboard and 
prints it, reversed, on the screen. 

To make a useful machine 
language program out of it, first 
load the Color Editor and use it 
to enter and correct the Assem- 
bly language using the syntax 
listings in the Assembler manu- 
al. You needn't set a lot of tabs 
to get a neatly aligned listing at 
this point. The Assembler takes 
care of that. Just remember to 
insert a leading space if a line 
doesn't have a label field. When 
the program has been entered 
and corrected, use the Editor's 
CS command to save it to tape. 

Now you must load the As- 
sembler. Unfortunately both the 
Editor and Assembler cannot be 
co-resident in memory. When 
the Assembler autoexecutes, it 
presents a list of eight 
assembly-time options, their 
default status, and a prompt of 
ASM: plus a flashing cursor. The 
options control screen display 
and printer listing; some of them 
interact with and override op- 
tions listed in the Assembly- 
language source code just 
created. For the sample pro- 
gram, the manual recommends 
just one option be used: Wait, 
which causes the display of 
Assembler output to pause 
whenever the screen fills. This is 
set by entering + W in response 
to the ASM: prompt. 

Once you press Enter, the op- 
tion list changes to reflect your 
input, and you receive a prompt 
to position the tape (the source 
code) for pass 1. Pressing Enter 
when the tape and recorder are 
set causes the source file to be 
read. After this happens, the As- 
sembler builds the symbol table 

120 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



(instantaneously, for the short 
sample program) and prompts 
you to position the tape for pass 
2. This means rewinding the 
source tape to the beginning 
and reading it again. This time 
the source code is actually con- 
verted to object code, stored in a 
memory buffer, and a prompt of 
"paused. . ." is displayed. As- 
suming the List option has not 
been disabled, hitting any key 
which produces a printable 
character now results in a list- 
ing on the screen. The listing re- 
sembles the full format we are 
used to seeing in published ma- 
chine-language programs, ex- 
cept that every line is split into 
two. The lower member of each 
pair is our source code; the up- 
per consists of a hex address 
and the corresponding machine- 
language expression produced 
by the Assembler. 

This is in the completely 
tabbed form familiar from pub- 
lished listings. The "paused. . ." 
prompt is again displayed at the 
bottom of the screen, indicating 
that any printing key will cause 
a display page advance. When 
you get to the end of the pro- 
gram listing, the Assembler 
sorts and prints the symbol 
table generated in pass 1. It then 
(hopefully) informs you that no 
errors occurred and prompts 
you to position a blank tape for 
pass 3. Set things up to record, 
and press Enter. The machine- 
language program is now re- 
corded as a binary file compati- 
ble with the Color Monitor's L 
command (although not with 
Basic's CLOADM). After record- 
ing, the Assembler returns im- 
mediately to command mode. 
Entering M takes you back to 
the Monitor, and you are set to 
load and run. 

The necessity of making a 
tape of the machine code before 
running (the inability to assem- 
ble directly to memory) is the re- 
sult of a conscious choice by 
the program's authors. Paul 
Searby of Computerware said 
this derives from their desire to 
permit the Assembly-language 
programmer the maximum free- 
dom in locating a program in 
memory. 

There are many options avail- 
able to the programmer, and 
careful study of the manual is 



necessary to gain an under- 
standing of such things as the 
way assembly-time errors are 
handled. Even then, you will 
need other material to become 
an Assembly-language pro- 
grammer; the manual makes no 
pretense at being an introduc- 
tory course. 

Summing Up 

At the outset you will be deal- 
ing with the "tyranny of modes." 
You must get used to flipping 
back and forth between, say, the 
Monitor and the input and com- 
mand modes of the Editor. This 
can be especially daunting to 
the inexperienced user. Even af- 
ter becoming accustomed to the 
idea it can be humbling to find 
yourself entering a syntactically 
correct command that happens 
to be jibberish for the prompt 
you have just received. It 
shouldn't dampen anyone's en- 
thusiasm for these programs, 
though. 

In the same vein, the manuals 
can be cumbersome. If you're 
not accustomed to juggling sev- 
eral computer manuals on your 
knee while working out a prob- 
lem, I suggest taking things nice 
and easy. Start with the diag- 
nostics program to make sure 
that everything is okay with your 
computer and Power Pack. Now 
read the Power Pack/Monitor 
manual, especially the summary 
and descriptions of the com- 
mands. Use the Monitor to look 
around in memory, and enter 
some hex characters by hand. 
Become familiar with the pro- 
cesses of changing memory 
contents and jumping to arbi- 
trary starting points. Again, if 
you are not yet familiar with As- 
sembly language, you will not be 
able to take advantage of most 
of these capabilities; you may, 
however, begin to get a feeling 
for how the operation of the sys- 
tem works. 

As I have tried to indicate, a 
Basic program provides a pret- 
ty good vehicle for exploring 
the Editor's capabilities. Try 
playing with the search and 
change capabilities in particu- 
lar. If you have a printer, you 
will probably want to exercise 
the Editor on text. 

The Assembler should be last 
on your list. You can exercise it 



by keying in the sample program 
from the manual; in fact, enter- 
ing just the machine-code por- 
tion is an interesting way to be- 
come comfortable with the Mon- 
itor. Go through the complete 
editing and assembly process 
described above. Now you are 
set to dig into a reference book 
and get into Assembly-language 
programming. 

As far as the operational as- 
pects are concerned, the use of 
opposite sides of one cassette 
for the Editor and Assembler is 
inconvenient. You have to re- 
move this cassette after loading 
the Editor in order to record your 
edited source code anyway. 
Nevertheless, it is annoying to 
have to fully rewind side 2 of the 
tape to get to the Assembler 
when you are ready for it. My 
own preference would be to 
have the Editor and Assembler 
recorded sequentially on one 
side of a cassette, with a mod- 
est gap between them. 

The Power Pack is useful for 
storing various utilities in pro- 
tected memory when running 
Basic programs in main memo- 
ry. The 6K of fast RAM repre- 
sents a fair portion of the cost of 
the 16K Tool Kit. 

Costs and Options 

There are cassette versions of 
the Monitor, Editor and Assem- 
bler which run in 32K machines 
without the Power Pack, and 
they cost $29.95 each including 
the Monitor source listing ($15 
separately). In fact you can also 
buy a combined 32K Editor/As- 
sembler package for $49.95. 
This makes the Computerware 
products much more competi- 
tive. The Diagnostics package 
isn't available in a 32K version. 

Paul Searby has indicated 
that owners of 16K Power Pack 
versions can return their Editor/ 
Assembler cassette and receive 
versions upgraded to run in 32K 
for a modest fee. In the 32K Pow- 
er Pack configuration, you can 
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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 121 



REVIEW 



A Digital Research version of the Model II. 



PL/I-80 



PL/1-80 

Digital Research 

P.O. Box 579 

801 Lighthouse Ave. 

Pacific Grove, CA 93950 

$500 



Thomas W. Parsons 
42 Willow Place 
Brooklyn, NY 11201 

The introduction of a compiler for a 
major language, always a landmark 

event in the world of microcomputers, was 
never more so than in the case of PUI, con- 
sidered by many the ultimate programming 
language. Digital Research, the people who 
brought you CP/M, have compressed this 
huge, mainframe-oriented monster to fit in- 
to the world of the 8080. After experiment- 
ing with this extraordinary new compiler for 
several months, I can give you my first im- 
pressions. 

Why PUI, anyway? When the language 
appeared in the mid-1960s, the answer was 
clear. The advantages of high-level pro- 
gramming languages were beginning to be- 
come apparent. Fortran was poorly adapted 
to non-scientific data processing, however, 
while Cobol, the only high-level business-or- 
iented language, was clumsy and incredibly 
verbose. The time seemed ripe for a well- 
organized language which could replace 
both. PL/I inherited its structure from For- 
tran (with some additions from Algol), and 
its capabilities combined those of Fortran 
and Cobol. It was intended to be the univer- 
sal programming language. There is very lit- 
tle you cannot do in PUI. 

Even today, few other languages can 
match the combination of features PUI 
brings to the user. A software review of a 
compiler inevitably ends up being a review 

122 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



of the language; since PL/I is not widely 
known among micro users, I will summarize 
its features and show how they differ from 
those of other languages. I will compare 
PUI mostly with Basic (still the most widely- 
used micro language) and with Fortran 
(probably the best-known compiled lan- 
guage). 

PL/I Summary 

Like Basic, PL/I provides numeric and 
character-string data types. Unlike most 
Basics, however, the numeric types include 
both fixed and floating-point numbers. 
Some enhanced Basics provide an integer 
data type as well. In PUI the fixed-point 
numbers may be in binary or decimal. Dec- 
imal numbers were included for business 
data processing; they need not be integers 
and can have (in PUI -80) as many as 30 
significant figures. (Numbers used in ac- 
counting may have as many as 10 signi- 
ficant figures; compare this to the seven of- 
fered by most floating-point numbers.) in 
addition to character strings, PL/I offers bit- 
string data; both types may be manipulated 
by operators similar to Basic's MID$ and re- 
lated functions. Fortran also offers fixed 
and floating-point numbers, but no decimal 
data type; the new standard, Fortran-77, of- 
fers character-string data as well. 

PUI offers multidimensional data arrays, 
the same as any high-level programming 
language. In addition, the user can set up 
hierarchical arrangements of data, called 
structures. (It would be more accurate to 
call them trees.) A typical structure looks a 
little like the outlines we used to write in 
school: 

1 CUSTOMER, 
2 NAME, 
2 ADDRESS, 

3 STREET, 
3 CITY, 

2 ORDER; 



The different levels of a structure can be of 
different data types; any level of a structure 
can be an array; and you can even have ar- 
rays of structures. In operating on struc- 
tures, instructions can refer to the whole 
structure or to any desired level. Business 
data processing particularly requires the 
ability to gather various types and sizes of 
data into a single entity this way, in con- 
trast to scientific computation, which sel- 
dom needs any structure more complicated 
than an array. 

PUI was one of the first languages to of- 
fer the If .. .Then. . .Else for conditional 
branching, replacing the clumsy GOTO 
branching necessary in the Fortran of that 
time. (Fortran-77 now has an 
If .. .Then. . .Else structure which I find 
even handier to use than PUI's.) For loop- 
ing, PL/I offers a powerful and flexible Do 
statement with a choice of control by an in- 
dex (as in a Basic For . . . Next loop) or with a 
While clause or both. 

In addition. PL/I hasasuper control struc- 
ture known as a block. PL/I programs are 
normally written as a set of nested blocks. 
The keywords Begin and End delimit each 
block. There are several advantages to this 
organization; the chief one is that data ar- 
rays inside blocks can have variable di- 
mensions. For example, you can write 

GET LIST (A, B); /'Read A and B from terminal */ 

BEGIN; 

DCL X(A, B), Y(B): /'Dimensions of X and Y arrays*/ 

END; 

In this example, the dimensions of the ar- 
rays X and Y are not known until run time; at 
that point, A and B are read, and storage for 
X and Y is dynamically allocated. This 
means you never allocate any more storage 
than you will really need. 

Like Fortran, PUI is a compiled language 
instead of an interpreted one. Any pro- 

Reader Service tor lacing page ^278— 






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'PL/I remains a particularly 
hard language to master." 



gramming language has to be translated in- 
to machine language sooner or later. In in- 
terpreted languages like Basic, translation 
is put off until the last possible moment. At 
run time, each line of a Basic program is 
translated "on the fly" as it is executed. The 
translation process, which must be repeat- 
ed every time you run the program, slows 
down the program's execution; in simple 
programs the slowdown is negligible and 
users are willing to accept the speed penal- 
ty in exchange for the ability to run their pro- 
grams immediately. In a compiled 
language, translation is a separate step, 
usually followed by loading, which is yet 
another step. These extra steps take time, 
and you may have to wait some minutes 
before you can run your program. Those 
minutes seem like an eternity, but when 
your translated program runs, it goes at 
maximum speed. In very large production 
programs compiled languages are pre- 
ferred, because compilation need be done 
only once while the final program may be 
run hundreds of times. 

Compiled languages allow the user to 
break his program down into subroutines 
which are separately compiled and stored 
in the user's files. He can then include these 
in new programs as needed during the load- 
ing step. Most serious programmers accu- 
mulate a library of useful subroutines on 
which they can draw; this custom has been 
memorialized in Kernighan and Plauger's 
classic Software Tools, which describes 
the formation and contents of such a 
library. 

PL/I programs can also be recursive. 
A recursive subroutine is one that can call 
itself. Recursion lets you write very com- 
plicated procedures in a compact and easi- 
ly understood form. (You can write a Quick- 
sort routine in less than half a page of 
code.) Many powerful algorithms are recur- 
sive, and it turns out that recursive pro- 
grams are particularly easy to analyze 
and to prove correct. Unfortunately, most of 
this is unknown outside of the classroom; 
programmers do not generally look for re- 
cursive solutions, because the languages 
they use will not support recursion. PUI 
was the first programming language to of- 
fer recursion as a matter of course. You 
can make any program recursive simply by 
adding the keyword Recursive at the 
beginning. 

Complexity and Size 

These represent the other side of the 
coin. The design of any extremely powerful 
language brings up a problem: great power 
makes for great complexity. For example, a 
language with many data types means for 
converting from one to another, together 
with rules for when these conversions are 
done automatically and when they must be 

124 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



specifically requested by the user. If the de- 
signers don't take care to keep this kind of 
complexity under control, the language will 
be impossibly hard to use. PL/I's designers 
have attacked this problem in a number of 
ways, but chiefly by subsetting. 

A subset of a language is a simpler ver- 
sion derived by omitting some of its fea- 
tures. PL/I has several standard subsets 
(PUI-80 is based on Subset G), and it has 
been made informally subsettable by pro- 
viding defaults for unspecified features. 
Subsets enable the programmer to ignore 
features he isn't interested in using; de- 
faults are designed to make these ignored 
features invisible. 

In spite of these efforts, PL/I remains a 
particularly hard language to master. There 
are more rules to learn than in most other 
languages, and PL/I is particularly unforgiv- 
ing of infractions. The interactions of the 
various data types are complicated; the lan- 
guage permits you to do things which are 
poor programming practice (more than one 
statement per line, for example); and occa- 
sionally one of those supposedly invisible 
features surfaces to cause hard-to-trace 
program quirks. 

The complexity is reflected in the soft- 
ware, too. PUI compilers are big. PL/l-80's 
compiler consists of the basic .COM file 
and no fewer than three overlays loaded in 
various phases of the compilation. Using 
overlays avoids placing the whole compiler 
in memory at once; without them, the com- 
piler would need around 90K of memory. 
PL/I programs also need to be supported by 
large run-time libraries. When you load a 
compiled program, the loader searches a 
run-time library for the supporting routines 
it needs. In theend,youroriginal program is 
apt to be only a small fraction of what gets 
loaded into the machine at run time. (I will 
have more to say about this later.) Library 
routines are needed not only for built-in 
functions like square roots and expo- 
nentials, but also for utilities to handle 
PL/I's three different kinds of input/output 
and to convert among all those data types. 
PL/l-80's run-time library is 44K bytes long; 
by contrast, Microsoft's Fortran library is 
a mere 24K bytes. (To be fair, however, 
PL/l-80's runtime diagnostics — clearly 
worded, and with a traceback to the main 
program -are immeasurably superior to 
Fortran-80's.) 

PUI-80 

The list price for PUI-80 is $500; for this 
you get two disks (one containing the PUI 
compiler and supporting software, the oth- 
er containing a generous collection of illus- 
trative programs), and four volumes of doc- 
umentation. Three of these manuals are for 
PL/l-80; the fourth describes the loader pro- 
gram, LINK-80. The PL/I manuals include a 



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"PL/1-80 seems an uncomfortable 
mixture of unmatched capabilities 
and maddening drawbacks." 



108-page Language Manual, a 180-page Ap- 
plications Guide, and a 30-page Command 
Summary pamphlet. 

The language has a few extensions to the 
standard Subset G, and a few omissions. 
Most of the omissions are unimportant; I 
will comment on the two serious ones be- 
low. The most important extension is a bad- 
ly-needed unformatted I/O mode for reading 
and writing variable-length ASCII records. 
PUI-80, like Microsoft's Fortran-80, accepts 
source programs written with lowercase let- 
ters. I don't know why this trivial detail 
should make such a difference, but it does. I 
think it does more for program readability 
than indenting; once you have seen one 
lowercase listing, you will want to convert 
your whole library. 

The documentation is conscientious, but 
not entirely successful. Some language fea- 
tures are described in the Language Manu- 
al and some in the Applications Guide, and 
it is not entirely clear how they decided 
which things would go where. As usual, 
none of the manuals has an index, so it can 
mean a major search to get the answer to a 
simple question. 

If you do not know PL/I already, you will 
never learn it from these manuals. You 
aren't expected to use the manuals as text- 
books, however; a separate leaflet provides 
an annotated bibliography of recommend- 
ed PL/I textbooks. The best introduction to 
PUI-80 is the set of illustrative programs (60 
of them) on the second disk. The first thing 
you should do is run off copies of all the pro- 
grams on this disk and put them into a 
looseleaf binder; otherwise you will be apt 
to head straight for the manuals for your in- 
formation and ignore the sample programs. 

There are two licensing agreements, one 
non-commercial and one commercial. The 
non-commercial license gives you the right 
to do anything but sell executable PL/I pro- 
grams. Once you start selling those, you are 
a software vendor and are required to sign 
the commercial licensing agreement, which 
includes provision for royalty payments to 
Digital Research. This is not as unreason- 
able as it may sound. A large part of an 
executable program will be supporting rou- 
tines drawn from PL/l-80's run-time library; 
this means you will be selling your.custom- 
er some of Digital Research's software 
along with your own. It's easy enough to get 
around the commercial license: simply get 
your client to buy his own copy of PL/l-80 
(which he may want to do anyway) and sell 
him only your source programs and support 
services. Still, that commercial license 
comes as a jolt, since none of the ads for 
PL/l-80 prepare you for it. To sweeten the 
pot somewhat, Digital Research has an- 
nounced an ambitious Independent Soft- 
ware Vendor (ISV) support program, to in- 

126 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



elude seminars, technical support, and as- 
sistance in marketing and documentation. 
Potential vendors should consider carefully 
the tradeoff between the royalty payments 
and the equivalent cash value of the ISV 
program. 

Omissions 

My reservations do not concern the licens- 
ing policy, but rather the language itself. In 
the process of adapting PL/I to the 8080, 
they have dropped two features which, in 
my experience, are essential for any serious 
programming in PL/I. PL/l-80 omits the ca- 
pability of dynamically dimensioning arrays 
by putting them inside a Begin... End 
block. Hence one of the main advantages of 
PUI's block-structure capability is wiped 
out. Blocks are still useful for controlling 
the scope of a variable (i.e., the portions of a 
program in which its identity is known), but I 
feel this is a minor benefit. 

The other omission is similar: Array di- 
mensions in subroutines must be deter- 
mined at compile time. This is a disastrous 
decision, because it means no subroutine 
intended to process arrays or character 
strings can ever be truly general-purpose. If 
you have written a sorting routine, for exam- 
ple, you cannot simply load it with any pro- 
gram that may need it — you have to edit it 
and tailor its arrays to match those of your 
calling program, then re-compile it and load 
that particular version with the program 
that calls it. Thus accumulating a library of 
software tools becomes an almost hope- 
less undertaking. The fact that this blunder 
has been committed in other languages as 
well (notably standard Pascal) is no excuse: 
PL/I, you will recall, was to be the ultimate 
language. 

An obscure feature of PL/I lets you get 
around this problem, within limits. PL/I has 
a data type known as a pointer. If you pass 
pointers to your subroutines, then, with a 
certain amount of ingenuity and care, you 
can con PL/l-80 into letting you handle ar- 
rays and strings of arbitrary size. I've tried it; 
it works; but it's tricky and you end up with 
programs which are unlike any PL/I pro- 
grams normally encountered in the outside 
world. I might add that many PL/I textbooks 
say little or nothing about pointers. Even 
Digital Research's manuals, which are reas- 
onably thorough, are frustratingly sketchy 
on the subject of pointers. The manuals are 
not intended to take the place of a PL/I text- 
book, of course, but in this case I think they 
could have made an exception. 

I have a few other, less important grum- 
bles. Comments are delimited in PL/I by the 
symbols /* and */. In PL/C, a popular teach- 
ing version of PL/I, comments are also de- 



limited by a carriage return. This means 
that if you forget or misprint a */ the end of 
the line will terminate your comment any- 
way. In full PL/I, a missing */ can turn the 
rest of your program into one big comment. 
This kind of easy error is not the mark of a 
well-designed language; Digital Research 
should have followed PL/C's policy, stan- 
dard or no standard. 

PL/l-80 takes significantly longer to com- 
pile and load than Microsoft's Fortran. The 
compilation time seems well-spent; at run 
time, PL/l-80 programs go like the wind. It is 
remarkable how fast they can go, since the 
compiler doesn't offer you a choice be- 
tween 8080 and Z80 machine code. Execut- 
able programs are significantly largerthan I 
would have expected. In the course of eval- 
uating the compiler, I programmed a com- 
puter game in PL/I. The source listing is one 
and a half pages long; the .COM file is 14K 
bytes long. The same game, programmed in 
Microsoft's Fortran-80, took 10K bytes. This 
difference may only apply to relatively short 
programs, but it is typical of my experience 
with Fortran-80 and PUI-80. I find it hard to 
reconcile with Digital Research's claim in 
recent ads that PUI-80 gives you "small, 
fast programs." Fast, yes, but not small. 

My own feelings about PUI-80 are mixed. 
Like PUI itself, it seems an uncomfortable 
mixture of unmatched capabilities and 
maddening drawbacks. It seems unrealistic 
to do any kind of serious business program- 
ming in any language but PUI. (Yes, you can 
use Basic, but the fact that you can get by 
on Basic doesn't make it the language of 
choice.) The availability of PUI on micropro- 
cessors is thus an incredible boon. 

Many potential users are surely going to 
be put off by the royalty requirements, 
which I predict will prevent widespread 
adoption of the language. But the inability 
to use adjustable dimensions in subrou- 
tines and blocks is going to cramp the style 
of many experienced PUI programmers, 
and this may prove a more serious imped- 
iment than the licensing problem. For my- 
self, these restrictions make the language 
virtually useless. As long as they remain, I 
think PUI will fare as poorly in the micro 
world as it has among mainframes— 
which is a shame, because we need a lan- 
guage like this. 

Personally, I am going to limp along with 
Fortran IV, which, with all its faults, at least 
permits me to program like an adult, and 
hope that Microsoft will give us Fortran-77 
one of these days. Don't take my judgement 
as final, however. If you write business soft- 
ware of any kind, you owe it to yourself to 
get Digital Research's publicity, buy a set of 
manuals, and make your own decision. ■ 

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HARDWARE 



RS-232 from the cassette port. 



Bare Bones Communicator 



Bob Hart 

2946 Merriman Road 

Medford, OR 97501 



If you want to add a modem to 
your computer but think it 
costs too much to buy the ex- 
pansion interface and RS-232 
adapter, think again. You don't 
even need a special direct bus 
connection modem— any acou- 
stic or direct-connect modem 
will do. 

The Uterm terminal program 
eliminates the extra hardware. It 
allows you to connect your 
modem to the cassette port of 
your TRS-80. A simple signal 
adapter translates normal mo- 
dem logic signals to ones the 
cassette port handles. With 
those items you can send and 
receive in terminal mode (key- 
board and video screen) and 



send and receive Basic pro- 
grams. A few "smart" features 
make terminal operation easy. 

Hardware 

Most modems convert audio 
tones to RS-232 compatible digi- 
tal signals and vice versa. The 
telephone line (or radio link) can 
handle the tones, but what 
about those RS-232 signals? 
These signals represent a logic 
1 if the level is somewhere 
between minus five volts and 
minus 12 volts and a logic if 
the level is between plus five 
volts and plus 12 volts. The 
signal levels were designed so 
that it is easy to distinguish be- 
tween zero and one. 

The lowest voltage that can 
be output from the cassette is 
zero volts and the maximum 
signal is around one volt (Cass- 
out). If you apply a signal to 
Cassin the computer expects to 




Figure 1 
128 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



see a two volt AC(. .) signal. We 
are not even close to matching 
those RS-232 specifications. 
The solution is to convert the 
RS-232 input to a two volt AC 
signal and the one volt output 
swing to an RS-232 output. Fig- 
ure 1 shows how to do it. 

The first step in this project is 
to buy the parts from your local 
electronics retailer. The most dif- 
ficult part to obtain (and the most 
expensive) will be the DB 25P 
connector for the modem. If you 
cannot find one you can build the 
interface inside the modem. This 
allows easy access to the neces- 
sary supply voltages. Otherwise 
you will need an external supply 
for plus 12 volts and minus 12 
volts. A typical supply is shown 
in Fig. 2. The voltage levels are 
not critical. 

You can build the project on a 
piece of perf-board and, if you are 
not building it into the modem, 
enclose it along with the power 
supply in a small plastic utility 
box. A power switch and indi- 
cator are mounted on top and 
three cords exit from the various 
sides: an AC line cord, a modem 
connector cord (with the DB25P 
plug) and a cord terminating in a 
DIN connector for the cassette 
port. The specific details are up 
to you. If you are new at building 
from a schematic diagram, get 
some help. Accidentally apply- 
ing 1 17VAC to the cassette port 
is not the preferred method of 
hands-on learning. 

This circuit translates be- 
tween RS-232 signals and cas- 



sette port signals. RS-232 sig- 
nals into the interface switch an 
oscillator on and off; a high level 
input (logic 0) turns the oscil- 
lator on while a low level input 
(logic 1) keeps it turned off. The 
oscillator operates at a high fre- 
quency (around 10 kHz with the 
components shown) to allow 
quick response from the TRS-80 
Cassin hardware. In the oppo- 
site direction, Q1 and Q2 trans- 
late a low signal from Cassout 
to an RS-232 logic 1 (minus 12 
volts). A high signal from the 
same source results in an 
RS-232 logic (plus 12 volts) at 
the output. This interface works 
where others do not because it 
drives Cassin with an AC signal. 
You are assured of good signal 
transfer to the computer. 

Software 

Data exits and enters the 
modem in serial form (one bit at 
a time). Most micros shuffle 
data in parallel form (eight bits 
at a time). Serial interface ad- 
apters (such as Radio Shack's 
RS-232 interface) contain a de- 
vice called a UART (Universal 
Asynchronous Receiver/Trans- 
mitter) that does this serial to 
parallel conversion so that the 
computer always sees data in 



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The Aspen Software Company spelling checker is Proofreader. 
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ments in under four minutes (even faster on most systems). 
Proofreader's dictionary is almost twice as large as some, so you 
won't have to spend so much time adding new words. And 
Proofreader is totally accurate. Proofreader looks up every word in 
its dictionary , and does not atificially extend its dictionary size 
with less accurate prefix and suffix analysis like some others. 
(Beware: Most checkers with "vocabularies" of 50,000 or more 
words use this method and can miss some misspelled words!) 
The entire 38,000 word dictionary takes only 100,000 bytes 
of disk space. 

Proofreader does not simply mark the errors in your document 
like some checkers, but allows you to make corrections inter- 
actively, with the full context of each unknown word displayed. 
You can correct mistakes, leave unknown words alone, or add 
words to the dictionary. Unlike most spelling checkers, you 
also have complete interactive access to the dictionary while cor- 
recting, so you won't need to keep a separate dictionary to look up 
words manually. Each correction is automatically double checked 
in the dictionary, and with a single command, Proofreader can 
almost always show you the correct spelling of a word. (Inter- 
active correction optional on TRS-80 Model I/Ill, included on all 
other versions. TRS-80 versions do not support interactive diction- 
ary look up.) 

Spelling checking alone is not enough! Aspen Software's 
Grammatik goes beyond simple spelling checking. No one else 
has anything like it. First, Grammatik will check your document 



for common typos (such as doubled words: "the the"), and punc- 
tuation and capitalization errors (e.g., "STicky shift key"). It also 
checks for poor writing style using a dictionary of over 500 mis- 
used phrases as defined in many writer's style manuals. 
Grammatik classifies each error it finds, marks the errors for 
easy correction with your word processor, and provides sug- 
gestions for correcting the problem. The phrase dictionary can 
easily be expanded to include checking for esoteric jargon or your 
own personal pet peeves. Grammatik also collects other infor- 
mation that can help you judge the style of the document, and can 
produce a profile of word usage. 

Grammatik is receiving rave reviews from both critics and 
users. Bob Louden in InfoWorld (12/7/81): "If you use a word 
processor and a spelling checker, then you should investigate the 
unique capabilities of this program. Grammatik is a surprisingly 
fast and easy tool for analyzing writing style and punctuation." 
Eric Balkan in The Computer Consultant: "I'm impressed with 
the imagination that went into this product." Many users call or 
write to tell us how much they like Grammatik. Some typical 
remarks: "Great!". "Thanks for making my life easier.", "I'm not 
just happy. I'm ecstatic!". Grammatik has also been selected as 
an officially approved Osborne Computer software package and 
will soon be appearing at Osborne dealers. 

Only Proofreader and Grammatik can provide you with com- 
plete document proofreading, and together cost less than some 
spelling checkers alone. Proofreader and Grammatik have been 
designed to work with almost any CP/M, TRS-80, or 8086/8088 
based word processor. While they have been designed to work 
together, they are available separately. 

Aspen Software also has its own full featured word processor 
called Writer's Companion for all these systems. One of the best 
implementations of Ratfor (Rational Fortran) is available, too, 
along with an automatic Ratfor pretty printer. Please call or write 
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msmsimmmm 



-CP M versions require CP/M version 2 or later and at least 48K 
of KAM. Standard 8" single density. Northstar, Osborne-1, 
Omikron. and Apple formats available directly from Aspen 
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Digital Marketing. Some CP/M systems with limited disk capacity 
supplied with 28.000 word. 65.000 byte dictionary. Proofreader- 
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Manuals onlv - $8.00 each. $15.00 for both. 



--TRS-80 Model I/III versions require only one disk drive and 32K 
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TRS-80 Model I/III: Proofreader - $59.00, Interactive correction 
option - $30.00, Grammatik - $59.00. All - $139.00. TRS-80 
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available include standard single density 8" and IBM PC 5.25". 
CP/M-86 versions scheduled for Summer 1982 availability. 
Proofreader- $129.00, Grammatik- $150.00, Both - $250.00. 



IMPORTANT ORDERING INFORMATION: You MUST specify computer model, operating system, memory size, and format and number of 
disk drives when ordering either software or manuals alone. Please include your phone number. All U.S., Canada, and Mexico orders include 
first class shipping in price. Overseas please add $5.00. We accept cash, check, money order. VISA and Master Card. Sorry, no UPS or COD 
service available. Purchase orders accepted from educational institutions and nationally recognized corporations onlv. Cost of manual onlv 
orders can be credited to final purchase. NM residents add 4% sales tax. 

Aspen Software products distributed exclusively by Aspen Software Company and Digital Marketing. Dealer and OEM inquiries welcome. 

Trademarks: CP/M: Digital Research; TRS-80: Tandy Corp.; MS-DOS: Microsoft; Proofreader, Grammatik: Aspen Software Co. 



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Figure 2 



parallel form. You should be 
able to program the computer to 
do this conversion by itself. 
Yourcomputeralready does this 
when it reads and writes cas- 
sette tapes but the format is not 
compatible with standard data 
communications. So I wrote a 
new routine. 

I needed two routines: one to 
transmit serially and one to re- 
ceive. The transmitting one was 
the easiest. This is the subrou- 
tine Send shown in the listing at 
line 2600 (Program Listing 1). 

When transmitting data seri- 
ally, timing is critical. The start 
bit (always logic O), seven data 
bits, a parity bit, and the stop bit 
(always logic 1) must each be 
present sequentially for a brief 
period of time. At the standard 
data rate of 300 baud, this time 
works out to 3.3 milliseconds 
(0.0033 seconds). Subroutine 
DLY at line 2930 waits the pre- 
scribed time. The send routine 
takes the data in the A register 
and sets the seventh bit high. 
Next, a logic O (the start bit) is 
sent to the output port and the 
routine waits for 3.3 ms. Then 
the data in the A register is sent 
to the output port one bit at a 
time (bit first) with a 3.3 ms 
wait between each bit. When the 
entire byte has been transmit- 
ted, the routine sends a logic 1 
(the stop bit) to the output port, 
waits the 3.3 ms and then re- 
turns. Ten bits have been sent to 
the port (from there through the 
adapter to the modem) con- 
suming 33 ms of time and trans- 
mitting one byte. Note that while 
the computer sends the byte it 
spends most of its time waiting 
and does nothing else. While 
writing the receive routine I 
found that I had to use some of 
that wasted time to handle other 
functions. 

The receive routine takes the 



one-bit-at-a-time serial data and 
assembles it into the eight-bit 
bytes the computer is used to 
handling. The first complication 
occurs because the computer 
never knows when the next 
serial character will start. The 
first part of the receive routine 
detects the start pulse that 
signifies data will follow. The 
RECV routine at line 630 is con- 
tinually called when in receive 
mode. It checks to see if the in- 
put port has been set by the 
oscillator signal from the inter- 
face (oscillator on is equal to 
logical 0). If there has been no in- 
put, the routine returns. If the 
port has been set the routine 
resets the port (and waits 1.2 
ms) and checks it again in case 
noise caused a false indication 
of a start. If once again the port 
is set, this means (probably) that 
it was a true start pulse and the 
routine continues on to input 
the data. 

The RECV routine gets the 
data by waiting until it thinks it 
is in the middle of the data pulse 
and then resetting and then 
reading the input port (CKPORT 
at line 880). Logic data sets 
the port; logic 1 data leaves the 
port reset. The program checks 
the input seven times and stores 
the results of those checks into 
a single byte which is then sent 
off to the display routine. 

As originally written, this pro- 
gram would input data until it 
had a complete character and 
would then send it to the CRT 
display routine in the Level II 
ROM. This worked well until the 
screen was full and the display 
driver had to make room for 
another line. The display driver 
then scrolled the display. The 
time it took to scroll the display 
caused problems. There are 
about 6.6 ms (count 3.3 ms each 
for the parity bit and the stop bit) 



130 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



between the time the RECV 
routine inputs the last data bit 
and the time for the start of the 
next character (at 300 baud). The 
minimum software scroll time of 
the display is about 12 ms. 
When the computer returns 
from the display routine, the 
next character is about half 
gone. This garbles the first 
character (and often additional 
characters) of the next line. I 
could not use a scrolling dis- 
play. I had to find some way to 
organize the screen display that 



took less than 6.6 ms. 

I developed a display format 
that uses half the screen. As 
each line ends, it clears the line 
exactly eight lines away from it. 
Display starts at the top of the 
screen and works its way to the 
bottom where it wraps around to 
the top again. At any given time 
there are a maximum of nine 
lines displayed and the rest are 
cleared. Routine CRT1 at line 
4260 in the listing does this. 
CRT1 is a stand-alone display 
driver which recognizes carriage 



Hex/ASCII/HHC 


* Hex/ASCII/HHC 


• Hex/ASCII/HHC 


* Hex/ASCII/HHC 


00 NUL 


@@ 


20 


SP 


a® 


40 


@ 


D@ 


60 




F@ 


01 SOH 


@A 


21 


I 


6A 


41 


A 


DA 


61 


a 


FA 


02 STX 


4iB 


22 




BB 


42 


B 


DB 


62 


b 


FB 


03 ETX 


@C 


23 


s 


BC 


43 


C 


DC 


63 


C 


FC 


04 EOI 


@D 


76. 


S 


3D 


44 


D 


DD 


34 


d 


FD 


05 ENG 


@E 


25 


% 


BE 


45 


E 


DF 


85 


6 


FE 


06 ACK 


@F 


26 


& 


BF 


46 


F 


DF 


66 


f 


FF 


07 BEL 


@G 


27 




BG 


47 


G 


DG 


67 


g 


FG 


03 BS 


@H 


28 


( 


BH 


48 


H 


DH 


68 


h 


FH 


09 HT 


*Si 


29 


) 


Bl 


49 


1 


Dl 


69 


i 


Fl 


0A LF 


®J 


2A 


• 


BJ 


4 A 


J 


DJ 


6A 


i 


FJ 


0B VT 


®K 


2B 


+ 


BK 


48 


K 


DK 


6B 


k 


FK 


0C FF 


@L 


2C 




BL 


4C 


L 


DL 


6C 


I 


FL 


0D OR 


@M 


2D 




BM 


4D 


M 


DM 


6D 


m 


FM 


0E SO 


@N 


2f 




BN 


4E 


N 


DN 


6E 


n 


FN 


OF SI 


@0 


2F 


/ 


BO 


4F 





DO 


6F 





FO 


10 OLE 


A@ 


30 





Cfti 


50 


p 


E @ 


70 


P 


G@ 


11 DC1 


AA 


31 


1 


CA 


51 


Q 


EA 


71 


q 


GA 


12 DC2 


AB 


32 


2 


CB 


52 


R 


EB 


72 


r 


GB 


13 DC3 


AC 


33 


3 


cc 


53 


S 


EC 


73 


3 


GC 


14 DC4 


AD 


34 


4 


CD 


54 


T 


ED 


74 


t 


GD 


15 NAK 


AF. 


36 


5 


CE 


55 


U 


EE 


75 


U 


GE 


16 SYN 


AF 


36 


6 


CF 


56 


v 


HP 


76 


V 


GF 


17 ETB 


AG 


37 


7 


CG 


57 


w 


FG 


77 


w 


GG 


18 CAN 


AH 


38 


8 


CH 


58 


X 


EH 


78 


X 


GH 


19 EM 


A! 


39 


9 


CI 


59 


Y 


El 


79 


y 


Gl 


1A SUB 


AJ 


3A 




CJ 


5A 


Z 


EJ 


/A 


z 


GJ 


1B £SC 


AK 


3B 




CK 


5B 




EK 


7B 




GK 


1C FS 


AL 


3C 


< 


CL 


5C 




EL 


7C 




GL 


1D GS 


AM 


3D 


= 


CM 


5D 




EM 


7D 




GM 


1E RS 


AN 


3E 


> 


CN 


5E 




FN 


7E 




GN 


1F VS 


AO 


3F 


? 


CO 


5F 




FO 


7F 


DEL 


GO 


Table 1. Hex to ASCII to Hart's Hex code conversion table 



Shift I: 


Input Basic program. 


Shift O; 


Output Basic program. 


Shi*! M: 


Change keyboard mode from line to character and vice versa 




(half to full duplex). 


Shift S: 


Transmit sign-on message. 


Shift L: 


Enable buffer. Whatever was previously there is lost. 


Shift C: 


Close buffer. Further entry is ended. 


Shift B: 


Display Buffer. If the printer is enabled the buffer contents will 




print on it. 




Pressing the space bar will pause the display. 




Press Enter to continue; Clear to abort. 


Shift P: 


Same as Shift B except for non-standard printers. 


Up arrow: 


Clear screen. 


Shift left arrow: 


Clear line. 


Shift down arrow 


Control character shift. 


Transmit mode: 


Load a Basic program in the usual way and type LLIST to trans- 




mit. Return to Uterm by entering Name. 


Receive mode: 


Immediate return to Uterm (no program received) press Clear. 




After program is received, press Clear. Wait for program to list 




on screen and then save it in the usual way. Return to Uterm 




by entering NAME. 




Table 2 




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• New File Editor lets you edit your data base without an 
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creasingly complex mathematical statements. Store your 
series of equations on disk as procedure files to use any 
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for complex ordering of data files. Sort on any field, without 

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• New Mailing Label program that allows you to print mul- 
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• Form Letter processor that allows you to insert data frorr 
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• Report- Generator for columnar tabulations with auto- 
matic headings, pagination, totals and subtotals, and 
sophisticated formatting control DATA-WRITER'S unique 
flexibility enables you to modify your report format as you 
wish, without the need to scrap it and start fresh. 

• Powerful Select-lf command that lets you define a subset 

of your data base New instring selection capacities With 
Select-lf and Sort, you can create dozens of new data 
bases for specific purposes. 

• Statistical check on your data base to locate data entry 
errors. Stats also reports maximum entered data length for 
each defined field, a tremendous aid when designing a 

report. 

DATA-WRITER is both powerful and easy to use It has speed 
and versatility not available in any so-called data base 
management system. As one Auto-Writer user said, "Why 
hasn't someone done this before!" 

For the TRS-80 Model l/lll (48K. 2 disk drives, lower case 
required). Available at your favorite software store, or order 
from Software Options, P.O. Box 970, Bowling Green Sta- 
tion, New York, N.Y. 10274. 212-785-8285 Toll-free order line: 
800 -22 1-1 624. Price: $125 (plus $3 per order shipping and 
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■See List ol Advertisers on page 386 



O PTIONS IN C 
80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 131 



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Figure 3 



return and back space control 
codes and displays all printable 
characters. All display updating 
occurs during the wait for the 
end of the received stop pulse 
and actually takes little more 
than one millisecond (out of the 
6.6 ms available). 

Now we have a system that 
transfers data from the modem 
to the CRT screen and from the 
keyboard to the modem. Addi- 
tional features make the system 
more useful and easier to 
operate. 

Transmitting features in- 
clude: 

• Automatic sign-on. By 
pressing one key you can send 
your name or number to the 
receiving system. 

• While the Break key is 
pressed, a continuous low tone 
comes from the modem. This in- 
terrupts the current process. 

• Character transmission 



mode sends a character when a 
key is pressed. Line transmis- 
sion mode waits for the return 
(Enter) key and then transmits 
the entire line in a burst. Line 
mode allows editing, character 
mode gives quick response. 

• The repeat line mode 
allows for testing. This mode 
repeats a typed line until in- 
structed to stop. 

• You can transmit a Basic 
program to a distant terminal or 
computer. 

• You can transmit all ASCII 
control characters by holding 
down the shift and down arrow 
and pressing the appropriate 
alphabetic key. 

Receiving features include: 

• You can input a Basic file. 
This option organizes an incom- 
ing program so you can store it 
on tape or disk or run it immedi- 
ately. This mode operates auto- 
matically with some Forum-80 




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Horse-Handicapping This system was written and 

used by computer experts and is now being made available to home computer owners This 

method is based on storing data from a large number of races on a high speed, large scale 

computer 23 factors taken from the "Daily Racing Form" were then analyzed by the 

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132 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1981 




download systems. 

• Full or half duplex mode 
works in conjunction with line or 
character mode. When in char- 
acter mode, Uterm operates in 
full duplex as long as you type 
less than 15 characters per sec- 
ond. If you type faster you will 
lose received characters. If you 
are in line mode, half duplex 
operation is the rule (you will be 
receiving or transmitting but not 
at the same time). 

• You can enter all data ap- 
pearing on the screen into the 
buffer. You can direct the buffer 
output to a printer (almost any 
type) as well as the screen. 

Routine KEYS1 (line 960) 
checks keyboard input and 
modem input. KEYS (line 1060) 
is the same but is used for line 
mode output. A keyboard input 
character is checked to see if it 
is for control (starts at KEYLP 
and ends at LNE— line 2240). If it 
is not a control character, the 
routine checks to see if it can be 
printed. If so, the character is 
sent to the screen and, depend- 
ing on the output mode, to the 
Send routine. 

If you are using a special 
printer driver load it before 
Uterm. Set memory size to pro- 
tect the driver; Uterm will locate 
itself just below. (You need the 
Basic loader to get this benefit.) 

Once the program is loaded 
and running, you should have a 
blank screen with an underline 
cursor at the top. The program is 
ready to receive and the key- 
board is in character mode. With 
your modem connected through 
the interface (and everything 
turned on), you should hear a 
tone from the modem. You may 
have to put the modem into test 
before the tone comes on since 
some modems keep the tone 
turned off until a proper tone is 
received. With the modem set to 
produce a tone, press any key. 
You should hear a short twitter 
from the modem speaker. Press- 
ing Break causes the tone to 
drop in frequency and stay there 
until the key is released. Whistle 
or talk at the modem microphone 
(the cup where the telephone ear- 
piece rests). Random characters 
will appear on the screen. Now 
press Shift M and type a line. The 
characters you typed will appear 
on the screen. Pressing Enter at 

sSee List ot Advertisers on page 386 



the end of the line transmits that 
line (listen to the modem). When 
it has finished the line, the cursor 
will drop down to the next dis- 
play line. 

Testing and Using Uterm 

Since Uterm uses Basic rou- 
tines to load and save programs, 
it is easiest to load as a Basic 
program. The program in Pro- 
gram Listing 2 loads Uterm at 
the top of unprotected memory 
and resets memory size to pro- 
tect itself. Enter the program. 
The Remark statements at the 
end contain the data for Uterm. 
Use REM at the beginning of 
each, not the apostrophe. The 
spaces between the letter 
groups are optional (the loader 
can read them with or without 
spaces but people have a harder 
time without them). Do not leave 
a space after any of the X or S 
characters. If you have access 
to a system with download ca- 
pability and know someone who 
can run it, the program is avail- 
able on the Medford Forum-80 
(503-535-6883). Either way you 
get the program. Run it and 
follow the instructions. Save the 
modified program and run it. If 
there is a data error, the pro- 
gram will let you know approxi- 
mately where it is. If everything 
goes right, you will be in Uterm. 

When operating with a disk 
system, do exactly the same. 
The only exception is that if you 
load Uterm from a CMD file, you 
must do so after loading Basic. 
Some systems will not allow 
this so the Basic loader program 
may be the only way to go. If you 
can load in this sequence, re- 
member to protect memory 
before loading Basic. I tested 
this program using TRSDOS, 
N EWDOS and N EWDOS80. There 
should be no problem with any 
of the other operating systems 
except where the system uses 
the reserved word Name for 
something else. That use will be 
modified temporarily while you 
are using Uterm. 

You may have noticed a 
changing graphics block at the 
top right of the screen. Just 
before Uterm transmits a charac- 
ter, it is displayed in that loca- 
tion. That way I know the pro- 
gram is working. It is a graphics 
character and not an alphanu- 




A powerful utility that 
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COLORZAP uses the power of the Color 
Computer to provide both rapid scan- 
ning and full screen modification capa- 
bilities. You can now examine, modify, 
and copy programs or data while they're 
stored on disk. Access them by filename 
or location. 

COLORZAP is programmed largely in 
BASIC so that you can modify it if you'd 
like, but part of it is in machine language 
to provide fast response. All accesses to 
disk are performed with standard inter- 
faces, so any standard Color Computer 
disk can be examined. You can directly 
access the disk's directory and control in- 
formation to examine a clobbered disk, 
recover a killed file, or find parts of a file 
when other parts have been lost. 

COLORZAP is supplied on disk with an ac- 
companying manual explaining its use 
and supplementing Radio Shack's mate- 
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With this new window into its disks, the 
Color Computer sheds its image as a toy. 
Now you can use this exciting machine 
like other powerful microcomputers, 

For the TRS-80 Color Computer. Avail- 
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970, Bowling Green Station, New York, 
N.Y. 10274. 212-785-8285. Toll-free 
order line: 800-221-1624. Price: $49 95 
(plus $3.00 per order shipping and 
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add sales tax. Visa/Mastercard 
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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 133 



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The eye-pleasing Green-Screen fits over the front of your 
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Don! confuse the Original Green Screen with a piece of thin 
film stuck to the face of your video tube, such as that adver- 
tised by others. The Original Green-Screen is mounted in a full 
frame perfectly matched to the color and texture of the 
TRS-80 Video Display. It is attached with adhesive strips 
which do not mar your unit in any way. 

The full frame design of the Original Green-Screen "sguares 
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134 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



meric ASCII character because 
the most significant bit is set to 
one. In the ASCII code chart in 
the Level II manual characters 
coded above 127 (i.e. have the 
most significant bit set to one) 
are graphics characters— at 
least as far as the TRS-80 is 
concerned. 

If you have had problems get- 
ting this far, some troubleshoot- 



ing is in order. If the graphics 
block changes as each charac- 
ter is typed, the software is prob- 
ably OK. Check the interface 
and the modem. If nothing 
works go over the Data state- 
ments in the Uterm loader. A 
problem here is unlikely since 
the loader does a checksum as 
it is working. If there are bad 
data, it will tell you so. 



117V AC: The stuff that comes out of a wall socket. Be careful. 

Answer: The opposite of Originate; see Originate. 

ASCII: A standard code for exchanging and storing information. The code contains 
upper and lowercase letters, numbers, punctuation, and control characters. 

Baud: As commonly used (not always correctly) it refers to bits per second. That's 
close enough. 

Bit: The smallest piece of binary (2 possible states) information. It can represent 
either on or off, 1 orO, pink or blue. By combining many of these bits, more than 2 
things can be represented. For example, seven bits can be used to define 128 
ASCII characters. 

CBBS: Computer Bulletin Board System. They have many names but their main 
function is to hold messages. There is usually no charge for this service. 

Download: A fancy term for 'Let me send this here program to you over the wire'. It 
doesn't have to be a program but can be a data file or poetry. 

Duplex, half or full: Has nothing to do with apartments for rent. Full duplex refers to 
the ability to communicate in two directions at once. This fact is used by ter- 
minal to computer communication as an automatic verification method. When 
you type a letter on your keyboard, it is sent by your modem through the phone 
line and received by the computer's modem. From there the computer 
retransmits it through its modem again, through the phone line, and finally the 
character is picked up by your modem and terminal and displayed on your 
screen. If it is correct on your screen, you know the computer got it right. Half 
duplex (one direction at a time) doesn't allow this echo so anything appearing on 
your screen has to come directly from your system. 

File: A group of data stored together in a computer, on tape, or on a disk for a com- 
mon purpose. The file can contain a program, a list of painless dentists or poetry. 

Hardware: Anything you can't send over the phone (from Douglas Hofstader's 
book Godel Escher Bach). 

Modem: A contraction of MOdulator/DEModulator. Used to condition digital 
signals so they can be sent and received over the phone. A modem itself cannot 
be sent over the phone so it is hardware. 

Originate: See answer. Well, originate and answer refer to different sets of tones 
used for data communication. The party originating the communication 
transmits on the low frequency set and receives on the high frequency set of 
tones. He is therefore in originate mode. The answering party transmits on the 
high frequency set of tones and receives on the low frequency set. Believe it or 
not, he is in the answer mode. This is not a hard and fast rule but at least if one 
guy is in originate the other fellow must be in answer. 

Parallel: Refers to simultaneous transfer of several bits of information. If you have 
eight wires connected from your computer to the printer you can send one bit 
over each wire at the same time. Usually faster than serial transfer. 

RS-232: A standard specification for electrically interconnecting computer 
peripherals using serial data transfer. The specification refers to voltage levels 
and connector pin designation. It has nothing to do with parallel to serial con- 
verters or modems except for the interconnection. 

Selectric: A trademark of IBM for their ball printhead typing mechanism. Besides 
being used in nearly every office in the country, many were used as computer ter- 
minal printers. Well, now those printers are obsolete and I have one. Recom- 
mended only for the very dedicated or masochistic. They do print well. 

Serial: One part at a time. This is similar to a soap opera except when transmitting 
data serially, you eventually get your message across. The serial rate of 300 
Baud transfers information at 300 bits per second. Remember: One wire and one 
bit at a time. 

Software: Anything that can be sent over the telephone. (I once again paraphrase 
Hofstader). 

The Source: a computer service accessible by telephone providing information, 
computer languages, and communication. There is a small hourly charge for this 
system. 

Terminal: A hardware system that can send and receive digital information over a 
communication link. The usual form (currently) is a video screen and a keyboard 
that is manually operated. A terminal becomes "smart" when it can perform 
some of its functions automatically. 

UART: A type of Integrated Circuit. The letters stand for Universal Asynchronous 
Receiver/Transmitter. Translated, that means it converts serial data to parallel 
data and vice-versa. 

Upload: The opposite of download. The sender is the one "uploading". 

UTERM: A terminal program for the TRS-80 that provides for a wide variety of func- 
tions while eliminating the need for a UART. 

Table 3. Glossary 



In 




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'Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 135 



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Once you are this far, test the 
rest of the features. Press Shift 
M. Type in a line or so of text (you 
are now in line mode). Before you 
press Enter to end the line, press 
Shift R. After you press Enter, the 
line will keep repeating until you 
press Clear. Now press Shift I. 
This is the Basic program input 
(receiving) mode. Several lines of 
text will appear on the screen. To 
exit without receiving anything 
press Clear. You should be back 
in Uterm (blank screen with cur- 
sor). Notice that when in the Shift 
I mode the keyboard is dead. The 
keyboard's function has been 
transferred to the modem. Only 
Clear will set it free. 

The next item to try is the 
Basic transmitting function. 
Press Shift O. More text will ap- 
pear. Load a Basic program and 
then LLIST it (like you were going 
to dump it to the printer). The pro- 
gram will then list slowly (at 
about 30 characters/second) on 
the screen and the modem should 
be doing some more twittering. 
When the list is finished you will 
still be in Basic. You could send 
the program again (LLIST) or play 
a few games. Or you could return 
to Uterm. Do this by typing 
Name. 

Try the buffer. Get to line mode 
(press Shift M if necessary) and 
then type Shift E (Enable buffer). 
Everything that appears on the 
screen will be placed into the buf- 
fer. To close the buffer press 
Shift C. If you want to check the 
contents of the buffer, press 
Shift B. If you have a printer, 
now you have a chance to use it. 
Almost any sort of printer will 
work in this mode, even those 
that require a software driver. 
Just be sure the driver is in- 
stalled before you load Uterm 
and that the printer is enabled. 
(Technical note: The printer is 
deemed to be enabled if 37E8H, 
bit 7 and 6 are read low. This will 
be taken care of automatically if 
you have a standard Radio 
Shack compatible printer. If you 
have some other type, print the 
buffer by pressing Shift P. Use 
Shift P only when the printer is 
ready to go. To do otherwise 
hangs the program. Shift P by- 
passes the bit 7 check and al- 
lows non-RS printers to work. If 
the printer is not enabled (se- 
lected), the buffer will list on the 



screen. You can stop the buffer 
display by pressing the space 
bar. Pressing Enter resumes the 
display where it left off and 
pressing Clear (after you have 
pressed space bar) aborts the 
list and puts you back in the ter- 
minal program. You can review 
the buffer as many times as you 
wish (Shift B) but the contents 
will be lost if you go to Basic in- 
put mode or enable the buffer 
again (Shift E). 

Next try the auto sign-on 
function. Press Shift S. The 
screen will show: 

BOB;HART;MEDFORD,OREGON;Y 

This is my check-in message for 
Forum-80 bulletin board sys- 
tems. Change it to your own 
name. Line 290 of the loader pro- 
gram contains the sign-on mes- 
sage. Using the table of Hart's 
Hex codes (Table 1) you can 
replace each code as neces- 
sary. For example, to insert the 
message, "THIS IS A TEST(car- 
riage return)", the Remark state- 
ment would look like that shown 
in Fig. 3. 

There must be at least one 
@ @ at the end of the message. 
The @ @ (0 byte) tells the mes- 
sage handler where to stop. 
Without it, you could transmit a 
large portion of the machine 
code of Uterm (which would not 
make much sense in this form). 
There must be exactly 40 (forty) 
items in this Remark statement. 
The SAN at the end of the line is 
the checksum. You can omit it. 

Try the system on-line and get 
a friend to help you out. It helps if 
he or she has a modem/terminal. 
Call the friend and place one of 
the modems in answer mode and 
the other in originate mode. Half 
duplex will be necessary on both 
ends since very few terminals 
and computers disguised as ter- 
minals echo everything they re- 
ceive (this one is no exception). 
After you have verified that you 
are receiving each other's carrier 
(tone) try typing a few messages 
back and forth. If that is success- 
ful, try the Basic program receiv- 
ing and transmitting modes. You 
know already that your trans- 
mitting mode works so the one 
that should be tested is the 
receiver (also known as down- 
load function). Tell your partner 



136 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



to send a program and then 
press Shift I. You will see the pro- 
gram as it is received. When it 
stops coming, press Clear. The 
program will list again. The com- 
puter translates the full text of 
the program into its internal 
short hand form. When it finishes 
that (or stops for some other rea- 
son), it should say Ready and dis- 
play the prompt (>). If the listing 
stops but will not display Ready, 
press Enter. If it does not stop 
and starts listing garbage, press 
up arrow and then Enter. At this 
point you can edit, save (on cas- 
sette or disk) run, or ignore the re- 
ceived program. When you are 
finished with the program enter 
Name. Presto. You are back in 
Uterm again. 

The program receive function 
will work automatically if sent 
the proper codes. If the RECV 
subroutine detects a DC2 char- 
acter (12 hex) it will jump to pro- 
gram receive mode just as if you 
pressed Shift I. At the end of the 
program, if the sender transmits 
a DC4 (14 hex) it will be as if you 



pressed the clear key. The only 
thing left is for the computer to 
display Ready and for you to 
save the program. 

Table 2 lists the commands in 
the various modes of Uterm. 

The best way to become famil- 
iar with the system is to use it. 
Uterm is a simple and inexpen- 
sive way to get started in com- 
puter communications. Leave 
messages anywhere in the coun- 
try at any time on computer bul- 
letin boards; access large files of 
information from computer ser- 
vices; try at-home computer 
banking and instant new pro- 
gram update. All presage greater 
events in this field. Experiment 
all you can (all your phone bill 
allows). When you are up and 
running, leave a message on the 
Medford Forum-80. The number 
again is 503-535-6883. The 
system is on line 24 hours 
a day. ■ 

Bob Hart is a field service 
representative for a medical 
imaging company. 







Progra 


m Listing 1 




00100 


; ••• UTERM 


VERSION 1.5 •*• 




00110 


; ORIGINAL! Y 


INSPIRED BY 3TEPHFN GIBSON'S 




or, 120 


: "MICKEY GETS NEW EARS" , KB MICROCOMPUTING MAY '80 




00130 


; LAST REVISED 8/09/81 BY BOB HART 




0011.0 










00150 








FB00 


00160 




ORG 


0FB00H ;U8K 


30 2 


00170 


LOW 


EQU 


2H ;RS232 


0001 


o ; s o 


HI 


EQU 


;RS232 1 


0010 


00190 


TO 


E QU 


16D ;.3MS 


0051 


00200 


Tl 


EQU 


81D ;1.2 MS 


0087 


00210 


T2 


EQU 


135D ;1.97MS 


00C5 


, 2 D 


n 


EQU 


1970 ;3.0MS 


00E1 


2 3 


TBIT 


EQU 


2250 ;3.3 MS BIT TIME 


0033 


2 1. 


CRT 


F.QL 


33H 


002B 


00 25C 


KBC 


EQU 


2BH 


0221 


00260 


PORT 


EQU 


221H ; I/O PORT DRIVER 


l|020 


00270 
00280 


CSRPOS 


EQU 


I.020H ; CURSOR POSITION 


FBOO 1.2 


00290 


SIGNON 


DEFM 


'BOB; HART; MEDFORD, OREGON; Y' 


FS19 0DOO 


00300 




DEFW 


000DH ;C.R. AND DELIMITER 


0011. 

ED 


00310 




OEFS 


20 ;20 MORE BYTES RESERV 


FB2F 0000 
R 


00320 
00530 


OLDLP 


DEFW 


; STORAGE FOR LP VECTO 


FB31 


00310 


BEGIN 


EQU 


I 


F831 2A2640 


00350 




lq 


HL,(I.026H) ;GET PRINTER VECTOR 


FB31. 222FFB 


00360 




Lf) 


(OLDLP),Hl ;SAVE IT 


FB37 5EC3 


00370 




LD 


A, 0C3H ; PATCH NAME VECTOR 


FB39 328EI.1 


00380 




LD 


U18EH),A 


FB3C 2H.2FB 


00390 




LI) 


HE, NAME 


FB3F 228FU 


001.00 




1.0 


(1.18FH),HL 


FBI.2 


001.10 


'.'A'-'f 


EQU 


t ;RE-ENTRY POINT 


FBI.2 2A2FFB 
OR 


001.20 




I.I) 


HL, (OLDLP) ;REST0RE PRINTER VECT 


FB1.5 2226A0 


00130 




LI) 


(l.026H) / HL 


FBI.8 F3 


001.1.0 




Ql 




FBi.9 D0211.EF0 


00150 




: d 


IX,M0DE; INDEX FOR POINTERS 


-"BUD DD360001 


001.60 




:.Q 


CIX»0),1 ; CHARACTER SEND MODE 


n< 


001.70 
001.80 






;NON-REPEAT,NO PRINTE 
;NO BUFFER 


FB51 CDC901 


00190 




CALL 


01C9H ;CLEAR SCREEN 


FBSI. CD63F3 


00500 




CALL 


RESET ; INITIALIZE OUTPUT 


FB57 COBDFD 


00510 




CALL 


SUFST INITIALIZE BUFFER 


FB5A DDCB0096 


00520 




RES 


2,{IX+0);KEEP BUFFER OFF 


FB5E CD5FFD 


00530 


GETCP 


CALL 


GETCRS ;GET CURSOR POSITION 


FG61 18I.H 


0051.0 

005 5 c 
00560 




JR 


KEYS1 ; ENTER MAIN LOOP 


FB63 210200 


00570 


RESET 


LD 


HL y LOW ;MARK 


FB66 CD2102 


00580 




CALL 


PORT ;SEND IT 


FB69 C9 


00S90 
00600 
00610 


< 


RET 






■.-. 2 


;•••• 


MA 1 ■> 


RECEIVER ROUTINE • •«• 


F86A 


C [ < J 


RECV 


EQU 


$ ;SERIAL TO PARALLEL 


F86A 010007 


0061.0 




LE 


EC, 700H;8-7,C-0 


FB6D C09CFB 


00650 




CAL1 


CKPORT ; LOOKING FOR START BIT 


FB70 C8 


OOEbC 




RET 


Z ; RETURN IF NO START 

Program Listing 1 Continues 




MAKE YOUR PRINTER 




Remove the controller board in your printer and 
plug ours in to add the following capabilities: 

• Bidirectional printing 

• Full UPPER/lower case ASCII plus TRS-80 
graphics or DSE scientifics character sets 
in 9 x 7 dot matrix format (9x9 available as 
option — requires print head change) 

• Motor control — turns off the motor when 
the printer is not in use 

• 2048 character buffer 

• Software selectable features 

• transfer protocol (XON/XOFF or 
none) 

• character densities (10, 12, 15, 16.5 
cpi plus double width in each size) 

• self-test 

• plus more! 

Introductory price 
$295 assembled and tested 

for orders placed before 6/30/82 



Digita 
Systei 
Engine 




Suite 400 Carolyn Building 

10400 Eaton Place 

Fairfax, VA 22030 (703) 385-0900 

VISA, MasterCard, check, COD accepted ^ 2 69 



•See List ot Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 137 



THE BIGGEST NAME IN LITTLE COMPUTERS^ 

TRS-80 Model II— Your Best Buy 
In a Business Microcomputer 




software and peripherals 

Similar values on all merchandise 
CALL COLLECT: 

800-351-1580 

Texas Residents call: 915-283-2920 

Van Horn Office Supply „.« 

701 W. Broadway - P O Box 1060 
Van Horn, Texas 79855 

DEALER G055 ■■■ 

Form F48 Provided **ssam 

Standard Warranty in Effect 

THE NA TIONWIDE SUPERMARKET OF SOUND* 




Magazine 



SEND FOR FREE CATALOG 



Beat Roulette with a Pocket Computer! 

This booklet by Dr Edward 0. Thorp describes his little known work on Physical Prediction ot Roulette 
fhe man who made Las Vegas change toe rules on Blackjack exposes Roulette's succeptibility to 
computers $ 9.95 

Horse Race Handicapping! Our biggest seiler - Probability Handicapping Device- 1 
This is a comprehensive horse racing system 'or spotting overlays in thoroughbred 
f sprmt races. Easy entry ol data from the racing lorm A complete users manual takes 

%u.__ you step by step through a sample race and explains overlay betting and money 
- *^ management The user's manual contains a detailed tab run of a 100 consecutive race 
system workout showing an amazing $1 50 returned for each $1 00 wagered. (Note: this is not the 
same program as "Winning at the Races"). You may purchase the manual seperately tor $7.95 and 
credit PHO-t is now available for CP/M (Basic-80. M-Basic). PHD-1 User's Manual and cassette for: 
16K Apple II Applesoft. 8K Ohio Scientific (specify 1P or 4P), 16K TRS-80 Model I or III S29.95 

Apple or TRS-80 Disk $34.95 

CP/M8" Single Density Data Disk $39.95 

DR. QUIRIN'S FAMOUS DISCOVERIES! 

Win at the Races This is the program using the algorithms from Or. Quirin's book. Highly praised and 
endorsed by OR QUiRIN. this program is the best available today. Screen edit data entry makes enter- 

ng data a breeze Or Quinn s par time adiustment routines are included We warned you that the price 
would go up and it did Order now because this once wi I qo up again 

Winning at the Races Cassette (3ZK TRS-80 or Apple) $49 95 

Disk , $49.95 

Winning at the Races — the book by William Quinn Ph.D. This is the best computerized study of 

horoughbred racing ever published This 300 page hardbound book shows detailed studies ot high im- 
pact value factors and includes Dr Quirin's larnous Par Times 
A Tom Ainsle Winners Circle Book $21 .95 

Beating the Races with a Computer by Steve Brecher A good How to book on multiple regression 
techniques applied to Pan-Mutual handicapping Some heavy math '$14.95 



Make ct>cc«s payable lo JOF COMPUTER - Phone O'ders and inlormation 1213) 992-051' 

Send 10: JOE COMPUTER. 22713 Venlura Blvfl Suite F Woodland Hills. CA 91364 

California residents add 6% sales Uk 



^ 256 



Program Listing 


1 Continued 








FB71 


CDItOFD 


BOB' 




CALL 


D L Y 1 2 


1.2 MS 


FB71t 


C39CFB 


00680 




CALL 


CKPORT 


ISIS REALLY START? 


FB77 


C8 


00690 




RET 


Z 


GO 8ACK IF FALSE ALARM 


FB78 


CD36-9 


00 BOO 


LPBIT 


CALL 


DLY30 


WAIT 3.0 MS 


FB7B 


C09CFB 


00710 




CALL 


CKPORT 


CHECK INPUT 


FB7B 


3E9 


00"2j 




OUT (0E9H),A 


TEST PULSE 


F B 8 


Bl 


00730 




OR 


C 


ADD OLD BITS 


F B 8 1 


OF 


007li0 




RRCA 




SHIFT ALL BITS RIGHT 


FB8 2 


I.F 


7 5 




!.; 


C,A 


SAVE BITS 


FB83 


I r 3 


0O76O 




DJNZ 


LPBIT 


REPEAT FOR ALL DATA BITS (7 


IMES 














FB85 


CD36FD 


00 77 




BALI 


D L Y 3 


SKIP PARITY 


'BBS 


CD9CFB 


00 'So 


PSKIP 


BALL 


CKPORT 




FB8B 


20-3 


00790 




9 


07, PIY.\ B 


;CKECK UNTIL HARK 


F88D 


71 


00 8 




LO 


A,C 


GET BYTE 


FBSB 


2F 


00810 




CP1. 




INVERT (MARK NOW-1) 


F38F 


E67F 


00820 




AND 


7FH 


STRIP MSB 


FB91 


Fl 60 


008 50 




Or 


6 OH 


LOWER CASE? 


FB93 


FA9SFB 


0080 




JP 


M,TUBE 


NO 


FB96 


E65F 


00850 




AND 


5FH 


CONVERT TO UC 


F39S 


CD1.EFF 


8 


TUBE 


BALL. 


CRT1 


WRITE 


F39 3 


C9 


8 7 




RET 




LOOP AGAIN 


FB9C 


C063FB 


00880 


CKPORT 


CALL 


RESET 


RESET PORT LATCH 


9599 


CD5BFD 


00830 




CALL 


DLY5 


WAIT .3 MS 


FBA2 


DBFF 


00900 




IN 


A,(0FFH) 


CHECK PORT 


FBAIi 


E580 


009 10 




AND 


80H 


MASK ALL BUT MSB 


FBA6 


C9 


0O92O 
00930 
0091.0 




RET 










00950 


;»*» 


KEYBOARO SCAN ROUTINE »•* 


FBA7 


CD70FD 


00960 


<EYS1 


CALL 


BREAK 




F BAA 


C02BOO 


00 970 




OABB 


KBD 




"BAB 


B7 


00980 




on 


A 


SET FLAGS 


?BAE 


200A 


00990 




JR 


NZ,KIN 


IF INPUT 


FBBO 


CnCAFB 


1 




OABB 


RECV 


NO KEYS, CHECK RECEIVER 


FBB3 


FE12 


01010 




CP 


12H 


DC2 


FBB5 


CA7I FD 


01020 




OP 


Z,M3DE1 


RECEIVE PROGRAM MODE 


FBBS 


18 BO 


01030 




JR 


KEYS1 


AND KEEP LOOPING 


FBBA 


CDSFFD 


010UO 


KIN 


CALL 


GETCRS 


CURSOR POSITION 


FBBD 


1809 


010 5 




JR 


KEYLP 


OTHERWISE 


FBBF 




01060 


KEYS 


EQU 


$ 


READ KEYBOARD AND SEND 


FBBF 


CD7 C D 


D1070 




CA1 1 


3REAK 




FBC2 


CD2B30 


0108 




CALL 


KBD 




FBC5 


87' 


oiooo 




'JO 


A 


ANY CHARACTER 


FBCO 


2 8 F 7 


0110 




JR 


Z,KEYS 


LOOP ON KEYBOARD 


FBC8 


E 6 7 F 


OHIO 


K E V 1 P 


AN 9 


7FH 


MASK MSB 


FBCA 


FBOB 


01120 


TEST IN 


CP 


91 


UP ARROW?(CLEAR SCREEN) 


FBCC 


CA1.2-B 


0113 




JP 


Z,NAME 


CLR SCREEN 


FRCF 


rB 18 


1 ! J 




CP 


21 


SHIFT LEFT ARROW?(CLR LINE) 


FBD1 


20 06 


0115 




JR 


N Z, CTRL 


SKIP IF NOT 


FBD3 


CDS UFO 


1 1 




OAL1 


B L if L 1 M 


CLEAR LINE 


FBD6 


C35EFB 


01170 




JP 


GETCP 


NEW CURSOR POSITION 


FBD9 


FE1A 


0118 


CTRL 


OB 


26 


SHIFT DOWN ARROW?(CNTRL KEY) 


FBDB 


200 3 


7 19 




JR 


NZ, CRTST 


;NO 


FOOD 


AF 


01200 




XOR 


A 




FBDt 


18U6 


01210 




JB 


i DCRT1 


; CONTINUE 


FBE0 


FEOD 


01220 


CRTST 


CP 


ODH 


CR? 


F3E2 


2 00C 


01230 




JR 


99, SICK 


IF NOT SKIP 


F3Elt 


DDC800UF. 


0121.0 




Bl T 


0..; 1 x*0) 


; CHECK MODE 


FOBS 


CAC1FC 


012 50 




P 


Z,ETX 




FBEB 


CDOliFD 


01209 




CAI L 


SEND 


SENO IT 


FBEE 


1887 


01270 




JR 


KEYS] 


ANO LOOP 


FBFO 


65.69 


01280 


SICK 


CP 


69H 


SHIFT 1 '(BASIC INPUT) 


FBF2 


CA7EFD 


01290 




JP 


Z, MOB 61 


REC PROGRAM MODE 


FBF5 


FE6F 


01300 




CP 


6FH 


SHIFT 0?(BASIC OUTPUT) 


FBF7 


'.406 Ft 


01310 




JP 


7,5' OB 6 2 


XMIT PROGRAM MODE 


f'BFA 


F B 6 D 


01320 




OB 


6DH 


SHIFT M?(XMIT MODE) 


FBFC 


2 00B 


013 3 




JR 


NZ, 0906 


NO, SKIP 


FBFE 


OD7E0O 


013UO 




LD 


A, ( IX-0) 


;MOOE 


FC01 


EE01 


01350 




XOR 


1 


TOGGLE BIT 


boo; 


DD7700 


01560 




LD 


( 1 X • ) , A 


PUT IT BACK 


FCOC 


AF 


01S7Q 




XOR 


A 


ZERO AC CUM 


FCQ7 


18 ID 


19 8 




JR 


LDCRT1 


CONTINUE 


FC09 


F B 7 


01590 


SPCK 


C P 


70H 


SHIFT-P? (PRINT SUFFER) 


FCOB 


2006 


01 It 00 




JB 


NZ, SECK 


NO--SKIP 


FCOO 


DDCBOOCE 


: .. :. 




SET 


1 , ( 1 X • ) 


ENABLE PRINT 


FC11 


1826 


011*20 




JR 


SBCO 


GO TO BUFFER ROUTI NE 


FC13 


FE65 


01950 


SECK 


CP 


6SH 


SHIFT E?(ENTER BUFFER) 


FC15 


2 00B 


011.1*0 




JR 


NZ.SCCK 


NO- SKIP 


FC17 


CDBDFD 


01U50 




CALL 


BUFST 


1 NIT BUFFER 


FC1A 


AF 


01K60 




XOR 


A 




FC1B 


1809 


01-70 




JR 


LDCRT1 


CONTINUE 


FC10 


FEG3 


011*80 


SCCK 


CP 


63H 


SHIFT C?(CLOSE BUFFER) 


FC1F 


2007 


019 




JB 


MZ,SBCK 


NO- SKI P 


FC21 


DDC80096 


01500 




B: B 9 


2, ( 1 X-C) 


TURN OFF BUFFER 


FC25 


AF 


01510 




XOH 


A 




FC26 


185E 


01520 


LDCRT1 


JR 


LDCRT2 


CONTINUE 


F02S 


FEG2 


01530 


SBCK 


CP 


62H 


SHIFT B? (DISPLAY BUFFER) 


FC2A 


205C 


015H0 




JR 


NZ, 55CK; 


t KEEP TELLING YOU- NO! 


FC2C 


CDD105 


01550 




CALI 


0SD1H 


CHECK FOR PRINT READY 


FC2F 


DDCBOOCE 


15 7 




OFT 


1 , t 1 X . ) 


ENABLE PRINTER 


FC33 


2801. 


1585 




JP 


7,99 9 


SKI P IF PRINTER READY 


FC35 


D f B s : 


015 9 




RES 


1 , ( 1 X • > 


ELSE DISABLE PRINTER 


FC39 


CDC901 


BibOO 


SBCO 


CAI L 


01C9H 


CLEAR SCREEN 


FC3C 


09 


01610 




EXX 




ALT REG 


FC3D 


EB 


91620 




F. X 


DE,HL 


PUT BUFEND IN DE 


FC3E 


DD660U 


: 6 ' 




LD 


H, ( IX*I.) 


GET START 


FCU1 


DD6E03 


0161*0 




LD 


L, i IX*3) 




FCHi 


OF 


01650 


SBC1 


RST 


2U 


END OF BUFFER? 


FCtS 


2855 


01660 




JR 


Z, SBC3 


JUMP 1 F END 


F«7 


7E 


1 7 




LD 


A,(HL) 


ELSE GET CHARACTER 


FCU8 


010003 


01680 




LD 


5C, 0>50i 


SET DISPLAY SLOWDOWN DELAY 


FC4B 


FS 


0169 




PUSH 


AF 




FCC 


09 


91 '00 




EXX 




NORM REGISTERS 


rcu 9 


003300 


017 10 




BALL 


CRT 


DISPLAY IT 


FC50 


DUCBOOI+E 


17 2 




BIT 


1 , ( 1 X • ) 


PRINTER? 


FC5U 


2 80 A 


017 30 




JR 


Z.SBC2 


SKIP IF NOT 


FC56 


Fl 


01710 




POP 


AF 


RESTORE CHAR 


FC5 7 


F5 


01750 




PUSH 


AF 








9.1.7 95 


; BASIC 


ROM PRINTER DRIVE 




FC58 


CD3B00 


51760 




CALL 


3BH 


PRINT CHAR 


FC5B 


09 


01780 




exx 




ALT REGS 


FCSC 


010100 


o:750 




LD 


8C,1 


MIN DELAY FOR PRINTER 


FCSF 


D9 


018 




EXX 




NORM REGS 


FC60 


Fi 


919 10 


SBC2 


POP 


AF 




FC61 


D9 


01820 




t < X 




ALT REGS AGAIN 


FC62 


CD6000 


918^5 




CALL. 


060H 


DELAY (Hi. 66 US • BC) 


FC65 


3AU058 


i 9 




or, 


A, ! 58 5 00 


;CHECK KEYBOARO 


!-C6 6 


0B7F 


01850 




BIT 


7, A 


TEST FOR SPACE BAR 


; ;ba 


2 8 30 


01860 




JR 


Z.SIiCU 


NO, DONT PAUSE 


FC6C 


3AU 038 


016 70 


5B05 


LD 


A, ( 381* OH 


; KEYBOARD 


FC6F 


CBIi7 


01880 




BIT 


0,A 


ENTER KEY? 


FC71 


2 06 


018 




JP 


NZ,SBCI* 


YES — CONTINUE ON 


FC73 


CBUF 


019 




31 1 


l.A 


CLEAR KEY? 


FC75 


2 09 5 


019 10 




JP 


NZ, SBCS 


YES—ABORT LISTING 


FC77 


18F3 


9 ; 9 2 




OR 


S8CS 


PAUSE LOOP 

Program Listing 1 Continues 



138 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



NEW SPACE AGE 
PRINTER STAOT 




Clear $27.50 Color. 



$29.95 



NEW DISKS FRO 



Wabash has come out with three new high quality disks, a new 80 track 
double density, a new 80 track double density on two sides, and a new 
flippy disk that can be read on both sides by a normal disk drive. 

5V4 single density $25.95 Double density 40 track. .. $32.99 

Doubledensity80 track. . . 34.99 Double den. 40 tr.2/sides. . . 34.99 
Doubleden.80tr.2/sides. . . 42.99 Flippy double density 35.99 

All Wabash disks are ot such high quality that they are guaranteed by 
the manufacture for two years. 



- Automatic density recognition - 

- Automatic track count recognition - 

- Automatic dos recognition - 

- The Best Directory On The Market! - 

This will be the standard which all other Directores are judged. It will read any 
normal type of diskette Mod I or III, Multi Dos, Ldos, Dos Plus, and Trs Dos. Double 
Density. Single Density, 35, 40 or 80 track drives. 

A machine language program that is easy to use, but at the same time has all the 
features you wi 1 1 ever need. Display to screen or to printer. Displays by program, or 
disk, or subject. Super fast sort. Scrolling displays, ect. 

You can even add a line to help tell what the program is about. 

Example: 

SARGON/CMD 146G GREAT CHESS GAME 

SARGON/CMD is name of program read off of disk. 146 is you reference number 

for this disk G is added later designating game. "GREAT CHESS GAME" is added 

later as a descriptor file. 

Super Directory $39.90 

Super Directory with 10Wabash Disks $59.80 

SPECIAL OFFER - with each directory ordered you will receive 
10% discount on any disks ordered. 

If you use a model I please specify if you want a double density version. 
(You must have a doubler to use the double density version.) 



SUPERMETER 

The biggest problem in loading tapes has been the volume 
control. Prerecorded tapes are produced al dittering volume 
levels. Now finally, a device lo let you set She correct volume 
levels tor loading any tape. You will now load any tape the 
FIRST time SUPERMETER plugs in (no cutting or soldering] 
between your tape recorder and the computer and lets you set 
the volume to the level that you' computer man's. 

SUPERMETER $29.00 



FAMILY TREE 

Excellent family genelogy program works on both the model I 
and III Written expecially for the person |ust getting into 
genelogy. It has over 250 pages of instructions on how to 
research your family tree, how in get information and how to 
put it into the program The computer program is easy to follow 
and gives both printouts and screen listings of your family tree. 
It will even give you a listing of all your living relatives 
birthdays 

Disk or Tape S29.00 



Small Business Programs 

CHECKI NG ACCOUNT Mod I or III. 48k disk $39.00 

Excellent check writing program for small business Prints 
checks on printer, sorts into 32 catagories f or bookeeper and 

IRS. 

BILLING SYSTEM Mod. I or III, 48k disk $39.00 

Excellent system tor the small business man, It is fast a no easy 
to use. Prints out invoice and monthly bills. Adds interest etc. 

SPECIAL BOTH PROGRAMS $65.00 

INVOICE PROGRAMS 

Prints out invoice with your name at the top on 8V» X 1 1 paper. 
DISK ONLY $24.95 



New! 

Hayes Smart IVlodem 

We at Comr. utei Shack think this is the nest mode-" on the 
market We include a file transfei and communications pro- 
gram at no charge with each purchase of the Smart Modem 

Programs and modem only $259.00 

EP-SET-80 

If you have a EPSON Printer you need EP-Set A series of 
programs that help you use all the features ot the Epson 
printer One merges with a basic program to help drive the 
printer One is a machine language subroutine to give yon 
keyboard access to the printer, (example type control c to get 
the compressed mode Control E to get emphised characters). 
Use EP-SET to set the line spacing, character modes, strike 
modes etc. Throw your manual away. Happiness is here with 
EP-SET. 

Disk or Tape 1 8.95 

Miscellaneous Utilities 

Z BASIC 

The only Compiler we will recommend. 

Disk & Tape together $94.95 

Disk ,.... ' ..'. $84.95 

Tape $74.95 

MYSOS EDAS35 

Our favorite editor assembler $74.95 

SUPER UTILITY PLUS '.. $44.95 

POWER DRAW $34.95 

V.F.U. 

By Vernon Hestor valuable File Utility Purge Execute-Copy 

by file or disk 

Specify Operating System $19.95 

TAPE COPY II.,....: $12.95 

Only $5.00 with any other utility. 



We sell them all We recommend and use MULTI DOS 

Don't let its low price fool you. It'll do everything the others will 
and guite a few things they can't. 

MULTIDOS has the BEST BASIC - - it's the EASIEST to use 

and its the FASTEST system around. Why pay twice as much for a 
operating system that's complicated and hard to use, 

Multi Dos is not a cheap copy of other operating system's it is a 
new Dos specially written for the average TRS-80 user. Listed 
below are some of the features that Multi Dos has that most of 
the other doss don't have. This list has 34 things that would be 
commonly used by most people. 20 are exclusively Multi Dos. 

Repeat's last dos command, Multiple dos command, Hi Speed 
boot, nested Do file, software powerup, hi speed debug, 
executable debug, alphabetized directory, forms command, 
totals free, keyboard attributes, topmen, auto-multiple density 
recognation, copy only if sufficient space.graphics driver, 
single step basic, zero arreys, delete arrays, sort routing, used 
variables and their values displayed, transfer to level II. fing, 
intelligent global editor, string packer, line splitter, line merger, 
renumber to line 0. renumber packed strings, lists graphics, 
automatic high speed, won't hang if no printer, repeating keys, 
menu driven copy to file, screen dump graphics to printer. 

These are the features that other dos's are spending thou- 
sands of dollars and hundreds of hours trying to copy (this is a 
quote from another com pa nys ad that has 6 of the 34 features 
listed above). 

$79.00 
SPECIALS 

MULTI DOS with Aerocomp Doubler $209.00 

MULTI DOS with Super Directory $9900 

MULTI DOS with Super D S Doubler $229 00 

DOS PLUS 3.4 $1 29.00 

L DOS $1 19.00 

AEROCOMP DOUBLER $139 00 

The operating systems that are given out free with the doublers 
for $149 and $159 dollars are not comparable with all of the 
features of Multi Dos. 



COM PUT 

1691 Eason • Pontiac, Michigan 48054 (313)673-2224 



■See List ot Advertisers on page 386 



ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS: 

MC and VISA OK please add $2.00 for Shipping in U.S.A. Also 

to help us send you the best possible version include the type 
of computer you have, your operating system if disk and if you 
have a doub er in the model ' 

DEALERS . . . We are distributors for all items in this ad 

except for the games Scarfman, Laser Defense, Fortress, and 
Alien Defense. Write for our catalog and price list. 



^109 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 139 



ACTION GAMES 

The fastest growing producer of computer games for 
your 6809 has the products you have waited for!! 



ARCADE GAMES FOR 



THE COLOR COMPUTER 



Fast paced action • Super Hi-Res Graphics 
Dynamite sound effetets • Runs in 16K of memory 

These games will astonish you with their Detail and Quality. 
They set a standard for others to follow. 



— ADVENTURES — 

Calixto Island • alie $lack Sanctum 

Highly acclaimed by reviewers • Challenging situations 

Fast, efficient machine language • Runs in 16K of memory 

Save game in progress 



Adventures on 5' ■: TSC FLEX disc (specify 6800 or 6809) ea S24 95 

Both adventures on single disc ■ $39.95 

Adventures tor color computer ea $19.95 

Color Berserk lor color computer ea. $24.95 

Cave Hunter (or color computer ea. $24.95 

Shipped prepaid m continental U S Cali'o-nia residents, please ado 6°o (ax 



- MORE COMING SOON - 



MARK DATA PRODUCTS 

23802 Barquilla, Mission Viejo, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

TRS 80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 



Announcing 




ELECTRONIC NOTEBOOK 



A totally new concept in small-scale information management for the TRS 80 (R). LOG is an 
assembly language utility which fills the gap between text editors and data base managers to 
provide a true free-form information storage and retrieval system with unheard-of ease of 

operation 

LOG-CM D creates on a formatted diskette a LOG file from 1 to 170 pages long, each page 
containing 1 full screen of information. Pages are accessed individually or sequentially, as if 
thumbing through a book. Information is added, updated, or deleted from each page in free 
form by an integral cursor-oriented text editor. Each diskette becomes a separate organized 

notebook to use ana reuse as you please 

Insert, Delete, Tab, Clear, and full cursor positioning are supported, as well as blinking cursor 
and auto-repeat. All functions operate with the ease of a single keystroke including Global 
Search. Output to printer is provided LOG can even be accessed from BASIC without toss of 

program 

Why, when you own a computer, do you still keep records by hand? Throw away your pencil 
and paper! Use your computer as you never dreamed of before! 



Model 
Model ::: 



32 oi 48K 

32 or 48K 



i'\A 95 
$49.95 



(minimum system: 32K, 2 disk drives, 
DOS 2,3 (I) or 1.3 (III) required) 



Write or Call lor lurthei information 

KSoft 

':-! B Lakeside Drive 
Brandon, MS 39042 



(TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation) 



(upperi dse only! 
(uppercase/lowercase) 



(601) 992-2239 

MasterCard and Visa accepted. 
MS Residents pay 5% sales tax. 

We pay shipping and handling 

^331 



Program Listing " Continued 








FC79 


23 


019 '.0 


SBC 


NC 


HL 


POINT TO NEXT BUFF CHAR 


FC7A 


18CS 


a l o ;, o 




JR 


[3 1 


GO FOR NEXT CHARACTER 


FC7C 


EB 


019 5 


SBC 3 


FX 


DE,HL 


PUT CURRENT END BACK IN HL 


FC7D 


112FFB 


01960 




LD 


DF, BEGIN 


-2 


FC80 


D9 


019 7 




oxx 




NORM REGS 


FC81 


AF 


1 9 8 C 




XOR 


A 




FC8 2 


t-dcbooce 


010 3 


CHSET 


SET 


0, ( IX. 0) 


CHARACTER MODE 


FC86 


JL827 


0-00 


i 0100 3 2 


JR 


LDCRT 


(RETURN TO TERM 


FC8 8 


FE73 


2 10 


SSCK 


CP 


7JH 


SHIFT S?( SIGN-ON) 


FC8A 


2 o : u 


02020 




JR 


NZ,SRCK 


SKIP IF NOT SHIFT S 


FC8C 


2 1 F n 


02 03 




0D 


KL,SIGNON 


FC8F 


7E 


020140 


LP3 


LD 


A,CHL) 


GET CHAR 


FC90 


B7 


2 5 




Of. 


A 




FC91 


28 EF 


2 6 




JR 


Z, CHSET 


QUIT IF NULL BYTE 


FC93 


23 


2 0- C 




1 NC 


HL 




FC9ii 


E5 


2 000 




PUSH 


111 




FC95 


F5 


3 2 




PUSH 


AF 




FC9 6 


CPOIiFD 


o o : o o 




CALL 


SEND 




FC99 


Fl 


02110 




POP 


AF 




FC9A 


CDliEFF 


2 12 




0.000 


CRT1 




FC9D 


El 


2 10 




POP 


HL 




FC9E 


1SLF 


2 10 







005 




FCAO 


FE72 


210 


3RCK 





7211 


SHIFT R?(REPEAT LINE) 


FCA2 


DMCB009 E 


O22G0 




RES 


5 , < : X - 1 


;CLR REPEAT FLAG 


F C A b 


2007 


2 17 




JR 


02, 0: CR1 




FCA8 


D0CB00DE 


218 




0EO 


3,(IX*0) 


;SET REPEAT FLAG 


FCAC 


C3BFFB 


02100 




JP 


KEYS 




FCAF 


oncBooue 


2 2 3 


LDCRT 


BIT 


, < 1 x * ) 




FCB3 


2806 


2 210 




JR 


Z,LNE 


;JUMP IF LIME MODE 


FCB5 


COOUFD 


02220 




CALL 


SEND 


•ELSE SEND IMMEDIATELY 


FCB8 


C3A7FB 


2 2 




JP 


KEYS1 


;LOOP BACK TO RECV 


FCB8 


CDIiEFF 


2 2 .i 


LNF 


00;. 


OR 5 3 


;DISPIAY IF IN LIME MODE 


FCBE 


C39FFB 


2 2 5 




JP 


KEYS 


;L00P 






2 2 5 5 


;•*• LIN! 


SCAN ROUTINE •** 


FCC1 


2A2CI.O 


02260 


ETX 


LD 


HL,(CSRPOS);LOAD CURSOR POSITION 


Frcii 


AF 


022-0 




XOR 


A 


•CLEAR CARRY 


FCC5 


1! t, a 2 


072EC 




LD 


D,CIX+2> 


; START 


FCC8 


DD5E01 


02250 




LD 


, ( ! X • 1 ) 




FCC8 


ED52 


02500 




500 


HL,DE 


# OF BYTES 


FCCD 


7C 


2 310 




LD 


A,H 




FCCE 


E603 


2 3 2 




AND 


3H 


LEN <li00H 


FCDO 


67 


02^50 




ID 


H,A 




FC01 


E8 


2 5i-0 




EX 


0E,HL 


BYTE COUNT IN DE 


FCD2 


DD66 02 


2 5 




n 


H,(IX*2) 


START OF LINE 


FCD5 


D36F.01 


02 50 




LD 


L,( iX.l) 




FCC8 


7A 


3 2 3 7 


TSTCT 


LD 


A, '7 




FCD9 


B3 


2 38 




OR 


E ■ 




FODA 


280C 


2 5 




JR 


Z, L. MOO 1 


IF BYTE COUNT-0 


FCDn 


7E 


02000 




LD 


A,<HL) 


CHARACTER TO SEND 


FfDD 


2 3 


o 2 o : : 




INC 


HL 


.POINT TO NEXT CHAR 


FCDE 


E5 


02U2C 




PUSH 


HL 


.SAVE POINTER 


FCRR 


D5 


2i>50 




PUSH 


DE 


•SAVE COUNT 


FCEO 


CD0I.FC 


2 0O 




CALL 


SEND 


TRANSMI1 CHARACTER 


FCE3 


1)1 


2 




POP 


DE 




FOE* 


El 


2 6 




POP 


HL 




FCE5 


IB 


2 14 7 




DEC 


DE 


; DECREMENT COUNT 


FCE6 


18F0 


021480 




JR 


TSTCT 


;GET NEXT CHARACTER 


FCE8 


DOCB005F. 


2 


SNDCR1 


01 ' 


3,(IX*0) 


;TEST REPEAT FLAG 


FCEC 


2809 


02500 




JR 


2, SENDCR 


;IF NO REPEAT, JUMP 


FCEE 


SAU0 38 


02510 




LD 


A,(38ltOH) 


FCF1 


FE02 


02520 




C p 


2 


•IS IT CLEAR? 


FCF3 


2802 


02 50 




OP 


Z, SENDCR 




FCF5 


18 CA 


0251.0 




JR 


ETX 


REPEAT LINE 


FCF7 


3i on 


2 5 5 


SEN0CR 


LD 


A, 0DH 


,CR 


FCF9 


CDOUFD 


02000 




CALL 


SEND 




FCFC 


5E0H 


325 70 




ID 


A,CPH 


CR 


FCFE 


CDUEFF 


02580 




A 


CRT1 


DISPLAY 


FnOl 


C3A7FB 


02590 




JP 


KEYS1 








2 5 9 5 


;*** 


TRANSMIT 


OOOOi NO 


PARALLEL TO SERIAL *** 


FDOt 


37 


02600 


SEND 


OR 


A 




F005 


08 


2 10 




R F T 


Z 


;DONT SEND NULL CHAR 


F D 6 


Ft 80 


2O2O 




OR 


8 DH 


;ADD MSB 


FP08 


57 


02630 




SCF 




;STOP BIT (SET CARRY) 


FD09 


F5 


026!i0 




POO" 


AF 


;SAVE 


FDOA 


525F5C 


2 3 




LD 


C3C3FH), 


A 


FOOD 


210100 


O20O0 




LD 


HL,HI 


SPA OF 


FD10 


CR2102 


2 6 7 




CALL 


PORT 


; OUTPUT IT 


Fnl3 


CMSFD 


02680 




OO00 


DLY 


;ONE BIT TIME 


FD16 


06 08 


0200 




LD 


B,8H 


;8 BITS ♦ STOP 


F018 


Fl 


2 7 


BIT0 


POP 


AF 


;GET BYTE 


FD19 


IF 


02700 




00 A 




SHIFT BIT TO CARRY 


FD1A 


F5 


2 7 2 




PUSH 


AF 


SAVE WHAT'S LEFT 


FD1B 


SCO', 


2 7 3 




JR 


NC,ZER0 


A0 0-0 


FD10 


2 10 2 00 


02700 




LD 


HL,LOW 


CARRY=1;MARK 


F020 


1803 


02700 




JR 


OUT 


TRANSMIT IT 


FD22 


210100 


2 7 6 


ZERO 


LD 


HL, H 1 


; SPACE 


F025 


C 1)2132 


7-70 


OUT 


CALL 


PORT 


WRITE IT 


FD28 


COiiSFD 


32 7 8 




CALL 


DLY 


ONE BIT TIME 


'" Ci 2 1-: 


05 


02 700 




DEC 


B 


COUNT DOWN 


FD2C 


2 0EA 


02300 




OR 


NZ, HI ro 


LOOP IF NOT DONE 


F D 2 f 


Fl 


02 B 10 




POP 


AF 


HOUSEKEEPING 


f d :: F 


CDU5FD 


02820 




CALL 


DLY 




FD32 


CDI.5FD 


028 50 




CALL 


DLY 




FD35 


C9 


0281(0 

2 
02860 




RET 






FD36 


21CS00 


2 8 7 3 


D L V 3 


LD 


HL, : 3 


3.0 MS 


F039 


is on 


2080 




JR 


LOOP 




FD3B 


211000 


02890 


DLY5 


L D 


HL/T0 


SET FOR .5 MS 


FD3E 


18 8 


02-00 




OF 


: OOP 


DO IT 


FniiO 


215 10 


2 10 


OLY12 


LO 


HL,T1 


SET FOR 1.2 MS 


PL0O3 


: i o s 


02020 







LOOP 


DO IT 


FDI.5 


21E100 


02930 


D1V 


ID 


HL, TBI ! 


BIT TIME 


FPU8 


28 


029U0 


LOOP 


DEC 


HL 


COUNT 


FDU9 


7 


02950 




LD 


A,H 


MOB 


FDUA 


B5 


02960 




OR 


L 


LSB 


FtlliB 


20FR 


020 7 3 




JR 


NZ,L 10 P 


IF SOT DONE 


FniiD 


C9 


02980 

0,000 




FI- 




NOW DONE 


0006 




03000 


MODE 


LE " 3 


6 


RESERVED FOR POINTERS 


FD5U 


3E10 


5 10 


CLRLI N 


LD 


A, 29 


CURSOR TO BEGIN OF LINE 


FD56 


( 05 300 


5 2 




OALO 


CRT 




FD59 


3E1E 


030«0 




LD 


A, 30 


CLEAR TO EOL 


FD5B 


CD3 300 


3 




CALL 


CRT 




FOSE 


C9 


0<030 
03060 
03070 


> 


RET 






FD5F 


F5 


03080 


GETCR3 


PL -OK 


AF 


SAVE INPUT 


FD6 


5 EOF 


5 30 




ID 


A, 0EH 


TURN os CURSOR 


FD6 2 


CD 3 3 00 


03100 




CALL 


OPT 




mi 


2A2OU0 


3110 
03120 




POP 


AF 


jRESTORE 




LD 


O0, (CSRPOS);GET CURSOR POSI TION 


FD69 

FPtC 


DO; i-OO 
DD75 01 


3130 

05100 




D 
LD 


( 1 X - 2 ) , H 
CIX*1),L 


;START POSITION 


F06F 


C9 


315 

510.0 

j ; 7 c 

318 




RET 




Program Listing 1 Continues 



140 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Program Listing 1 Continued 



FD7 3A1.0 5S 
FD75 FE09 
FD75 CO 
FD76 210100 

FP79 002132 
FD7C 18-2 



F07E D9 



05190 BREAK 

03200 

5 210 

5 2 2 

5 2 5 

0521.0 

5 250 ; 

03260 ;••« 

a > ? ; a modei 



ld 
cp 

RcT 
LD 

TALI. 

09 



A,(38ftOH) 

H ;CHECK BREAK KEY 
;GO BACK IF NOT 



HL,HI 

PO.R1 
BREAK 



;0UTPU1 space: 
;LOOF 



BASIC PROGRAM RECEIVING WOOF 



FD7F F[)^R16U0 03280 



5 3 P9 

FOS. 21E5FC 

F087 2216UO 
F08A CDI.A1B 
F08D 218EFE 
FD90 CDA728 
FD93 CDBOFD 
FD96 C06AFB 
RT1M 
FH9 J 260A 
F09B FEU. 
F09D 280D 



03290 

3 5 
3 510 
03520 
033 50 
3 5 
03350 
05360 LP1 

05370 

03 3 SO 
D 5 5 9 



Fngr POCS0356 031.00 



FOA3 2807 

FDA5 3AI.038 

F"A8 FE02 

F"AA 2 05 A 

FDAC 139 

FDAD OD5E03 

FPRO D0560<> 

FDB3 OF 

FDSI. 2028 
MPTY 

FDB6 CD01FE 

FDB9 D9 

FDBA C3U2F3 

FDBD D9 

fose 2aaui.0 

f:;c: 110001 

FDC4 19 

FOC5 0071.01. 

I -05 DD7505 

FDCB 112FFB 

FOCE D9 



0301G 
031.20 LP2 
031.30 
031.110 

03450 QUI T 

03-60 

031*70 

031*80 

03U90 

33303 
03510 

3 5 2 

03530 3UFS1 

035,0 

3:50 

035 60 

03 5 7 

35 8 

03390 

03600 



FDCF PDCB00D6 0361C 



FOD3 09 
FOOU 77 
F1D5 23 

FDD6 7D 
ED07 F680 
FOD9 323530 
FODC DF 
FOOD C9 
FDDE 360D 
I DEO EB 



03620 

03630 RUFENT 

5 6 1. C 

05650 

03660 

03670 

01030 

03690 

J3700 BUFNE 

03 7 10 



E I ' 
LD 
EXX 
LD 



CALI 

CAI !. 

ALL 

J H 
BIT 

J P. 
LD 



RST 
JR 

i3A! L 
EXX 

JP 

FXX 

LD 

LD 

AOL' 

LD 

LD 

LD 

f XX 

SET 

PET 

LD 

INC 

LD 

(OR 

LD 

P.ST 



ALTERNATE REGS 
BC,(1.016H);SAVF KBD VECTOR 

;NORM PFOS AGAIN 
HL,KEYNEW;NEW KEYBOARD VECTOR 
U016H),HL; CHANGE VECTOR 
lBhAH ;EXECUTE NEW 

hi., ••mom; 

28a7h ;display prompt 

bufst ;init buffer pointers 

recv ;get char (buffer entry in 'c 

z, lp2 ; i f no input 

1kh ;oci. closes buffer 

Z,QUIT 

2,(IX+0>;BUFFER STILL OPEN? 

Z,QUIT ;JUMP IF CLOSED 

A,(38liOH) 

2 ;IS IT CLEAR? 

NZ,LP1 ;NOPE 

;ALT REGS 
E,(IX*3) ;GET START 
D, ( IX*!.) 

2H ; CHECK FOR - 
NZ, BUFNE ;SKIP IF BUFFER NOT E 

REST1 ;ELSE RESTORE KBD VECTOR 

;NORM REGS 
NAME ; RETURN TO TERM 

;ALT -' E '0 S 

;STAR1 OF BASI TEXT 
;=PFA0-i; -00 SPACE 
;START OF BUFFER 
;SAVE START 



HL, UOAIiH) 

DE, 100H 

HL.DE 

( : »•-;,!! 

(IX-3),L 

DE, BEG IN- 2 

2,(IX-0) 

( H L ) , A 
HL 
A,L . 

8 OH 
(3C3EH),A 



(HL),0DH 
DE,HL 



; BUFFER END 
;NORM REGS 
;OPEN BUFFER 

;SAVE CHAR 

;BUMP BUFFER POINTER 
; ACTIVITY INDICATOR 
;CONVT '0 GRAPHIC 
;TO SCREEN 

;"?-HL? 

;PUT IN TERMINATOR 

;ENC IN 05 ', START IN 



FDE1 


D9 


05720 




EXX 




;NORM REGS 


FnE2 


C37200 


3 3 3 




JP 


72H 


;RETURN 70 BASI 13 


FHE5 


09 


3 3 


KEYNEW 


EXX 


;ALT 


REGS 


FnE6 


7 5 


3 7 5 


KEYGT 


LD 


A, (HL) 


;GET CHAR 


FPL 3 


FEOA 


3-00 




CP 


OAH 


;LF? 


FnE9 


2005 


37 70 




JR 


NZ.CHOK 


.SKIP IF NOT 


FOEB 


2 3 


3 7 8 




INC 


Hi. 


;GO TO NEXT CHAR 


FOEC 


18F8 


03 79 




JR 


KEYGT 


;AND GET IT 


FDEE 


F5 


03800 


C.HOK 


PUSH 


AF 




FDEF 


DF 


OSS 3 




RST 


2 k 


;END? 


FnFO 


23 


05820 




; N C 


HL 




FOF1 


CC01FE 


03 8 30 




CALL 


Z,REST1 


J IF END 


Fr.f'O 


2808 


038I.O 




JR 


Z, RSTOR 


;SKIP IF END 


FDF6 


3 A. 35 


03850 




ID 


a,c38i.oh: 




FDF9 


FE08 


038 60 




CP 


8 


;?-' 


FDFB 


CC01FE 


3870 




CAI L 


z,re ;ti 




FDFE 


1 


05880 


RSTOR 


POP 


af 


;RESTORE CHARACTER 


F"FF 


D9 


0389 




EXX 




;NORM REGS 


FEOC 


C9 


03900 




n e t 




; BACK AND CONT 1 NUE 


FE01 


F.DU3161.0 


03910 


REST! 


LD 


(l*016H),BC 


;GET OLD KBD VECTOR 


FE05 


C9 


03920 




PE1 







-5 05 2 13 OFF 

FE05 2 2 2£<.0 

FEOC 231FFL 

FEOF CDA728 

FE12 037200 



FE15 79 

FE16 F5 

FE17 CO35O0 
FE1A Fl 
FE1B COCFD 

FOIL 09 



FE1F 10 

FE20 IF 

FE21 0000 

FE23 I.C 

FEU1 ODOD 

- Ei*3 57 

fe>;; oooo 

FF5P 52 

<NAME >. 
PE8C OPOO 
PESO 1C1F 
FE9 5 

S IT IS RECEIVED. ' 
FOOL ODOD Ofc 19 

FEC8 0*200 

GRAM WILL LIST AGAIN. 
FF01 ODOD 014210 

FF03 53 01*220 

HE PERM PROGRAM' 



3930 ; 

039.0 ; ••• 

03950 "0002 

03900 

03970 

03980 

03990 

01*000 ; 

01.010 ; 

03020 NEWl 

00030 

00000 

00050 

01*060 

01.070 

09 07? ; 

01.076 ;**• 

01.08 PROMPT 

00090 
09100 
1.1 10 

0.1:20 

00 350 
00 10 
05 130 

01.160 

00 170 PROMT 
01.180 



BASIC PROGRAM TRANSMITTING MODE 



LD 

LD 
LD 
CALL 

JP 



i D 



HL,NEWLP;NEW VECTOR 

<lf026H>,HL 

HL, PROMPT; PROMPT ADDR 

28A7H ;DISPLAY IT 

0O72H ;JUMP TO BASIC 




;CHARACTER I N A 



F F 5 5 OP 
FF38 1*2 

OF 00 



01.230 

002. r; 
01.250 
Oi.251. ; 
00258 ;*** 
0.20 CRT1 
01.270 

3.2 SO 



A, C 

PUSH AF 

CALL CRT 

POP AF 

CALL SEND 

RET 

SCRFEN PROMPTS 

DEFB 1CH ;H0ME UP 

OEFB 1FH ;CLEAR SCREEN 

DEFW ODODH ; 2 CR 

OEFM 'LOAD PROGRAM TO BE TRANSMITTED' 

DEFW OOOOH ;CR 

DEFM 'WHEN FINISHED, TYPE LLIST' 

DEFW ODODH 

OEFM 'RETURN TO TERMINAL PROGRAM BY TYPING 

DEFW OOH ; STRING TERMINATOR 

DEFW 1F1CH ;HOME UP & CLEAR SCREEN 

OEFM 'THE PROGRAM WILL LIST ON THE SCREEN / 

DEFW ODODH ;2 09 

DEFM 'WHEN IT STOPS, PRESS CLEAR. THE PRO 

DEFW ODODH 

DEFM 'SAVE THE PROGRAM AND THEN RETURN TO 7 

DEFB ODH 

DEFM 'BY ENTERING 

DFFW ODH 



•'NAM!./. 

;TERMI NATOR 



FFfcE B7 

FF.F 5 

YTE 

FF50 F5 

Ft51 DDCB0056 OU290 

FF55 2817 01.300 

FF57 FEOD 0U310 

FF59 2808 01.320 

FC5B FEOA 01.330 



NON SCROLLING VIDEO DISPLAY DRIVER 
OR A 
RET Z ;DON'T DISPLAY NULL B 



PUSH 

PIT 
JR 
C P 
JR 
CP 



AF ;OAVO CHAP 

2,(IX*0) ;BUFFER? 

Z,CRT3 ;NOPE AQAI N 

ODH ;CR? 

1 , CRT2 ; l-ES-ENTER I 5 BUF ' 

OAH ;LF? 

Program Listing 1 Continues 



BASIC Compiler, 

/i 



ACCEL2Plus: 

| * Bigger optimized subset 
| * Quicker compilation 
| " More compact output 
■ Almost total compatibility 

developed in England by Southern Software 




CA add 6 ;■, 



hmmm 



Allen Gelder Software ^i 36 
(415)387-3131 

Box 11721 San Francisco CA 9410 



sSee List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 141 




A NEWSLETTER FOR POCKET COMPUTER USERS 
This timely, compact publication provides up to the minute 
information on pocket computers, including models such as 
the Radio Shack TRS-80 PC-1 and PC-2, Sharp Electronic's 
PC-1500 and PC-1 211, Casio, Panasonic/Quasar HHCs, and 
others as they are announced. We only cover PCs capable of 
executing a high level language such as BASIC. 
D Up to the Minute News □ Product & Equipment Reviews 
D Important Operating Tips □ Practical Programs D More 
By Subscription Only: for a calendar year period (January - 
December). You get ail issues published to date for the calen- 
dar year in which you subscribe, at the time you subscribe. 

MC/VISA Phone Subscriptions: (203) 888-1946 
C! 1981/82 Charter Subscriber (Issues 1 - 20). $40.00 in U.S. 

(U.S. $48.00 to Canada. U.S. $60.00 elsewhere.) 
D 1982 Regular Subscriber (Issues 11 - 20). $30.00 in U.S. 

(U.S. $36.00 to Canada. U.S. $45.00 elsewhere.) 
D Sample issue. $3.00 in U.S. (U.S. $4.00 elsewhere.) *Due to 

credit card minimum, this item cannoi be charged. 

Orders must be accompanied by payment in full. We do not 

issue invoices for the POCKET COMPUTER NEWSLETTER. 

Thank you for your remittance. 

Name: 

Addr: 

City: State: Zip: 

MC/VISA #: Expires: 

Signature: 

*■ POCKET COMPUTER NEWSLETTER 

SI 35 Old State Road, Oxford, CT 06483 



y> 25 



I 




S& 



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vO^ *& 



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RS204 



Attache style cases for carrying and protecting a complete computer set-up. 
Constructed of the highest quality luggage material with saddle stitching. Will 
accommodate equipment in a fully operational configuration along with 
manuals, working papers and disks. Never a need to remove equipment 
from case. Simply remove lid. connect power and operate. 

• RS201 TRS-80 Model I, Expansion Unit & Drives . . $109 

• RS202 TRS-80 Monitor or TV set 84 

• RS204 TRS-80 Model III 1 29 

• RS205 Radio Shack Color Computer 89 

• P401 Paper Tiger 440 445 460 99 

• P402 Line Printer II IV 89 

• P403 Epson MX70 or MX80 89 

• P404 Epson MX1 00 99 

• CC80 Matching Attache Case (5") 85 

• CC90 Matching Attache Case (3") 75 

• CC91 Matching Accessory Case 95 

compuTer case company *"*> ^^- 

5650 INDIAN MOUND CT. COLUMBUS. OHIO 432'3 (614) 868-9464 



Program Listing 


' Continued 








FF5D 2S0U 


01*31*0 




J« 


Z,CRT2 


;YES-ENTER IK BUFF 


FFSF FE20 


01*350 




CP 


2 OH 


; PRINTABLE 


FF61 380B 


3U36C 




OR 


CCRT3 


;NO-TRY DISPLAYING IT 


FF65 D9 


01*370 


CRT2 


E X i 




;GET BUFFER POINTERS 


FF64 CDD4FD 


01*380 




CALL 


BUFENT 


.; ENTER CHAR IN BUFFER 


FF67 2004 


01*390 




JR 


NZ,NFUL 


;Z IF FULL 


FF69 ODCB0096 OltltOO 




RlS 


2,(IX-0) 


;SHUT OFF BUFFER 


FF60 09 


01*1*10 


NFUL 


FXX 






FF6E Fl 


01*1*20 


CRT3 


POP 


,\' 


;RESTORE CHAR 


FF6F FEOD 


01*1*30 




CP 


13 


;CR? 


FF71 28U2 


01*1*1*0 




JR 


Z,CR 




FF7J FE08 


01*1*50 




CP 


8 ;BACK 


ARROW? 


FF75 2827 


01*1*60 




JR 


Z,8S 




FF77 FE20 


01*1*70 




OP 


5 2 


; PRINTABLE? 


FF79 08 


01*1*80 




OFT 


c 


;NO — RETURN 


FF7A 2A2040 


01*1*90 




LD 


HL, (CSRPOS) 


;SCREEN LOCATION 


FF7D 77 


01*500 




n 


<HL),A 




FF7E 23 


01*510 




I'.C 


HL 


;BUMP CURSOR 


FF7F 222040 


04320 




1 ?, 


(CSRPOS), HL 


; SAVE NEW LOCATION 


FF82 70 


01*530 




i.n 


A, L 




FF83 E63F 


04540 




AND 


3FH 


; BEGINNING OF LINE? 


FF85 CC8AFF 


01*550 




CALL 


Z, ERASE 




FF88 1839 


01*560 




JR 


LSTPOS 




CF8A 70 


01*570 


ERASE 


L.O 


A/L 


;CURS TO END OF PREV. 


LINE 












FF8R E6C0 


01*580 




A'.O 


0C0H 




FF8D 6F 


01.590 




L0 


L,A 




FFSF 2B 


01*600 




P>EC 


•II. 




FF8F 7C 


01*610 




_R 


A, 11 


;SET LINE TO ERASE 


FF90 EE02 


01*620 




XCR 


2 




FF92 67 


01*630 




OR 


H,A 




FF93 3620 


01*61*0 







(HL), 20H 


; ERASE LINE 


FF95 E5 


01*650 




'us; 


• HL 




FF9 6 Dl 


01*660 




PC? 


DE 




FF97 IB 


01*670 




DEC 


OE 




FF98 013F00 


04680 




OR 


BC,63 




FF9B EDB8 


04690 




LOOP 






FF9D C9 


01*700 




SET 






FF9E CDAFFF 


04 7 10 


BS 


0A0 


CSR 




FFA1 2B 


01*720 




DEC 


HL 




FFA2 7C 


01*730 




LP 


A,W 




FFA3 FE3B 


01*71*0 




CP 


3BII 




FFA5 2003 


01.750 




JR 


. NZ,NCT0P 




FFA7 21FF3F 


01*760 




on 


06, 3FFFH 




FFAA E5 


01*770 


NOTOP 


POSH 


HL 




-FA3 Fl 


01*780 




POP 


HL ;REST0RE CURSOR POS 


FFAC 1820 


01.790 




R 


SAVCSR 




FFAE 3E20 


01.830 


CSR 


LD 


A, 32 ;SPACE 




FF30 2A20U0 


01.810 




L0 


HL,(CSRP0S1 




FFB3 77 


31.8 2 




LD 


(HL),A 




FFB4 C9 


31.8 30 




RET 






FFB5 CDAEFF 


C 1* 8 1. Z 


CR 


CALI 


CSR 




FFB8 7D 


31.850 




LD 


A,L 


,-CURSOR TO BEGIN OF N 


EXT LINE 












FFB9 F6JF 


04 8SC 




OR 


3-H 




FFBB 6F 


048 70 




LD 


0, A 




FFBC 23 


0U880 




] NO 


HL 




FFBD 22201(0 


4 8 9 C 




LR 


(CSRP0S),HL 


;SAVE NEW POSITION 


FFCO CD8AFF 


49 




CALL 


ERASE 




FFC3 2A2040 


01.910 


LSTPOJ 


LO 


HL,(CSRPOS) 


;GET POSITION 


FFC6 7C 


01*920 




on 


A,H 




FFC7 FEltO 


1*9 30 




CP 


40H 


;ENO OF FRAME? 


FCC9 2003 


0l>9l»0 




0.0 


NZ,SAVCSS 




FFCB 21003C 


01*950 




LD 


«L, 50001 


;SET TO TOP 


FFCE 3E5F 


01*960 


SAVCSI 


LO 


A,95 


; CURSOR 


FFD0 77 


01*970 




10 


(HL),A 




FFD1 2220ii0 


01*980 




LO 


ICSRPOS),HI 




FFD"i C9 


01.990 


LAST 


001 






F831 


03 000 




END 


BEGIN 




30000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 










0531*6 TEXT 


AREA BYTES LEFT 






BEGIN FB31 


00340 


01960 


' 3 3 


05000 




BIT0 F018 


2 7 C 


02s 








BREAK FD70 


3 1 9 C 


00360 


1 5 


05240 




BS FF9E 


01*710 


01*1*60 








BUFENT F0D4 


3 6 3 


01.380 








BUFNE FD0E 


03700 


031*90 








BUFST FDBD 


03 5 3 


005 SO 


014 5 


03350 




CHOK FDEE 


C 3 8 C 


3 7; 








CHSET FC82 


01990 


02060 






i 


CKP0RT FB9C 


C 8 8 


0650 


006 


00710 00780 




CLRLIN FDS4 


050 10 


01160 








CR FFB5 


01*81*0 


01*1*1*0 








CRT 0033 


00200 


01710 


C3C20 


03040 03100 04040 




CRT1 FFUE 


01*260 


00860 


2 13 


02240 02580 




CRT2 FF63 


4 : 7 


04320 


3 4 






CRT3 FF6E 


OUi. 2 


4 5 


04360 






CRTST FBE0 


012 2 C 


0119 








CSR FFAE 


01.800 


0^:0 


04343 






CSRP0S U020 


002 7 


02 00.0 
4980 


3 12 


04490 04520 04810 


04890 04910 


CTRL FB09 


■oils ;■ 


115 








DLY FDU5 


2 9 3 


26 SO 


02780 


02820 02830 




DLY12 FD40 


2910 


00670 








DLY30 FD36 


02870 


307 00 


07 7 






DLY5 FD3B 


32890 


00890 








ERASE FF8A 


01*5 70 


5 3 


040 00 






ETX FCC1 


C22b0 


012>3 


02540 






GETCP FB5L 


00530 


0117 








GETCRS FDSF 


03080 


00530 


01040 






HI 0001 


C0180 


02660 


02760 


05 3 2O 




KBD 002B 


30250 


00970 


01030 






KEYGT FDE6 


3750 


03730 








KEYLP FBC8 


OHIO 


0,050 








KEYNEW FDE5 


03740 


03300 








KEYS FBBF 


1060 


01100 


OOioO 


02250 




KEYS] FBA7 


309 60 


30 51*0 


01030 


01270 02250 025SO 




KIN F8BA 


1 u 


000 3 








LAST FFD4 


01*990 










L0CRT FCAF 


2 2 


2 000 


02170 






LfCRTl FC26 


015 2 


01210 


013 8 


01470 




L0CRT2 FC86 


2 003 


01520 








INE FCBB 


02240 


02210 








LOOP FDI18 


0291.0 


02880 


2 9 


02920 02970 




LOW 0002 


00170 


00570 


02740 






LP1 FD96 


3 3 6 


031*1*0 








LP2 FDA5 


031*20 


03370 








LP3 FC8F 


02040 


021U0 








LPBIT FB78 


00700 


00760 








LSTPOS FFC3 


04910 


04560 








MODE Fnl*E 


03000 


(■0030 








M0DE1 F07E 


0327C 


0102 


0129 






M0DE2 FE06 


33 9 5 


01310 








NAME FB42 


301.10 


00390 


01130 


335 ?C 




NEWLP FE1S 


01*020 


03950 
















Program Listing 1 Continues 



142 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 




PRINTER GRAPHICS 
PROGRAM 

TRANSFORM YOUR VISICALC (tm)(l) FILES INTO HIGH-RESOLUTION CUSTOM GRAPHS 
ON YOUR TRS-80 (tm)(2) AND MX-80/GRAPHTRAX(tm)(3) OR PAPER TIGER (tm)(4) PRINTER. 



ELECTRONIC WORKSHEET 
MYK BJIft DJT W'J SIP 500 Mwr.ce> fcclir.js & Vol Jr. Val 



1221 
102 
100 
lit 
13/ 
130 
10? 
11? 
113 
111 
115 
11*. 
11? 
120 
121 
122 
123 
Hi 
127 



77, Oi 


?43.97 


370.10 


114.42 


130.7/, 




73.24 


072.70 


101.13 


110.12 


¥*4 






':■:':. a 


10.1,77 


13.51 


137.9? 




7?Tl4" 


Siiy.,<,? 


402, S? 


117.14 


132,12 




77.2; 


m^ 


J91.1? 


115.1? 


135.03 




7S.N 


JJ5.7C 


^":^V2 > 


114.07 


133.04 




7S.S! 


743,6? 


304.02 


■■112.0? 


133.43 




■:/,: 


96S.77 


350.34 


112.35- -<33.52 




74.35 


745. 1C 


387.13 


U2.« 


i;;.o? 




74.55 


744.47 


3.13. 30 


112.33 


133.47 




74.9? 


94?. 77 


374,10 








V?7.33 




401.73 


113.22 


134.77 





10(0 

~t3K 

104? 
214 
073 
90? 
900 
7 3 
"?U 
7ii 



573 24.S38 

*?S 17.275 

433 41.15? 

440 33.443 

1555 5.003 

1023 11.757 

420 23.?33 

433 23.313 

??3 12.407 

412 23.332 

- -4?1 21.547 
44?-. 23.22 

750 140 

1172 5.S59 



11.700 
3.405 
14.46? 
23.70? 
00. 0-k 
37.073- 
13.73? 
19.192 
24.532 
13.773 
13.524 
14.425 
10,333 



- 



WOF4KSHEE 


z~r 




nuwa KSE Vol 1M NYC! 


/a-b 


.310 


1231 41.21 77,31 


447 


' -1572,. 


102 23.87 


AIM 


547 


^-1025 
-132 


105 53.71 


37.70 


11V3 


104 67.40 


73.02 


40? 


277 


107 92.8? 


77.8? 


-133? 


-1042 


103 55.35 


77.5? 


-400 


-1512 


10? 53.19 


77.33 


33/ 


-1223 


112 48.74 


77.23 


230 


-?28 


_- —— 


_ 




-17,47, 



1 ; ,■ 1 / ■. \ -■ r-.i / it- ■ :i ■ 
»•«.»«. • • hi^urjG'' . ;-,*,-!> f-dr 
y-r*s iM(r-i) 





* HIGH RESOLUTION 
data Points/inch. 
CAPACITY - lOOO 
Points per graph. 

GRAPH SIZES - Pro 

>! 24" 

Plots 



- 60 x 72 

LARGE DATA 

Input Data 

* SELECTABLE 

1" sq. to 7" 

* STANDARD DATA SOURCE - 

Data -from VISICALC or 



USERS OWN PROGRAMS 
DIF (tm) (4) Format. 
FEATURE SELECTION - 
Pre- for mated For m 
screen or in users own program. 
* MINIMAL ENTRY REQUIREMENTS - 
Enter only name of Datafile and. 
location therein of data to be 
plotted. * MULTIPLE FUNCTION 
GRAPHS - Plots up to 10 Data 

Sets per graph. * DATA SYMBOLS - Plots data with user composed 
symbol shapes. * DATA INTERPOLATION - connects data points with user 
composed line shapes. * LINE/SYMBOL LIBRARY - Plots each Data Set 
with different line/symbol shape chosen from 12 line library. * 
CUSTOM LINES AND SYMBOLS - Has interactive screen-graphics program 
for composing symbol shapes. * AUTO SCALING - Selects scale values 
for ease of graph interpretation. User adjustable Mantissa Table. * 
GRID SELECTION - Prints selectable number of vertical and horizontal 
grid lines. * CALENDAR SCALE - Optionally prints names of month on 
horizontal scale. * CURVE SELECTION - Each Data Set may be plotted 
with linear or stair-step curves. * OPTIONAL MIN/MAX VALUES - 
Extends graph beyond the values of the Data Sets. * DATA SET 
DESCRIPTIONS - Prints text descriptions of each Data Set in graph 
legend. * TEXT ENTRYS - Prints graph title, axis labels, and date on 
graph. * USER FRIENDLY - Checks validity of input data and d'lsplays 
cause of errors. * COMPLETE DOCUMENTATION - Comprehensive 40 page 
Users Manual with examples covering data preparation, graph feature 
entry, composing lines and symbols, and technical notes. 



Introductory 1/2 Price Offer: 
(Ends Sept. 1, 1982) 





MODEL- I 




MODEL III 








■...« „=«=»==,.™>== 


REQUIRES: 


REQUIRES: 


* 


TRS-80 MODEL I, 48K 


s 


TRS-80 MODEL III, 4BK 


1 


SINBLE DISK DRIVE 


* 


TWO DISK DRIVES 


* 


NEWDOS+(tm> (6) DOS 


* 


TRSDOS 1.3 DOS 


* 


GRAPHICS PRINTER! 


:3 


GRAPHICS PRINTER: 




* MX-BO/ERAPHTRAX 


* MX-BO/GRAPHTRAX 




* MX-100 




t MX-100 




* 440-Q PAPER TIGER 








* 445-G PAPER TIGER 







TO ORDER: Send check or money order. Specify Model and Printer Type. Include $2.50 for 
postage and handling. Calif, residents add 6% tax. 



PHONE 
(714) 526-8435 



MICRO SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

1815 SMOKEWOOD AVE. • FULLERTON, CA 92631 



^-526 



DEALER 
INQUIRIES 
WELCOME 



TRADEMARKS: (l)VISICORP, (2) TANDY CORP., (3)EPS0N INC., (4) INTEGRAL DATA SYSTEMS, (5)S0FTWARE ARTS INC., (6)APPARAT INC. 

vSee List of Advertisers on page 386 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 143 



BRBwsan 
TRS-80 





SAVE fl BUNDLE 

When you buy your S. 

TRS-80™ equipment! 1 

Use our toll free number to SI 

gg check our price before you buy ^ 

a TRS-80™ ... anywhere! f 

Don't delay . . . CALL TODAY ,^f 




SALES COMPANY 

704 West Michigan 

P.O. 80X8098 PENSACOLA FL 32505 

904/438-6507 

nationwide 1 800-874-1551 




TECO MONITORS 

RATED BEST BUY BY 
THE COMPUTER SHOPPER 



NOW AN EVEN BETTER BUY 



B & W MONITOR HIRES 119.95 

GREEN PHOSPHOR HIRES 129.95 

GREEN PHOSPHOR ULTRARES 144.95 

TRS-80 CABLE 5.00 

5%" DISK DRIVES WITH PS & CASE . . . 289.95 

FROM 

THE MAINE SOFTWARE LIBRARY 
P.O. BOX 197 
STANDISH, ME 04084 



CHECK MO COD (20% DEPOSIT ON COD: 
ADD $10 SHIPPING FOR MONITOR. $6 FOR 

DRIVES 



LNW-80-OWNERS 

WE HAVE SOME TERRIFIC IDEAS 
AND PRODUCTS TO MAKE THIS 
GREAT COMPUTER EVEN BET- 
TER. WRITE TO US FOR PACK- 
AGE BEFORE YOU BUILD. 



Program Listing 1 Continued 












NFUL 


F F 6 D 


o,^:o 


01*390 






N0T0P 


FFAA 


Oil 77 


ouso 






OLD LP 


FB2F 


00320 


GC5C0 


001*20 




OUT 


F-2S 


02770 


02750 






PORT 


221 


00260 


00580 


02670 02770 03230 




PROMPT 


FLIP 


0U080 


03970 






PROMT 


FE8E 


OU170 


03330 






PSKIP 


FBSS 


00 7 8 


00790 






QUIT 


FLAG 


03US0 


03390 


031*10 




RECV 


FB6A 


00630 


01000 


03360 




RESET 


FB63 


00570 


00500 


00880 




REST 1 


I E 1 


03910 


03500 


3 8 3 03 8 7 




RST0H 


FDFE 


03880 


038M0 






SAVCSR 


FFCE 


01*960 


01*790 


01*91*0 




sbco 


FCJ9 


01600 


011*20 


01580 




SBCl 


rem 


01650 


019K0 






SBC2 


FC60 


01810 


01730 






SBC? 


FC7C 


01950 


01660 


01910 




SBC* 


FC79 


01930 


01860 


01890 




SBC5 


FC6C 


01870 


01920 






SBCK 


FC28 


01530 


011*90 






SCCK 


FC1D 


011*80 


011*1*0 






SECK 


F C i 5 


01U30 


01U00 






SEND 


FD04 


02600 


01260 


02100 02220 021*1*0 02560 OU060 


SENDCR 


FCF7 


02550 


02500 


02530 




3ICK 


FBF0 


01280 


01230 






5 1 CN0N 


FB00 


00290 


02030 






SNRCR1 


FCE8 


021*90 


02390 






S PC K 


FC09 


01390 


01330 






S'-iCK 


"LAO 


02150 


02020 






SSCK 


FC88 


02010 


0151*0 






TO 


0010 


C0190 


02890 






Tl 


0051 


00200 


02910 






T2 


0087 


00210 








T3 


00C5 


00220 


02870 






T B 1 T 


00E1 


00230 


02930 






TESTI N 


FSCA 


01120 








TSTCT 


FCD8 


02370 


021*80 






TUBE 


FB98 


00860 


008U0 






ZV-10 


FD22 


02760 


02730 









Program Listing 2 


1 ' 


JTERM TERMINAL PROGRAM LOADER AND 


2 ' 


3UICKL0AD RELOCATING LOADER BY BOB HART 


3 ' 


LAST REVISION 8/1/81 


10 


CLS: 




Z1=PEEK(16562)*256+PEEK(16561): 




PRINT"OLD MEM-";Z1 


20 


Zl-Zl- 1237: 




POKE16562, 1 NTCZ1/256) : 




POKE16561,(Zl-INT(Zl/256)*256>: 




CLEAR 125 


30 

1*0 






.1-PEEKC 1656 2 )*256+PEEK( 16561): 




Pi?INT"NEW MEM"";Z1 


50 


Z2-Z1+ 1*9 


60 


J3-PEEK(VARPTR( A$ ) ■► 1 ) *2 56* PEEK( VARPTR ( A$ ) ♦ 2 ) 


70 


"ORX-Z3TOZ3+116: 




READY: 




?■■ K E 1 , Y : 




CK-(CK+Y)AND255: 




NEXT 


80 


FCK«135THENPRINT"LOADER CHECKSUM OK DELETE LINES 70-100 AND 200-2 

70. 
MOT DELETE LINE 280! REMOVE (') FROM EITHER LINE 170 OR 180."ELSE100 


DO 


90 


PRINT"SAVE THIS PROGRAM. AFTER SAVE RUN AGAIN.": 




STOP 


100 


PRINT"LOADER CHECKSUM ERROR. PROGRAM LOAD DISCONTINUED.": 




STOP 


110 


MO-Z1-C 61*256) 


120 


1 FMO<0THENMO=65536+MO 


130 


POKEZ3*3, INTCMO/256): 




POKEZ3+2,MO-( INT(MO/256)»256) 


11*0 


POKEZ3*6, INT(Zl/256): 




POKEZ3*5,Zl-(INT(Zl/2 56)*256) 


150 


POKEZ3*29, INT(Z2/256): 




POKEZ3'28,Z2-(INTCZ2/256)*256) 


160 


READ Z 


170 


'POKE 1 6 5 26, Z3-( INT(Z 3/2 56)* 256) : 




POKE16527,INT(Z3/256): 




X-USR( 0) : 




'REMOVE INITIAL REM FOR LV II ONLY 


180 


'DEFUSRC-Z3: 




X-USR( 0) : 




'DELETE INITIAL REM FOR DOS ONLY 


190 


PR1 NT"BAC REM DATA AT LI NE";X: 




END 


200 


DATA 21 7, 1, 1, 1, 17, 1,1, 21 7, U2, 2 55, 6U, 1.3, 35, 126, 2 51*, 32 


210 


DATA 1.0, 250, 183, 32, 21*, 6, 1,35, 126, 35, 182, 202, 1,1, 35, 91* 


220 


DATA 35, 86, 35, 126, 183, 1*0, 230, 251*, 1U7,32,21*7, 35, 126, 251* 


230 


DATA 32, 1*0, 250, 251*, 88, 1*0, 16, 251*, 83, 1*0, U7, 35, 237, 111, 126 


2i*0 


DATA 217, 18, 19, 217, 128, 71, 21*, 199, 35, 126, 35, 237, 111, 126 


2 50 


DATA 217, 111, 217, 128, 71, 35, 126, 251*, 32, 1*0, 250, 35, 237, 111 


260 


r,ATA 126, 217, 103, 9, 235, 115, 35, 111*, 35, 235, 217, 128, 71, 21* 


270 


DATA 161., 35, 12 6, 35, 2 3 7, 11 1,126, 181., 1*0, 15 5, 23 5, 19 5, 151*, 10 


280 


DATA 10 


290 


REM BD 00 BD KC HD AD BE DE KC MD ED DD FD OD BE DO LB OO BE ED GD 




D NO KC IE M| @@ QQ HG @@ HG @@ HG @@ HG @@ HG @@ KG 9@ SAN 


300 


REM HG @@ HG 9@ HG @@ HG @@ @@ JB FB 3D B8 XOB KO NC CL BC NH AD AB 




XBD KO BB OH AD JB XOB KO 8B FB 3D CO MM AS XND MO SGB 


310 


REM MM FC @@ A@ ML IL A@ ML XCF KO ML XMK MO MM KL Q@ Fl ML XOE MO H 




A DD AB B@ @3 ML A8 B@ 1 L A@ @3 G® ML XLI KO HL SAC 


320 


REM ML X@D MO ML XLI KO HL ML XFC MO ML XLI KO CM 1 N AK 0@ OD @A CO 




ML XFC MO ML XLI KO SB KO IG OB FN OG NO @F SCE 


330 


REM JO XHI KO FN OE ML XND OO 1 L ML XCF KO ML XKC MO KM 00 FN ^ 11 




ML X@G MO ML KB @@ GK @B J9 ML XJF KO NO BA SDD 


31*0 


REM JL XNG MO HA MN ML XOE MO HA IS ML X@G MO ML KB @@ GK HB GO FN O 




G NO KE JL XBD KO NO HA @B FQ ML XDE MO CL XNE KO SHM 


350 


REM NO JA @B C@ OJ HA FD NO M@ 8B Lg MM KL @@ FD JL XAL LO ML XD@ MO 




HA GK NO IF JL XNG MO NO OF JL XF@ NO NO MF @B SOS 




Program Listing 2 Continues 



144 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Program Listing 2 Continued 


360 


REM 


K@ MM NG 3@ NN AS MM GG 9@ OJ HA MA NO 9G QB F@ MM KL 39 NL HA F 
B NO EF @B F3 ML XMK MO OJ HA l@ NO CF QB G@ MM KL @@ SFN 


570 


W t M 


Fl OJ HA NE NO BF @B LE ML AM E3 MM KL 3@ NL HB 0@ MM KL 8@ NH M 
I IL A@ IM KN MM FF D9 MM NF C@ OM HB EC NG A@ fl@ C@ EO SFK 


380 


WtM 


IM ML CC @@ MM KL @@ ND HB J§ AO EO ML KC Q@ IM A3 A@ @0 IM AO 1 
M ML @F @@ JC @D HC KL OG HB MS JC @D HC KL GO QB F3 KL SAH 


390 


l( t M 


OP §B E@ HA CO C8 HA HL KN AA XOB KO IM OJ MM KL 50 FL HA GB NO 
CG @B OA AB X@@ KO NG GK HB ON CB EN EO ML XD3 MO SFK 


UOO 


•■< i r- 


AO ML XND 00 AN HA ON NO BG MM KL QQ Nl @B G3 MM KL @@ NM CL XOK 
KO MM KL 3@ FD HB F3 ML XD@ MO CL XGJ KO ML XND 00 SMC 


UIO 


!(bf 


CL XOK KO JB @B @D OJ MM FE B@ MM NE A@ MN BE LG FN CO GF KN MM 
FF B@ MM NF AO JG CK HB L@ NG CB EN EM ML XDg MO AM SJ@ 


U20 


,<tM 


AN KA HA 00 MM KL 00 NE HB l@ JC @D HC NO BO HR B0 HA JL NC MR M 
L XD@ MO NC MO ML XND 00 CL XGJ KO GK HL FO 0H GC Sl@ 


l<30 


'-• EM 


EO BC OC LC AB AO 00 ML AB Bg ML XED MO FO HO AO OA EO 0C EG AB 
BO @0 HA CO AB AO 00 ML AB B@ KL XED MO EO OB JN AO SKF 


fidO 


HhM 


ML XED MO ML XED MO 1 L AB EL 00 HA MO AB @A 00 HA HI? AB AE gfl HA 
C3 AB AN 00 KB LG EK 0B KO IL NC 0B ML XMF MO F@ SNJ 


»50 


•<tn 


NC MA ML CC 00 NC NA ML CC 00 IL EO NC N0 ML CC 00 AO JB §B 0D M 
M DG 80 KM EG AOI.L JC 0D HC NO D@ @L AB A0 00 ML AB BO SBC 


U60 


KkM 


HA BO IM UN KO FA 3D IM AB XEN MO BB FA 0D ML JD KA AB XNH NO ML 
GJ HB ML XMK MO ML XJF KO HB J0 NO DA HB M0 MM S@E 


k7G 


KbM 


KL 80 FE HB G3 JC @D HC NO B@ @B JN-IM MM NE CO MM FE D0 OM @B H 
B ML XA9 NO IM CL XBD KO IM JB DJ @D AA @@ A0 IA MM SFA 


1*80 


REM 


DG D0 MM EG CO AA XOB KO IM MM KL 30 FM IL GG CB MG FO 0H BC NC 
LC OM IL FC MO KN IM CL BG 00 IM NG NO JO SB CO C3 HA SCP 


490 


Kb" 


HO EO OM CB LL XAQ NO HB HO JC 00 HC NO H0 LL XA0 NO AO IM IL MN 
CD FA 9D IL AB XEA NO BB FB @D AB XOA NO ML GJ SNK 


500 


'U.M 


HB CL BG 03 IG-EO ML CC 00 AO ML XD3 MO 1 L LA OA M0 MO LD OD AD 
DO @8 0E BE OD GD BE AO MD @B OE OD SB BD ED SB DE BE SAC 


510 


KhM 


AD ND CE MD ID DE DE ED DD MS MO GE.HD'EO ND «8 FD 1 D ND 1 D CE H 
D ED OD LB 8B DE IE OE ED SB SB LD LD ID CE DE M0 MO BE SBB 


520 


KIM 


EP OE EE 8E ND OB DE OD 08 DE ED BE MD IB ND AD LD @8 OE BE OD G 
D BE AD MD OB BD 1 E 0B DE 1 E §E ID ND GD SB 38 LC ND AD SGL 


530 


I't.M 


MD ED NC NB M0 00 LA OA DE HD ED @B @E BE OD GD BE AO MD 3B GE 1 
D LD LD SB LD ID CE DE OB OD ND 0B OE HD ED 08 CE CD BE SJM 


51*0 


K LM 


ED ED ND SB AD CE SB 1 D DE OB ID CE OB BE ED CD- EO I D FE EO DD N 
8 MS MO GE HD ED ND 38 ID DE OB CE DE OD 3E CE LB 0B 0E SIO 


550 


II Ki 


BE EO CE CE OB CD LD EO AD BE N8 SB OB DE HD ED 08 BE BE OD GD B 
E AD MD @B GE ID LD LD 0B LD ID CE OE SB AD GO AD IP NO S0H 


560 


KtM 


NB MS M0 CE AD FE ED 0B DE HD ED OB 9E 8E OD GD BE AD MD 8B AD N 
D DD SB DE HD ED ND 6B BE ED DE EE BE ND @8 DE OD ■ QB DE SJB 


570 


KtM 


HD ED QB DE ED BE MD @B@E BE OD GD BE AD MD Mfl BD 1 E OB ED ND D 
E ED BE ID NO GO @B @B LC ND AD MD ED NC NB MS 00 GK HL SGM 


580 


KtM 


EO MM KL 00 FE HB GA NO M@ HB H@ NO J@ HB D@ NO OB HC K8 IM ML X 
DM MO OB DO MM KL SO Fl IM AO NO M3 HB BD NO HS HB GB SflG 




ktM 


NO 3B HM JB OB 3D GG CB BB 0B 9D MG FN OC LL XJH 00 HA IC MG FN 
@L OF KB LG NN B0 GF FC SB EN AM KA A0 OC 90 MN HK IL SJD 




ktM 


ML XNJ 00 <C LG NO KC 0B CO AB 00 CC EN AN HA @E NC 03 JB .11! @D 
GG IL ML XNJ 00 MG FO OC OF CB BB OB OD ML XJH 00 SI 1 






JR 08 0D LG NO 0D SB CS AB @0 LC NC OE GG BB 08 @D 1 L SDB 




Basic Operating System 

Wno naada K? Ewym who wrttaa or urn program In BASK. 
Foe Tap* nWn K'a Ilka having a DO* without tha haroNnra! 
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•atock" for ALL BASIC proorama Stmptv add your proorama 
to It and navar atari from 




* It wHt atandardiza your writing and aava you many houn 
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•See List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 145 





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146 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



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,-• See List oi Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 147 



SERIES 



How is a chip like a cockroach with 16 legs? 



For the Novice 




Jay Chidsey 

205 E. Adams St. 

Green Springs, OH 44836 

This is the first of a six-part series we call 
"For the Novice." It is intended for people 
who have had no previous experience with 
computers, and who are only 6-18 months 
into their use of this exciting technology. 
This month Jay Chidsey discusses the 
MEMORY SIZE? facility, high and low line 
numbers, high memory and low memory ad- 
dresses, and high-level and low-level lan- 
guages. We encourage the reader's re- 
sponse to this new series. — Eds. 

Every time you turn on your computer, 
you are asked MEMORY SIZE?. You 
have to figure, as I did when I first used 
my Model I, that somebody thinks this is an 
important question, and should have an an- 
swer a bit more definitive than pressing 
Enter. 

The memory size question is a facility 
you are almost never going to use. Your 
response, in the form of a high address, 
reserves a certain amount of high memory 
space for low language use. But, this func- 
tion, while important, is seldom used. 

High Memory designates addresses 
above memory location 30000 on a 16K ma- 



chine. These addresses are even higher on 
a 32 or 48K machine. Entering a high mem- 
ory address in response to the memory size 
query reserves high memory for a machine- 
language program. The programs you load 
into your computer using the System com- 
mand are written in machine language. 
High address and high memory are ana- 
logous. They are not related in any direct 
way to line number. Line number is a Basic 
language requirement, whereas individual 
memory addresses are manipulated by 
machine language. Machine language oc- 
cupies the space you reserve by responding 
to the memory size question; the System 
command loads programs into specific por- 
tions of memory. Reserved memory will 
stay put if you enter the Basic command 
New but turning the TRS-80 off or resorting 
to Reset will wipe out all memory, including 
reserved memory. 

The use of high and low for memory and 
address, line number, and language can be 
confusing, since they deal with quite differ- 
ent concepts. A high-level language is one 
which is most recognizable to the user. A 
low-level language is one which is more rec- 
ognizable to the computer. Basic is a high- 
level language, as are Pascal, Cobol, For- 
tran and other more specialized languages. 
They permit us to use English-like com- 



1 'BASIC MERGE PROGRAM: DAVID LEMLEY, SAVANNAH, GA. 

2 'ENTER 32594 FOR MEM SIZE ON POWERUP 
10 FOR X=32595 TO 32712 

20 READ Y: POKE X,Y 

30 NEXT 

40 DATA 221,42,249,6 4,221,43,221,43,221,43,221,43,17 5,205,18,2,2 

05,150,2,6,4,205,53,2,16,251,20 5,53,2,221,119,2,183,32 

50 DATA 8,58,6 3,60,23 8,10,50,6 3,60,17 5,221,182,0,221,182,1,221,1 

82,2.221,35,32,225,205,248,1,42,249,64,229,221,225,17,235,66 

60 DATA 23 7,82,229,2 9,221,43,221,43,221,110,0,221,102,1,17 4,124 

,17 5,25,229,221,117,0,221,116,1,221,225,24,23 2,221 

70 DATA 229, 225,35.35.34,249,64,34,251,64,34,253,64,195,25,26 

80 POKE 16526,83: POKE 16527,127 

90 NEW 

Program Listing 



mands to program the computer. Machine 
language, which consists of groups of num- 
bers described in base 2 (ones and zeros) or 
binary notation, is the lowest level of 
language. It is the one your computer 
speaks. Our TRS-80s are designed to inter- 
pret Basic to machine language in the ROM 
(Read Only Memory). If you have a 16K 
(16,384 bytes) computer, you also have 
nearly that many thousand bytes of ROM to 
interpret your Basic commands. You actu- 
ally have a 32K computer, of which. 16K is 
available for your direct use as RAM (Ran- 
dom Access Memory), or programmable 
memory. A byte is a character, such as a 
number or letter or blank space. It is com- 
posed of eight bits— on or off signals 
(which represent a one or a zero). In the ear- 
liest computers, such as ENIAC, one bit 
was a DeForest diode tube. Later it was a 
transistor. Now it is a capacitor controlled 
by a field-effect transistor on a silicon chip. 
Printed circuits form or are integrated into a 
chip. The 16K memory of a TRS-80 Model 
l/IN resides in eight such chips— 1 x 16K 
chips which look like large flat-backed 
cockroaches with 16 skinny legs. 

There is one way, however, that you and I 
can use the memory size function without 
having to spend years in becomming so- 
phisticated machine-language program- 
mers. The Program Listing with this article 
offers a Basic program written by David 
Lemley of Savannah, GA, printed with his 
permission. He wrote it on a 16K Model I, 
but it works on a 16K Model III as well. 
This is a very useful merge program. 

To use this program, answer MEMORY 
SIZE? with 32594 (16K machines only) then 
type the program into your computer. Do 
not run it! CSAVE it to tape, and check it 
with CLOAD? to be sure you have a good 
recording, and then run it. What happened? 
The program disappears! Line 90 was NEW, 
and it cleared everything out below 32594. 
The merge program is now in high memory 
in low language (POKEd into high memory) 
above the barrier. You have used a Basic 



148 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



program to stick a machine-language pro- 
gram into high memory. 

To use this program on a32K Model I or III 
enter 48978 for the memory size. Change 
line 10 to read FOR X = 48979 TO 49096 and 
change line 80 to read POKE 16526,83: 
POKE 16527,191. To use the program on a 
48K Model I or III enter 65362 for the 
memory size. Change line 10 to read FOR 
X = 65363 TO 65480 and change line 80 to 
read POKE 16526,83: POKE 16527,255. 

This merge program, safe in high mem- 
ory, can splice together several programs 
provided that each succeeding program 
has higher line numbers than the one pre- 
ceding it in memory. These will be programs 
that you write with higher line numbers and 
CSAVE for merging or existing programs 
that you renumber and CSAVE for merging. 

With David Lemley's Basic merge pro- 
gram protected in high memory, you may 
now CLOAD your lowest numbered pro- 
gram, or type it in. Now put the second pro- 
gram into the cassette machine, press play, 
and type in as a command A = USR(O) (that 
is a capital O, not zero), and press Enter. 
The cassette will turn on, your higher num- 
bered program will be added to the original 
program, and the two will be merged. I 
would CSAVE then before running or add- 
ing another even higher numbered program 
or doing anything else. You never know 
when a utility like this will crash and print 
garbage. ■ 



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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 149 



REVIEW 



LOAD 80 



A look at Datahandler, IDM-V and Maxi-Manager. 



Data Ba 




lagers— Part II 



The Datahandler 

Miller Microcomputer Services 

Natick, MA 

$60 

IDM-V 

Micro Architect, Inc. 

Arlington, MA 

$149 

Maxi Manager (Version A. 3. 1.) 
Adventure International 
Longwood, FL 
$100 

Wynne Keller 
Downeast Digital 
RD1 Box 4130 
Solon, ME 04979 



Part one of this series appeared in the 
August issue and compared three data 
base programs: Aids III, Maxi Micro Manag- 
er, and CCA. I will compare two more data 
base programs, The Datahandler from 
Miller Microcomputer Services, and Interac- 
tive Data Manager (IDM-V) from Micro Archi- 
tect, Inc. and rate them with the first three. 
In addition, since Maxi Manager has just 
been released in a substantially different 
version, I will examine any changes in it 
since the original article. 

Comparisons between two programs 
should normally only be made between pro- 
grams of similar price. It is unfair, for exam- 
ple, to compare a $20 Basic word processor 
to Scripsit. At first glance, it might seem the 
two programs I evaluate here are quite un- 
equal in price. However, because the Data- 
handler is written in Forth, it must be run 
with MMSFORTH. Therefore the total pack- 
age costs $190. It is not realistic to allot all 
the cost of MMSFORTH to The Datahandler, 
because Forth has other uses. If we allot 
half the cost of MMSFORTH for the data 

150 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



base application, the package would cost 
about $125 which compares equitably to 
IDM-V at $149. 

The two programs use different data stor- 
age approaches. The Datahandler, like Aids 
III, is a sequential data base, which means 
each file's size is limited by the computer's 
memory. All records in a file are in memory 
at one time, and are written to disk at the 
end of a session. The capacity of The Data- 
handler in a 48K machine is about 24K of 
data, or roughly 300 records in a typical 
application. 

The IDM-V program, like CCA and Maxi 
Manager, uses random access files. This 
means records are written to disk as they 
are added, and brought back from disk on 
request. Only one or two records are nor- 
mally in memory at any given moment. The 
size limit is the number of records which fit 
on the disk, not the number which fit in 
memory. 

Readers not familiar with the use of a 
data base program are referred to part 1 
(August, 1981, page 222) of the series for 
definitions of field, file and record. 

Documentation 

Both these programs deserve praise for 
their documentation, which is written clear- 
ly and should offer few problems to a begin- 
ner. The Datahandler actually has two man- 
uals. The program's screen displays and 
command set are based on the PIMS (Per- 
sonal Information Management System) 
data base, originally published by Scelbi, 
Inc. The Datahandler is an original program 
with many enhancements, but the basic 
commands remain the same, hence this 
manual is included with The Datahandler. 
The PIMS manual is outstanding for begin- 
ners because it gives assistance in how to 
organize a data base. After reading the 
PIMS manual, turn to the Datahandler man- 
ual to learn the changes in some of the com- 
mands, and read about the sample files on 
the disk. Advanced portions of the Data- 
handler manual will be unclearto beginning 
Forth users, but you can set that part aside 



until you gain some experience with Forth. 

The IDM-V manual does not explain how 
to organize a data base but it explains well 
how IDM-V functions in the simplest possi- 
ble terms, emphasizing vital information 
several times and pointing out possible er- 
rors. A full-page troubleshooting guide at 
the end of the manual outlines common be- 
ginner errors such as keyboard hangup if 
the printer has no paper, or what to do if you 
accidentally press the Break key. 

The most obvious change in the new ver- 
sion of Maxi Manager is the manual. It is 
now in a 7 by 9 three-ring looseleaf binder, 
more attractively printed than the first 
manual. The contents have been complete- 
ly rewritten. Understanding this program 
will never be simple, but the new manual 
has been written with greater attention to 
the beginner. The manual is divided into a 
technical section and the main section. 
Some users may never need the technical 
section. Having used this program for al- 
most a year, I can no longer read the manual 
as a beginner, hence I cannot fairly evaluate 
its impact on someone reading it for the 
first time. It does lead the user through 
many examples, and all questions asked by 
the program are answered. It is now a pro- 
fessional manual, both in appearance and 
content. 

Initialize 

The initializing section prepares the pro- 
gram for the intended application. You es- 
tablish numeric and string fields and speci- 
fy their length in this section. Once this is 
set, you usually cannot change it except by 
starting over. (Aids and IDM-V allow you to 
add or delete fields, but you cannot re- 
arrange them.) The initialization section of 
IDM-V is a separate program which the user 
calls from the disk just for this function. In- 
itialization is part of the main Datahandler 
program. 

Initializing The Datahandler is easy be- 
cause you do not specify each field's length 
in advance. Simply state the field name and 
whether it is numeric or string. As provided, 



% 



The Datahandler allows up to 10 fields and 
a record length of about 255 bytes. The 
manual explains how to alter the program 
for larger record size or more fields if need- 
ed. As you add records, the program calcu- 
lates the average length of the records, and 
gives on request an estimate of the number 
of additional records which will fit. Unused 
space in each field is not wasted. Each 
record uses only the number of bytes which 
are typed into it. 

IDM-V limits the length of a record to 255 
bytes, and the number of fields to 40 (20 
string, 20 numeric). The first field must be a 
string field. The major choice at initializa- 
tion is whether to organize the records by 
record number or by key. The contents of a 
key field must be unique for each record. If 
you request a key field, it is the first field, 
and is used to find the record on the disk. If 
you were cataloging a library, for example, 
the author's name could not be the key field 
because he may have written more than one 
book. The book's Library of Congress num- 
ber, however, could be the key field, be- 
cause each is unique. The manual explains 
fully the drawbacks to accessing the data 
by key. It does not explain the advantages, 
i.e., what is the point of organizing the data 
by key field? The answer is it is not neces- 
sary to know the record number to access a 
record. The search function requests the 
key field contents and will rapidly get the 
record. If you do not use a key, the records 
will go to disk in order by record number. 

With IDM-V, when you have defined the 
fields, you must specify the total anticipat- 
ed number of records. This permits the pro- 
gram to write all the records to disk as 
blanks and zeroes; such a procedure ensures 
there will be no lost files later in the event of 
a system crash. It also allows you to place 
more than one file on a single side, which is 
an advantage if the files are small. There are 
two problems with this section: If you speci- 
fy too large a total, the file will not fit on the 
disk and a disk-full error occurs, making it 
necessary to start initialization over. The 
manual explains how to calculate how large 
a file will fit on the disk, but it is a lot of work; 
the computer should calculate free disk 
space and size of each record, and then in- 
form the user how many records will fit. 

If you use key access, you must specify a 
prime number for the total number of 
records. A prime number is any number 
which cannot be divided evenly by anything 
but itself and one. I found a prime number 
by trial and error. The program should 
calculate the prime number nearest to the 



". . . The Datahandler allows 

up to 10 fields and 

a record length of about 255 bytes." 



total number of records planned. 

Input 

IDM-V has an easy-to-use add function. 
Dots on the screen show the field length. 
You can modify the record before it is writ- 
ten to disk if you have made a mistake. IDM- 
V allows a fast typing speed. If you have 
specified a key field, the disk turns on after 
you type the key field to search for possible 
duplication of a key item, and to write the 
previous record. If there is no key field, the 
disk turns on after you complete the record. 
(Actually, after the buffer is full. The disk 
may not turn on after every record.) This 
disk write slows record entry, but is a ran- 
dom access data base necessity. You can- 
not duplicate a field from a previous record 
by pressing a single key while using the add 
function. 

The Datahandler's add function does not 
show the length of each field because the 



"IDM-V has 
an easy-to-use 
add function." 



field length may be any length you wish. It is 
pleasant not having to determine field 
length in advance and be limited by whatev- 
er you chose. There is one drawback. If the 
total length of all fields in one record ex- 
ceeds about 255 bytes, The Datahandler 
generates an error message which wipes 
out any file in memory. The program needs 
a stop message to warn the user of this limit 
to prevent data loss. In actual practice, 
however, most users will not encounter this 
problem, as 255 bytes is sufficient for most 
applications and is the record size limit in 
most data base programs. 

Unlike IDM-V you can duplicate the con- 
tents of a previous record by pressing a 
single key while using The Datahandler's 
add function. For example, if you were typ- 
ing a mailing list and had several records in 
a row that said "Massachusetts" you would 
type the full word only once. Thereafter you 
would hit the semicolon key when you came 
to the state field, and the program would 



automatically write "Massachusetts." I en- 
countered this very convenient feature in 
only one other data base, Maxi Manager. 

With The Datahandler, pressing a hyphen 
backs up one field at a time to correct er- 
rors. Once you complete the record, you 
cannot change it; the program goes on to 
the next record. To make changes you must 
use the change mode. 

Change 

You can enter the change (Modify) mode 
in IDM-V both from the menu, by selecting 
"Inquiry", or during the add section if you 
note an error. Before you can alter a record 
you must first find the record number using 
the search function, unless you are using 
key fields. If this is the case the record 
number is based on the keyfield contents, 
so just typing the key entry finds the record. 

It was not feasible to test IDM-V with a 
large number of records, but according to 
the manufacturer, the program will pull any 
record from the disk, using a key file, in 0-3 
seconds no matter how large the file. The 
disk looks at no more than four records 
to find the one it needs, and on the aver- 
age, scans only 1.5 records. This program's 
key access feature is extremely fast and 
convenient. 

The Modify function scrolls through the 
fields. To change an item, retype it, or press 
Enter to leave it unchanged. This method is 
simple and the cursor jumps from field to 
field much faster than in Aids, which has a 
similar system. The screen does scroll but 
you may redraw the display by typing D. 

In addition to the Modify mode available 
from the menu, IDM-V allows you to make 
changes during the printing phase. This 
global change is very powerful. The results 
of calculations can be written to the disk all 
at once. For example, an inventory might 
have two numeric fields handling quantity: 
the number-on-hand and the number-on- 
order. Perhaps you received an order from 
XYZ company. The print search could find 
all XYZ items with a quantity in the number- 
on-order field, add that number to the 
number-on-hand field, print the results, and 
zero the number-on-order field after print- 
ing. Taking advantage of this feature re- 
quires some careful planning at the initial- 
ization stage and great care in actual use. 
Global change and delete can be global di- 
saster if you realize after it is too late that 
the report file you used was also deleting 
each record it printed. Do not use this func- 
tion without complete backup disks. 

The Datahandler has complete search 

80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 151 



"Usually, the most important purpose 
of a data base is printing data 
in the format desired by the user." 



capabilities within the change mode, hence 
it is not necessary to know the record 
number before asking for changes. You can 
make an identical change in more than one 
record by pressing a single key. This very 
nice feature is similar to the one-key com- 
mand to repeat a field in the Add mode. 
Also, because the number of the field to be 
changed is selected in advance, the record 
will be drawn on screen with the cursor 
already in place at the proper field. This can 
save a lot of time if the field to be changed is 
near the end of the record. 

Search 

For The Datahandler, the most time- 
consuming part of the search is defining all 
the search requirements. At first, it can 
easily take 10 seconds to answer all the 
questions relating to the search, although 
as you gain experience, you can make the 
choices in a fraction of that time. Once you 
have defined the search, The Datahandler 
finds the record almost instantly. The 
search's main limitation is that you may 
search only one field at a time. Aside from 
that, The Datahandler covers every con- 
ceivable search need, including a masked 
search. A masked search ignores certain 
parts of a string. A question mark indicates 
these parts. If the second two digits of an in- 
ventory number indicated the vendor, they 
could be searched by requesting 
"??34???." This would find all records with 
the numbers 34 in that position. A number 
34 in any other position would be ignored. 
Maxi Manager is the only other data base 
that has this feature. Both Maxi Manager 
and The Datahandler can find a match in 
any type of search even if the search string 
does not duplicate the uppercase/lower- 
case configuration of the original entry. 

IDM-V does not support as many search 
functions as The Datahandler, consequent- 
ly there are fewer questions to answer 
before the search begins, and the ability to 
press Enter for default search parameters 
also speeds the process. The program 
searches only the first three characters on a 
perfect match, greater-than or less-than 
basis. If, for example, you were searching 
for Mike Applesmith but could only 
remember the "Apple" part of the name, 
you could still find the record if you were us- 
ing The Datahandler, but not with IDM-V. 

The search function prints each record's 
compared field as it scans, so it is possible 
to see where the search goes wrong if it 
doesn't find the record. Searching is a slow 
process if you do not use a key field. You 

152 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



must exactly duplicate the original record's 
uppercase/lowercase configuration. 

Sort 

IDM-V has a fast, capable machine- 
language sort of up to four fields, but 
there is a large drawback: Once sorted, the 
records are not written to disk. The sort is 
only for a printout. A second drawback is 
that all records to be sorted must be in 
memory. While this is true of all data bases, 
Maxi Manager and CCA handle it automa- 
tically whereas IDM-V requires the user to 
split the file and bring it in a portion at a 
time to be sorted. 

The sort for The Datahandler is very fast 
because it is an in-memory system, and be- 
cause of the capabilities of Forth. The 
speed is comparable to Aids and any num- 
ber of fields may be sorted— ascending or 
descending. 

The greatest flaw in Maxi Manager when 
it first appeared was the sort, which would 
handle only one field at a time. This has now 
been changed and the new version can sort 
on three fields at a time. The sort is in ma- 
chine code and as fast as can be expected 
for a random access data base. Unlike IDM- 
V, Maxi Manager stores the results of the 
sort on disk. 

Printouts 

Usually, the most important purpose 
of a data base is printing data in the format 
desired by the user. The whole process can 
be very troublesome. It is therefore desir- 
able to be able to save print commands on- 
to the disk once they have been worked out 
satisfactorily. IDM-V has this capability 
with room to store 10 different printer com- 
mand files. The Datahandler cannot store 
print commands. 

IDM-V provides less control over the 
printout format than The Datahandler; 
however, it is fairly simple to format 
the printout which would be adequate for 
many uses. IDM-V always prints record 
numbers whether you want them or not. 
Worse still, the column for record numbers 
wastes 10 spaces of the total printout. 
Record numbers can be a nuisance and 
even a real liability in many applications. 
There should be a choice as to whether or 
not you want them. 

You cannot align numeric fields to the 
right and left of the decimal point. IDM-V 
prints the name given to the file which 
stores the print commands as the title, so 
be sure to use a meaningful file name. If the 
length of the printer line is exceeded, the ex- 



cess wraps around, and there is no control 
over the alignment of the second line of 
data. You have no control of the number of 
blanks between fields. You cannot abort 
printout except with the Break key. You can 
access the data base with Micro Architect's 
word processor, WORD-V, for use with form 
letters. The Lister command provides a 
quick and easy printout. 

The section of IDM-V devoted to format- 
ting the printout is quite easy to use. Screen 
scrolling causes the field numbers to be out 
of sight when they are needed. The program 
allows calculated fields which will perform 
addition, subtraction, division, or multipli- 
cation between two numeric fields. Column 
totals and averages are available. You may 
select range for printouts, or you may 
search and print. 

The report section search is much more 
sophisticated than the search in the main 
program. You may search up to four fields 
with a choice of logical AND or OR. For ex- 
ample, the search could find everyone 
whose name is Smith AND who live in New 
York, or you could search for those named 
Smith OR those who live in New York, 
whether or not their name were Smith. As in 
the main program, the report section search 
uses only the first three characters of the 
search string. Thus in the example above, 
the program would also print Smithe. 

Like IDM-V, The Datahandler report for- 
matting section is fairly easy to use. The fea- 
tures available are quite different. You can 
choose whether or not to print record num- 
bers. There is no wrap around, so it is possi- 
ble to control the appearance of the second 
data line. Unfortunately, no math is avail- 
able for a printout, but full search functions 
are provided. 

The Datahandler has a quick, easy print- 
out via the "standard" mode of the Re- 
port command. If you desire a customized 
format, you may specify which fields are 
to be printed, and full search functions 
are available for selecting records. You 
may change file parameters if desired. 
Very few commands provide a surprisingly 
flexible number of printout choices; you can 
manipulate the maximum field length, the 
spaces between fields, and the size of the 
line to obtain the desired result. Some trial- 
and-error experimentation is necessary. 
Once perfected, turn the printer on and save 
the file parameters to the line printer to be 
reused at a later date. This overcomes the 
lack of disk storage for printer file com- 
mands and is similar to the approach you 
must take with Aids. The program remem- 



■■••^^.'.« --"-'-MfA^ 



I believe Super Utility or Super 
Jtility Plus should be preser " 



at every serio 
installation." 






&£mffl 






(We didn't say this; Paul Wiener did in 80 Micro- 
computing, Jan. '81. . .but we sure agree with him!) 



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Shipping is included in sales to Canada & U.S. 
FOREIGN ORDERS ADD $10 

80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 153 



IEEE-488 TO TRS-80* INTERFACE 

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80 



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"Speed is The Datahandler's 
most important special feature." 



bers your last requested printer layout and 
the command Redo prints the records as 
often as desired according to that layout, 
until the computer is turned off. The Break 
key safely aborts printer operations at any 
time and returns you to "Command?", the 
program's normal query. 

You can obtain continuous printer inter- 
action with the program so everything you 
type goes to the printer. Unfortunately this 
function causes the line printer to form feed 
whenever the screen is cleared. This severe- 
ly limits the option's usefulness. 

The Datahandler has an inventive mailing 
list printout option which examines the 
name field. If it sees a comma, it assumes 
the last name is first and it reverses it for 
the printout, eliminating the comma and 
printing one space between last and first 
names. This space insertion means none is 
needed when you enter the name, thereby 
saving one byte per name. 

The new version of Maxi Manager in- 
cludes a utility program to create printer 
command files. This is a considerable im- 
provement over the version reviewed in 
August. It is not necessary to learn all the 
print format commands, as the utility pro- 
gram creates a file of the proper commands 
based on your answers to various ques- 
tions. The utility program does not allow 
corrections, however, so if you desire 
changes it is necessary to start over or load 
the file into a word processing program and 
make the needed changes (assuming you 
understand the print commands so you 
know what to change). 

At first you could not use Scripsit with 
the Model III version of Maxi Manager. 
Scripsit is on a TRSDOS disk and Maxi for 
the Model III is supplied on DOSPLUS. Thus 
Scripsit could not read a print file created 
by Maxi Manager, nor could a Scripsit form 
letter be merged with Maxi Manager files. 
Fortunately, a patch is now available from 
Adventure International ($10 to present 
Model III owners) to overcome this problem. 
The patch will be included on all future Maxi 
Manager disks. 

While Maxi Manager's printout system is 
anything but simple, it remains the most 
sophisticated one I have seen, and the new 
version is easier to use than the old. 

Calculate 

Perhaps The Datahandler's greatest flaw 
is the lack of many math functions. Addi- 
tion is the only feature, and it is not 
available on printouts. The addition may be 
performed within a record as well as be- 
tween records, and like all Forth commands 



is quite rapid. The fact remains, however, 
that its inability to calculate beyond addi- 
tion may force some prospective users to 
look elsewhere for a data base. IDM-V, on 
the other hand, has a standard addition, 
subtraction, multiplication and division 
functions which are also available on CCA, 
Maxi Manager and Aids. IDM-V math is only 
available with a printout and is similar to 
Aids in this regard. CCA and Maxi Manager 
provide mathematical functions on screen 
as well as in printouts. 

Special Features 

The Datahandler's special features stem 
from the fact it is written in Forth rather 
than Basic. Actually The Datahandler is not 
a program so much as a new set of Forth 
words, defined to perform various func- 
tions. As such, a Forth programmer can 
easily modify it to include any new func- 
tions which might be needed. When using 
The Datahandler you are in the Command 
mode, similarto Basic's Ready, much of the 
time rather than in the program. To make a 
choice, type a command such as Add, 
Change or List. There is no menu, but the 
word Help lists all the commands the pro- 
gram understands. A directory is always 
available because of being in Command 
mode, and it is possible to stop using The 
Datahandler temporarily, if desired, to ask 
Forth to do a few calculations and then go 
right back into the program. 

Speed is The Datahandler's most impor- 
tant special feature. No other data base in 
these reviews even comes close. Type List 
and ask for all the records. Hold the space 
bar down and watch the records flip onto 
the screen faster than you can scan them. 
Release the bar and the record on screen 
freezes. Tap the bar to continue one at a 
time. One hundred record files may be load- 
ed in seconds. It is this fast disk I/O which 
makes the big difference between Aids and 
The Datahandler. Aids is about as fast in 
search and sort, but is extremely slow 
writing and reading files. 

A nice feature of IDM-V is the audit trail. 
If you select this function, all changed 
or added records are automatically sent 
to the printer— a very handy reference 
for data base transactions. Another feature 
■^hich may be important to some users is 
password security on two levels: one pass- 
word for read/write access and one for read- 
only access. 

IDM-V has made every effort to speed 
interaction between program and user 
by the liberal use of default values for any 
choice. In formatting a printout, for exam- 



154 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Teach Your TRS 80 R Second Language. 




Your TRS-80 Model III already speaks BASIC and now you 
can teach it APL too, thanks to STSC's APL*PLUS®/80 
Application Development System. Once you've run APL 
on your TRS-80, we' re sure you'll both think of it as your 

first language. 

Our APL*PLUS system features increase the well-known power and 
productivity of the APL language. You'll develop and maintain pro- 
grams in one-fourth to one- tenth the time needed with BASIC, and 
you'll write applications you'd have thought twice about attempting in 
any other language. 

Take a look at the following example. How long would it have taken 
you to program it in BASIC? 

Develop a subroutine which enumerates all the combinations of N things taken 
from a population P. Its result is a table showing each of the possible 
combinations in a different row. Examples: 



3 COME 4 
12 3 



COMB 

1 2 

: 3 

1 4 

2 3 

? 4 
>. 4 



4 COMB 
12 3 
1 2 3 
12 4 

1 3 4 

2 3 4 



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fl MAKE SETS OF N ITEMS FROM P CHOICES 
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This example is found in the textbook provided with the APL*PLUS/80, APL: An 
Interactive Approach, by Leonard Gilman and Allen J. Rose. A detailed explana- 
tion of this APL solution is included in our free information package. 

Your programming may not include a task such as this, but it will certainly benefit 
from APL's power in expressing algorithms. 

Worried that a language with this much power is hard to leam? Don't 
be. APL is easy\ The programs have simple structure— the power 
comes from many built-in functions and operators. And our complete 
documentation gives you everything you need to make yourself and 
your TRS-80 bilingual. You get/Vi is Easy! (an introductory tutorial), 
an APL textbook, a set of four detailed user's guides and reference 
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When you ; >;i\ the APL* PLUS 80, you're getting a complete applica 
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• complete APL language and system features, upwards compatible 
with our mainframe APL systems 

• powerful output formatter 



• array-oriented file system 

• access to regular TRSDOS® files and subroutines 

• communications as a "simple" terminal and under APL program 
control 

• traditional APL symbols or mnemonic keywords 

• utility program libraries 

• convenient access to many TRS-80 features. 

So if you want to develop and deliver solutions faster and better for 
yourself or for clients, teach your TRS-80 a second language — APL. 

Mail in the coupon below with your payment and we' 11 send you the 
APL* PLUS/80 Application Development System- all you need to run 
APL today on your TRS-80 Model III. If you' d like more details, check 

the box on the coupon and we'll send you our fret' information 
package. 

We' re STSC, Inc., the leading supplier of professional quality APL 
software and services in the United States. Our APL* PLUS systems 

have Deer; serving the business and professional world h >r more than 
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APL* PLUS/80 runs under TRSDOS 1 .3 or LDOS» 5. 1 on a 48K RAM TRS-80 
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character ROM 



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Attn: APL*PLUS/80 Distribution 

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□ Charge my VISA Account * 



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APL*PLUS is a service mark and trademark of STSC, Inc., registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office. TRS-80 and TRSDOS are registered trademarks of Tandy Corporation. 
LDOS is a registered trademark of Logical Systems Corporation. 



■See List of Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 155 



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pie, pressing Enter quickly bypasses the 
mathematics questions. For every question 
in any section, pressing Enter automatical- 
ly selects the most commonly used 
choices. It is a great feature for beginners 
who aren't sure how to answer many ques- 
tions. Press Enter and see what happens, it 
can't do any harm! 

IDM-V is advertised as bug free and reli- 
able. It has been released for Models I, II 
and III, CP/M, and Heath computers. While I 
have not used it long enough to categorical- 
ly state there are no errors, it does appear to 
be a solid, dependable program. Many pre- 
cautions have been taken to protect files 
from accidental erasure or damage. 

A new feature in Maxi Manager is a utility 
program that allows it to read Aids III files. 
An Aids user who has outgrown that in- 
memory system can thus convert to Maxi's 
random access without retyping his files. 

Readers of part I of this article may wish 
to know how these two data base programs 
compare with the three previously reviewed. 
Since writing part I, I have changed to a 
Model III and should point out that Aids 
runs on my Model III if shift, down arrow Z is 
used as the control key, rather than just 
shift, down arrow. Maxi Manager users 
must trade in their old disk to convert to the 
Model III version ($15 charge). IDM-V Model I 
users may convert to Model III version for 
$10. I have not used CCA on the Model III. 

There is no best program. The best one 
must be chosen for the particular applica- 
tion. Of the three random access programs, 
Maxi Manager remains on top for sophisti- 
cation and file capacity, but it is the most 
complicated to use. IDM-V has powerful 
global change and delete, fast sort and 
good search with printouts. Its greatest 
flaws are the lack of full control of printout 
appearance, the need to break files up for 
sorting, and the inability to save records in 
sorted order. CCA has better printout con- 
trol and math than IDM-V, but has very poor 
search capabilities and a slow sort, IDM-V 
is the easiest to use of the three, but costs 
considerably more. 

Some programs are better than others for 
the single-drive owner. On a double density 
drive, any of the programs would be ade- 
quate since the program and data could all 
be on one disk. On a single density drive, 
there is often insufficient room for both pro- 
gram and data. Having a separate data disk 
allows for a larger file, but then the program 
and data disks must be switched. Maxi 
Manager requires this switching whenever 
sorting or printouts are desired, but does 

sSee List of Advertisers on page 386 



"There is no best program. 

The best one must be chosen 

for the particular application." 



prompt for the switch. CCA does not 
prompt for switching disks, so the user 
must change them at the right moments. 
IDM-V also does not prompt for the switch, 
but requires fewer switches than Maxi 
Manager. 

Of the two in-memory systems, either 
would work very well for a single-drive 
owner. Aids has the advantage of being 
able to manipulate files larger than memory 
size by calling in portions of a file. How- 
ever, this feature carries with it the poten- 
tial for large-scale damage to files if not 
handled with great care. The two programs 
are equally easy to use. While Aids is fast 
once the files are in memory, disk read and 
write time is very slow. The Datahandler is 
more pleasant to use because of its great 
speed, both for calling files in and out and 
for adding and changing records (faster typ- 
ing is allowed, and the cursor is at the cor- 
rect field automatically for changes). They 
both have great search and sort routines. 



Aids has far better mathematical ability and 
can give calculations on printouts (with 
CALCS III). 

Despite the fact that The Datahandler is 
extremely weak in some important areas, I 
am fascinated by it. After a few years at a 
computer keyboard one begins to feel half a 
life has been spent waiting for the computer 
to load and save files. Forth and The 
Datahandler end all that. I recommend the 
program for anyone willing to take the time 
to learn Forth, or willing to pay to have The 
Datahandler customized. The program can 
be modified to do most of the things a good 
data base needs to do. The missing Merge 
function, for example, was provided to 
MMSFORTH users, after The Datahandler 
was released, in a newsletter. The missing 
mathematical sophistication could be pro- 
vided by a good Forth programmer. Consi- 
der the program an exciting nucleus; plan 
on some customization for any sophisti- 
cated applications. ■ 



CompuServe: 
What's in it for the 




Plenty! First there's MNET80, a Special Interest Group 
(SIG) of TRS-80' users on the CompuServe Information 
Service. SIGs are active and growing groups of individuals 
who share a common interest and form an "electronic" 
club using the CompuServe Information Service as its 
communications medium. Share advice and exchange 
information with other TRS-80 users across town or 
anywhere around the country. TANDY services include an 
electronic newsletter, answers to your questions directly 
from Ft. Worth, product availability, tips and hints. 
Secondly, we think you'll like the CompuServe 
Information Service: CB simulation, electronic mail, 
news wires, financial information, games, data bases, 
programming languages, big mainframe computer power 
and free data storage. All for a basic charge of only $5.00 an 
hour nights and weekends. All you need is your TRS-80, a 
modem and some inexpensive software. See a free 
demonstration of CompuServe in action at your Radio 
Shack" Computer Center. CompuServe Information Service, 
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd., Columbus, Ohio 43220. 
(614) 457-8650. 



CompuServe 



^235 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 157 



CALL TOLL FREE 

2738 






STELLAR ESCORT 
By Jeff Zinn from Big Five 

This new arcade game from Big Five continue 
their tradition of bringing you the most ex- 
citing action in innovative space games. Your 
fighting spacecraft must run the gauntlet of 
the attacking alien's weaponry in order to ac- 
complish your defense mission. You'll use all 
your skill and dexterity just to survive! 

16K tape. . . 515.95 32K disk. . .$19.95 

NEW TRISSTICK JOYSTICK FROM BIG FIVE! 
Can be used for all Big Five games plus pro 
grams you write. Utilizes the Atari joystick 
with special interface. Plugs right in! 

Specify model I or 1 1 1... $39. 95 




By Hogue £ Konyu from Big Five 
You are the lone defender of 10 Krotnium fuel 
cells essential for the survival of the planet. 
Aliens swoop down from above to steal the 
fuel; it's your job to destroy them. You can 
still save the cells after a raid, but you must 
shoot the alien and simultaneously move under 
the cell to catch it. If things look bad you can 
set off one of your 4 antimatter bombs and 
destroy all enemies on the screen! Arcade fun 
with action and sound. 

16K tape. . .$15.95 32K disk. . . $1 9. 95 



MYSTERIOUS 
ADVENTURE 



ARROW 

OF 

DEATH 

part 1 



By Brian Howarth from Acorn 
Proper English only! This British import is 
Acorn Software's first adventure and it meets 
their reputation for high quality. The vocabu 
lary you use in this adventure must conform 

to proper English standards not the bar 

baric tongue spoken here in the colonies! You 
and Sorcerer Zarda must restore the kingdom 
from the engulfing sense of bitterness and ill 
feeling that forced the ruler to flee the 
palace. 

16K tape or disk. .. $19. 95 Hint Sheet ... $1 . 00 



VOYAGER I 




From Avalon Hill 

A graphic science fiction game that puts you 
on board a spaceship infested with killer 
robots! Your job is to clear the four level, 144 
location ship of the robots and arm it to self 
destruct. The high speed graphics are rep- 
resented in a 3D perspective that represents 
your eye's view. Instant switching to floor 
plan maps aids your movement. The action is 
fast and furious! 

16K tape for model I £ 1 1 1 or 
Color (Ext. Color Basic) .. .$19.95 





By Philip Mitchell from Beam 

Armed with missiles and bombs, you must fly 
your fighter to the enemy's cache of neutron 
bombs and destroy them. Your mission is in 
four stages, involving rugged terrain, cav- 
erns and manmade obstacles not to mention 
enemy radar, missiles and paratroopers. This 
new departure in arcade gaming allows you to 
set up your own terrain and enemy emplace- 
ments, then save them for future use. Make 
your mission as hard or easy as you like! 



Tape or disk. . .$24.95 

SPACE 
CASTLE 



uf 



■u. 



Vi 



From Cornsoft 

Ahead of you lies the menacing castle, float 
ing in space amidst its layers of orbiting 
shields. At intervals, smart mines spin off the 
shields and head for your ship. Dodging the 
mines and destroying the shields isn't your 
only problem, though: once you penetrate the 
innermost shield, The evil Yugdab will un- 
leash all his fury in an attack! A fast paced 
and challenging arcade game, indeed. 



Write Arcade Games in BASIC with. . . 

ACCEL 3 

BASIC COMPILER 

By Southern Systems from Algorix 
Ever wish your programs would run faster? 
Assembly language is one answer. But -- 
even after you spend the time needed to learn 
Z 80 code -- it is a long, tedious process to 
write in assembly language, and debugging is 
very difficult. Fortunately, there is another 
way - compiled BASIC. 

In our opinion ACCEL3 is the best compiler 
for the TRS-80. It's flexible: works with tape 
or disk, model I or III, and requires as little 
as 16K of memory. It's fast: only a few sec- 
onds to compile. It's a memory miser: only a 
15-35% increase in program size in most cases. 

ACCEL3 will work under TRSDOS, NEWDOS 
or LDOS, and there are very few program- 
ming restrictions. To save ACCEL-compiled 
programs on tape you will need TSAVE (sold 
separately, $9. 95) 

Tape or disk. . .$99. 95 

Instant Search/Sort 
DATABASE 

By G. Hatton from Acorn 

An easy-to-use, yet powerful database man- 
agement tool, ISS alleviates many of the 
complications usually found in setting up and 
maintaining information files. Written in 
machine language, ISS can provide a multi- 
tude of sorts, subsorts, searches and cate- 
gorizations in seconds. Because the proc- 
essing is done in memory, you can manipulate 
the data at will without risk to your database 
on tape or disk. The number of records is 
limited only by your file format and the 
amount of RAM in your system. 

16K tape or 32K disk. .. $49. 95 



^:fHn^ rH ^ K 




THE CUSTOM TRS 80 
By Dennis Kitsz from I J G 

The hardware hacker's delight! This book 
contains many, many useful modifications that 
could make your TRS-80 model I more reli- 
able, easier to use, faster, and more capable! 
Clear, concise instructions, along with many 
useful construction tips, guide your way 
through the computer's innards. Some unique 
software ideas are included as well. 
WARNING: some of the hardware modifications 
in this book will void any warranties and may 
cause Radio Shack to refuse repairs on mod- 
ified equipment. 
335 pages... $29. 95 



16K tape. . .$15.95 1 6K disk. . . SI 9. 95 

Visit oor other stores: Seven Corners Center • Falls Church, VA & W. Bell Plaza • 66OO Security Blvd. • Baltimore, MD 



m, TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 800 424-2738 



For information 
Call (202) 363-9797 



THE PROGRAM STORE 

4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Dept.8E206 Box 9609 
Washington, D.C. 20016 

158 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



MAIL ORDERS: Send check orM.O. for total pur- 
chase price, plus $1.00 postage & handling. DC, 
MD & VA: add sales tax. Charge cards: include 
all embossed information on the card. 
©1982, The Program Store, mc. Prices Subiect to Change 



Get the most from your micro with 
software and accessories from one of 
the worlds largest selections. 



The 

n*ocjram 

Store 



CALL TOLL FREE 

800424-2 





From Med Systems 

Your eyes are bloodshot as you peer into your 
computer's screen and cry, "I must be 
CRAZY!" If this has never happened to you, 
you've never tried ASYLUM, the 3-D graphics 
adventure! ASYLUM places you on a cot in a 
small (padded?) room. Periodically the janitor 
lobs a hand-grenade through the window. 
What you do next could mean escape — or 
disaster. 

16K tape... $19. 95 16K disk. . .$22. 95 
Advice Sheets. .. S1 . 00 




Igjr* Crush.CrumHe 
and Chomp ! 



From Epyx 

It's a monster movie, and you are the 
monster! You can be The Glob, Kraken, 
Mantra, Mechismo, Arachnis, or Goshilla •■■ or 
even design your own "custom" monster (disk 
version only) . This hilarious action game is 
loaded with graphics and sound as you prac 
tice your villany . 

16K tape or 32K disk... $29. 95 



farriohter 




By Sparky Starks from Adventure Int. 
As mercenary and galactic police officer, you 
must maintain the condition and control of all 
parts of your spacecraft. Suddenly some 
thing appears on your screen: is it a Star- 
pirate or a friendly merchant ship? You can't 
tell yet, and at this speed you may have only 
a fraction of a second to make an attack /no 
attack decision. 

Model I 6 III, 16K tape...$2U.95 
Model I disk version S29.95 




By Wall £ Moncrief from Adventure Int. 
You get a vast lunar landscape, graphically 
depicted in both long range and close up, 
with many choices for landing sites. Choose a 
more difficult site and get more points if 

you can land successfully. Great graphics 
and sound add to the realtime challenge and 
f u n . 

16K tape. ..$14. 95 



VOYAGE OF THE 

VALKYRIE 




By Leo Christopherson from AGS 
Combine the animation and music techniques 
pioneered by Christopherson with the 
challenoe of his first fast-moving arcade game 
"and you have VOYAGE OF THE VALKYRIE! 
You speed through a magical maze guarded by 
ferocious birds that swoop down to attack ':' 
you don't get them first. To list all the play 
and options of ihis exciting game would take 
the 16 pages of instruction included. 

16K tape... $34. 95 

16K disk... $39. 95 

ALSO FROM CHRISTOPHERSON: 

DUEL N-DROIDS 

Teach your "animated android" how to wield a 

laser sword in mortal yet comic battle. 
Entertainment for all ages. 
16K protected tape... $14. 95 
16K protected disk... $2 0.9 5 




By John Allen from Acorn 

Once you load ASTROBALL into your 
TRS-80, the arrow keys become flipper 
buttons, the screen becomes the play board, 
and you become the "Pinball Wizard!" A 
flying saucer, spaceships, meteors, and 
black holes add to the fun as your ball realist 
ically zings around the board. Five skill 
levels. 

16K protected tape. .. $19.95 
16K protected disk. . .5 19.95 

Unbelievable Realtime 3-D Graphics! 



FrfGHT SIMULATION 

From Sub-Logic 

The wait is over! If j D graphics seen impos- 
sible On the low resolution TRS-80, you 
haven't seen this brilliant program. During 
FLIGHT SIMULATION, you instantly select 
instrument flight, radar, or a breathtaking 
pilot's-eye-view. But be sure to strap your- 
self In — you're liable to get dizzy! 

Once you put in some air time learning to fly 
your TRS-80, head for enemy territory and 
try to bomb the fuel depot while fighting off 

five enemy warplanes. Good Luck! 

NOW FOR MODELS I 8 

16K tape... $25. 00 
32K disk... $33. 50 



II ! (specify which) 




SCARF 



From Cornsoft Group 

Race your Scarfman around a maze, gobbling 
up scoring dots. You are pursued by five 
monsters: if you eat a "+" they'll lower their 
eyes and you can eat them, otherwise they'll 
eat you! SCARFMAN may be played using the 
keyboard or Alpha Product's Joystick. 
WARNING: MAY BE H AB IT-FORMI NG ! 

Tape... 16. 95 

Disk (specify 'nod. I or 1 1 1 ) . . . $20. 95 

Alpha Joystick : 

mod. I: $39.95, mod. Ill: $49.95 




By Hogue £ Konyu from Big Five 
While fighting off the alien convoys -- each 
more skillful than the last -- you must keep 
track of your rocket fuel or risk explosion. 
16K tape. ..$15. 95 32K disk. . .$19.95 



■ ■ ■ Jm ■ ■ 

■ ■ ■ L ■ ■ ■ 

» i> < 



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By Hogue b Konyu from Big Five 

Unlike the usual space "shoot-em-ups," 

Attack Force lets you control both speed and 

direction as you maneuver all over the screen 

in search of the alien Ramships and Flag 

ships. 

16K tape.. .$15.95 32K disk. . . $19. 95 




By Hogue f, Konyu from Big Five 
Six astronauts are stranded on a desolate 
planet. You must undock from your command 
module and maneuver your rescue shuttle 
through the asteroid field to save them. 
16K tape.. .$15. 95 32K disk. .. $19.95 



COMING SOON : MYSTERIOUS ADVENTURES 
A new series of adventures from Acorn that is 
bound to keep you asking for more! 

©1982, The Program Store, Inc. 



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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 159 



HOME/HOBBY 



Let your computer do the walking through the Yellow Pages. 



Telephone Di 




Jim Hie key 

Box 3123 

Clear lake, CA 95422 



How would you like to dial 
your phone by computer? 
Suppose you could just enter 
the name of a person you want 
to call and let the computer do 
all the work? 

Even better, with this hard- 
ware device all you need is a 
relay, a diode and some wire. 

Dial Pulses 

When you dial a phone 
number, a switch attached to 
the dial opens and closes in 
pulses. The number of pulses 
corresponds to the number 
dialed (except zero, which is 10 
pulses). 

I built a relay to handle the 
telephone switching load (ap- 
proximately 70 volts) and con- 
trol it from a Model I TRS-80 
cassette output port. 

Controlling the telephone 
switching directly from the 
cassette port might weld the 
relay. 

To further protect the sen- 
sitive TRS-80 relay, I wired a 
diode across the leads of my 
relay (Fig. 1). This diode shorts 
out the surge of current caused 
by the collapse of the magnetic 
field in the coil when the power 
is out. 

Inside the phone are two or 

160 • 80 Microcomputing, June, 'July 1982 



more wires going to the dial. 
Two of these are normally 
closed and are switched by the 
dialing action. They are pulsed 
open when you dial a number. 

Cut either one— it doesn't 
matter which— and connect it to 
the normally closed side of your 
relay. This way you will be able 
to use the phone without the 
computer. 

If there is enough room inside 
the phone's casing, install the 
relay there. If not, put it inside a 
container; an empty film can will 
work. 

I connected the relay to the 
computer by mounting two 
jacks: a miniature jack for power 
(I used a jack from a battery 
eliminator of the same voltage 
as the relay); and a sub- 
miniature jack for the remote 



FROM PHONE 



plug on the cassette cord. 

Control Program 

All of this wouldn't be worth 
much without a program to con- 
trol it, so I wrote a simple one 
that you can modify to suit your 
own needs (Program Listing 1). 

The subroutine in the first 
part of the program (lines 
20-100) does all the work. It 
turns on the relay by sending a 
four out to port 255. Normally 
this turns on the cassette motor. 
If we delay the program before 
turning off the relay (OUT 255,0), 
we create one pulse. Five of 
these pulses is the same as dial- 
ing the number five. 

Lines 200-390 are data lines 
containing names and ad- 
dresses. I put these in the pro- 
gram, so I wouldn't have to read 



them from the tape each time. 

The name comes first, followed 
by the phone number. Don't in- 
clude dashes or parentheses, but 
do include the 1 that precedes any 
long distance numbers. 

Lines 400-425 look for input. By 
typing List, the program lists all 
the names on file. Typing Hang- 
up, or H, gives you a dial tone, and 
typing Number, or N, finds a 
number without dialing it. 

Line 516 puts dashes in the 
number before it's printed, to 
make it easier to read (1-706- 
556-4563). 

Lines 500-510 search for the 
number corresponding to the 
name you enter. Then it reads this 
number into the NO$. Should you 
change your mind while the com- 
puter's dialing, hitting any key will 
hang up the phone and return the 



CUT 



TO DIAL 



■* 



NORMALLY CLOSED 



COMMON 



NORMALLY OPEN 



DIODE 



RELAY 



n j 



JACKS 



Fig. 1. Schematic 



system to command mode. 

Flashing Cursor Routine 

The subroutine in lines 800-910 
flashes the cursor faster and 
more efficiently than others I have 
used. I included my remarks in 
Program Listing 2. 

Very simply, it prints a graphics 
block (CHR$(128)), pauses, then 
backspaces (CHR$(13)), erasing 
the block. While the cursor is 
flashing, it is checking for input. 



If the key struck is not a left ar- 
row (backspace), shift backspace 
or Enter, then the character is 
added to A$. 

A backspace will erase the last 
character on screen, taking the 
last character out of A$. Shift 
backspace erases the whole line 
and clears A$. If you hit Enter, 
some variables are set up (List- 
ing 2, line 860), then the program 
returns to the calling subroutine 
with the input in E$. ■ 



1 CLEAR5000:CLS:GOTO400 ' PROGRAM STARTS AT 400 

10 IFNO=0THENNO=10 ' A "0" ON THE PHONE TAKES TEN PULSES. 

20 FORLP=lTONO' SUBROUTINE TO DIAL A NUMBER. 

40 OUT255,4' TURN ON RELAY... 

50 GOSUB60 0' DELAY A BIT... 

6 OUT255,0' TURN OFF RELAY... 

70 GOSUB600'WAIT... 

80 NEXT LP' FINISH UP 

90 FORLP=1TO100:NEXT: ' DELAY BETWEEN NUMBERS 

100 RETURN 

199 ' NAMES AND NUMBERS GO HERE 

200 DATATIME, 7671111 
210 DATAUS, 9942349 
215 DATAEV, 12798688 

220 DATAED ROBEY, 9944849 

225 DATAMARK, 9941 968 

230 DATAJASPER, 9942647 

235 DATASCOT r 9945980 

240 DATARADIO SHACK , 9941950 

245 DATAGEORGE, 9946299 

250 DATATODD, 994 4588 

255 DATARON,19166852093 

260 DATAKENT, 19176855482 

265 DATABRYCE, 19166852031 

27 DATAFRED PLANTE , 1 27 7 7 27 7 

275 DATADAN,99419 32 

280 DATAGENE-TRAILER, 9944044 

285 DATAGENE-HOUSE, 9946430 

390 DATAEND,END' DON'T FORGET THIS AT THE END OF YOUR LIST!! 

400 RESTORE: PRINT :PRINT n COMMAND"; : L=20 : GOSUB80 : INS=WS ' GET INPU 

T COMMAND. 

410 IF1NS="LIST"THENCLS:GOTO4 90 

420 IFIN$="H"ORIN$="HANG UP'THEN 610 

425 IFIN$="NUMBER"ORIN$= n N"THEN440 

430 GOTO500 

440 PRINT"NAME"; : GOSUB80 : IN$=WS : FL=1 : GOTO500 ' INPUT NAME. AND 

SET FLAG (FL) SO THE NUMBER WILL BE DISPLAYED ONLY. 

490 READNA$,NO$:IFNA$="END"THEN400ELSEPRINTNA$,; :GOTO490' LIST N 

AMES 

500 READNA$,NO$' GET A NAME AND NUMBER. 

505 IFNA$ = "END"THENPRINT"NOT FOUND ." :GOTO400 ' CHECK FOR END OF I, 

1ST 

510 IFNASOINSTHEN500' IF THIS ISN'T THE NAME, KEEP LOOKING 

516 LE=LEN(NO?) : Ql $=RIGHT$ ( NO$ , 4 ) : Q2 $=MID S (NOS , LE-6 , 3 )+"-": IFLE= 
8THENQ3$=LEFT$(NO$,l) * " - " : GOTO620ELSEIFLE=10THENQ3 $=LEFT$ ( NO$ , 3 ) 
+"-":GOTO620ELSEIFLE=llTHENQ3$=MIDS(NO$,2,3) + " - " : Q4S=LEFT$ (NOS , 1 
)+' , -":GOTO620ELSEGOTO620 , THIS ROUTINE PUTS THE DASHES, "-" 

517 ' IN THE PHONE NUMBER SO WE CAN READ IT AS WE ARE ACCUSTOMED 

TO. (X-XXX-XXX-XXXX RATHER THAN XXXXXXXXXXX AS IT IS 

STORED IN MERORY.) 
520 FORX=lTOLEN(NO$) ' SET UP LOOP TO LENGTH OF NUMBER. 
530 NO=VAL(MIDS(NOS,X,l) ) ' GET NUMBER FROM NOS... 
540 GOSUB 10' DIAL IT... 
550 NEXTX' DO ALL NUMBERS. 
560 GOTO400 

600 FORLM=1TO10:IFINKEY$=" 

610 OUT255,4:FORLP=1TO300:NEXT:OUT255,0:GOTO400: ' 
620 Q5$=Q4S+Q3S+Q2S+Q1S:Q4$ = "":Q3S='"":Q2S="":Q1S='' 
L=1THENFL=0:GOTO400ELSE520' ADD TOGETHER THE STRINGS TO GET THE 
NUMBER IN THE FORM X-XXX-XXX-XXXX 



"THENNEXT:RETURNELSE610: 'DELAY LOOP 
HANG UP 
" :PRINTQ5$:IFF 



Program Listing 1. Telephone Dialer 



800 HI=90:LO=32:E$=CHR$(13) :BS=CHR$(8) :CS=CHRS(24) :PRINT"? " ; 

** ENTER - L=MAX LENGTH IF INPUT EXIT - WS=INPUT 

810 PRINTCHRS(143) ; 

820 FORM = lTO50:RS = INKEyS:IFRS = " n THENNEXTELSEPRINTCHRS(8) ,- :GOT086 


838 PRINTCHRS18) ; 

840 FORM=1TO20:RS=INKEYS:IFRS=""THENNEXTELSE860 
85 8 GOTO810 

860 IFRS=E$THENW$=A$:A$=AS+"U":W=ASC(A$) : v=VAL(AS) : A$=" " : PRINT : I 
FW<58ANDW>4 8THENN=-1 : RETURNELSEN=0 : RETURN 
870 IFR$=B$THENIFLEN(AS)>0THENAS=LEFT$(A$,LEN(AS)-1) :GOTO90 0ELSE 

818 

875 IFRS=C$THENIFLEN(AS) >0THENFORM=1TOLEN ( AS ) : PRINTBS ,• : NEXT : AS = " 

":COTO810:ELSEGOTO810 

880 IFLEN(AS) ^LTHENS] 

865 IFASC(RS) >HIORASC(RS) <LOTHEN810 

890 AS=A$+R$ 

908 PRINTRS; 

910 GOTO810 

Program Listing 2. Remarks for Flashing Cursor Routine 




Scriplus is a modification to Scripsit c which enables 
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features, and print formats of your printer while your 
document is being printed. Allows you to: 



change expanded print 
change no. of characters per inch 
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6) Optionally select line feed after carriage return 

7) Supports custom printer drivers (NOT included) 

8) Modifies ALL versions of SCRIPSIT (t») for Hod I or 
III. Allows you to use Mod I version on Mod III! 

9) Printer can be STOPPED for insertion of text or forns 
alignaent! 

10) Inserted text can be edited prior to resumption Df 
printing 1 

11) Files can be killed, loaded, aerged, or chained froa 
the SCRIPLUS DIRectory 1 

12) Allows Mod III versions to be BACKED UP for 
protection! 

13) Works on ALL current major DOS's (Mod I or III) 

14) Works with new 3.2 Mod III Scripsit on 1.3 DOS! 

15) Specifically written for the MX-80, but will 
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16) Previous owners §ay send in their disks for upgrade 
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'Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 161 



REVIEW 



First impressions on this language. 




MMSFORTH 

Miller Microcomputer Services 

Natick, MA 

$89.95 cassette 

$129.95 disk 

Nicholas Spies 
434 Grace Street 
Pittsburgh, PA 15211 

I was intrigued for some time by ads in 80 
Microcomputing for "MMSFORTH, The 
Professional Forth for TRS-80" (Miller 
Microcomputer Services). I read with in- 
terest claims that MMSFORTH was 10 to 20 
times faster than Basic, that it was stack- 
oriented, that you could add your own com- 
mands, that it had a great editor, a variety of 
utilities, and that MMS would provide pro- 
fessional support. It seemed almost too 
good to be true. 

I read some articles on Forth which fur- 
ther whetted my curiosity (A First Look at 
Forth, 80 Microcomputing, July 1981). But 
even with program examples, the structure 
and syntax of Forth make it difficult for the 
newcomer to appreciate its many advan- 
tages over Basic. 

Basic's Shortcomings 

Basic was developed at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in the mid-60's to take advantage of the 
miracle of time-sharing. Suddenly comput- 
ing power was available to anyone with a 
computer terminal and dimes for the phone 
bill. This caused a minor revolution; the 
power of the fabled mainframe computers 
was unleashed on nearly every college cam- 
pus and business. 

Basic fulfilled the need for an easily 
understood language of students and non- 
professional users. It was easily 
understood, could be written interactively, 
was fairly standardized (at least at first), 
and ran fast enough for a 110-baud ter- 
minal. Basic was derived from Fortran, 
originally designed to run batch programs 
by loading IBM cards into the mainframes 
of yesteryear. This may explain why Basic 
seems so stodgy today. 

Why, in this day of CRT displays and flop- 

162 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July1982 



py disks, do we still number all lines, edit by 
line rather than by screen, assign variables 
codes rather than names, call subroutines 
by line number instead of by name, struggle 
to get system-level access, contend with a 
mysterious disk -system, and shift contin- 
ually between Basic and DOS modes. 

Yet Basic survives and probably will con- 
tinue to thrive for some time; it is burned in- 
to the ROMs of every TRS-80 Model I and III, 
Color Computer, Pocket Computer, Apple, 
PET, and so on. But you can bypass the 
ROMs by loading a completely different 
language into your TRS-80 and enjoy pro- 
gramming from changed perspective. I 
used MMSFORTH; now my Model I TRS-80 
has a new personality. 

What rollows is not a comprehensive pro- 
duct review but a subjective appraisal by a 
first-time user. Many functions of great in- 
terest are not covered. They are beyond the 
scope of an introductory article or I do not 
even know about them . . .yet. 

MMSFORTH— First Impressions 

MMSFORTH is available for the TRS-80 
Models I and III on disk or cassette. The 
Model I and cassette require only 16K to 
run; the Model III requires 32K. Both disk 
systems need only one drive. 

I ordered MMSFORTH by phone; it took 
about 10 days by first class mail. The 
System, Program and Utility disks arrived in 
an attractive three-ring binder with a 
126-page instruction manual. The manual 
includes chapters on Forth operations, 
editing commands, input/output to disk and 
printer, data declarations, text handling, con- 
ditionals, branches and loops. Three pro- 
grams, ranging from easy to difficult, provide 
detailed study notes. This is supplemented 
with instructions for using MMSFORTH 
system utilities and a system index. 

The optional Utilities disk includes a 
Cross-Reference utility (XREF), Floating 
Point Math, and a Z80 Assembler. 

For the rest of the documentation the 
user must sign two license agreement 
forms promising not to sell or give away 
MMSFORTH. Programs written for sale re- 
quire the end user to have the MMSFORTH 



system owners or be under a separate li- 
censing agreement. Personal use and back- 
ups are not restricted. 

This seems to exclude MMSFORTH as 
the vehicle for commercial program 
development, unless the programs sell for 
far more than the System (or System and 
Utilities) cost. I hesitate to comment further 
without knowing what royalties are involved 
with the separate licensing agreement. 
Both disks have embedded serial numbers 
to deter the rip-off artist. I sent off the 
license forms and within a week had the 
rest of the documentation (a complete 
glossary of commands, various system ad- 
dresses, a memory map and more material 
on the Assembler). 

I also got an MMSFORTH Version 2.0 
Modification Advisory, cures for bugs in 
their new system. The changes were easy to 
do using the editor. Newer versions do not 
require corrections. 

The documentation is complete and well 
written, but it is not a textbook on Forth pro- 
gramming and requires careful reading for 
the first-time user. (MMS offers other books 
and magazine articles on Forth, as well as 
their own "MMSFORTH Newsletter.") 

Starting Up 

First, Backup all the original MMS disks; 
Format and Backup utilities are provided. 
Make several backups to minimize use of 
your MMSFORTH masters. 

The Model I System disk comes ready to 
run on a 16K system, but you can configure 
the disk to your particular hardware. 

Customize permits you to specify the di- 
rectory block, the lowest unprotected block, 
memory size (to protect a printer driver in 
high memory), printer margin (set left 
margin of listings), the number of block buf- 
fers, disk startup speed (delay before 
reading and writing after motor is turned 
on), and number of disk drives. For each 
drive you may specify single or double den- 
sity (on Model III), number of tracks and 
track access speed (allowing a mix of dif- 
ferent densities and drives on line). Finally, 
there is an Auto command to perform a se- 
quence of commands on booting the 




IMC. 



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GIANT SPACE SLUG TM 
Worms, move over . . . QIANT SPACE SLUG 
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Someday you're bound to hit the deadly 
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high score, multiple levels of play, and 
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THE PHASE VII TM GAME SYSTEM 
In 1978 the first easy-to-play role-playing 
game appeared on the market . . . PHASE 
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CHESS BOARD TM 
There are plenty of programs around that 
allow you to play chess with your computer. 
But what about when you want to play 
chess with your friend (and show off your 
computer at the same time)? CHESS 
BOARD allows you to use the computer as 
an automatic board. It uses a unique mono 
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"All is written back to the disk 

and automatically configures the system 

whenever that disk is booted." 



system. These parameters are written back 
to the disk and automatically configures 
the system whenever that disk is booted. 

When you are more confident with the 
MMSFORTH system, you can further 
modify the system. You can select the max- 
imum number of block buffers (from the 
default of two), editor-like functions while 
inputting from the keyboard (recall the last 
line typed, for example), a lowercase driver 
and a special printer driver for the MX-80. 

Other utilities on the System disk allow 
copying a range of blocks to another loca- 
tion, finding any word in a range of blocks 
(with options to print and edit matches), and 
translating source code from Version 1.9 to 
the present 2.0 Version of MMSFORTH. 

You can design the system to match your 
needs and hardware. Disk systems for 
Models I and III have cassette functions. 
With the Model III version it is possible to 
select single or double density disks. Model 
I and Model III users can exchange disks. 

System Extensions 

As delivered, MMSFORTH is limited to 
character (8 bit) and single-precision (16 bit) 
integer arithmetic. What this lacks in handi- 
ness and dynamic range is compensated 
for by speed. You can add the following 
from the System disk (depending on mem- 
ory): double-precision integers, arrays, 
strings, random number, graphics, screen- 
print (works from any mode, and prints 
graphics on MX-80), cassette functions, 
clock, and a few other utilities. Loading 
them all takes an additional 8K when com- 
piled onto a System disk using Customize. 

Several demos and games on the Pro- 
grams disk allow the novice to appreciate 
the power of Forth. Then there is a very im- 
pressive string-sorting demo, the game of 
Life (with a Doodling program to input pat- 
terns), another version of Life with an 
assembler core (about one generation per 
second), and Breakforth (a challenging ver- 
sion of Breakout with sound written entirely 
in MMSFORTH). 

The optional Utilities disk has single and 
double precision floating point math de- 
rived largely from ROM routines to conserve 
memory. You can select radians or degrees 
modes for trigonometric functions, rec- 
tangular to polar coordinate conversions, 
complex numbers, imaginary numbers, and 
a superfast program to solve quadratic 
equations. A flexible cross-referencing pro- 
gram (XREF) will print (to printer or screen) 
all references to words you choose in the 
range of blocks specified. A complete Z80 
Assembler rounds out the Utilities disk. 

All the programs, extensions and utilities 
are written in MMSFORTH, not machine 
language. Customize them by editing the 
appropriate block of source code, or only 

164 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



those portions of a utility which apply to 
your program. 

Blocks 

The basic storage unit of the Forth lan- 
guage is a Block, made up of 1,024 
characters (1 K). Because a block fits 
perfectly on the TRS-80 screen, writing, 
editing and listing programs is a breeze. 
Just POP from block to block without scrol- 
ling. Three blocks fit nicely on 8 1/2 by 11 
paper for listings. Each disk on the Model I 
contains 87 consecutive blocks numbered 
from to 86. The Model III has 179 blocks 
per disk. Each block is comprised of four 
256-byte sectors. Blocks are numbered con- 
secutively from drive to drive 3; the system 
behaves as if they were on one large drive. A 
relative addressing convention allows ac- 
cess to the Nth block on drive D in addition 
to absolute addressing. 

Information is transferred in one-block 
units from disk to block buffers in RAM. Ac- 
cess to disk blocks is almost as easy as ac- 
cessing RAM (either directly or under pro- 
gram control). With four drives you have the 
equivalent of more than 250K of virtual 
memory and more than 500K on the Model 
III. Files are created within blocks by calcu- 
lating the offset from the first byte of the 
block to where a particular record is written 
within the block. Any format developed by 
the programmer can be used. A completely 
documented example of data file handling 
is included with a Checkbook program. 

Words 

Forth consists of a dictionary of words. 
Words can be up to 31 significant charac- 
ters (without spaces); they act like named 
subroutines. 

Words are defined as in this example: 

: PAUSE 2000 DO LOOP ; 

Here the word Pause is defined as an 
empty loop counting from to 1999. The col- 
on begins the definition and the semi-colon 
ends it. Once a word is defined it becomes 
part of the system until you turn the com- 
puter off or tell the system to forget it. 

A word can be used to build other words: 

I LASH 15360 1024 191 FILl PAUSE 15360 1024 
Bl ANK PAUSE : 

Flash whites out the screen (fills from 
memory location 15360 for 1K with graphic 
code 191) executes Pause (waits), blanks 
out the screen (fills the screen with ASCII 
32), and waits again. The Fill and Blank 
functions are executed at machine-code 
speed; a timing loop prevents Flash from 
just being a blink. Define your own lexicon 
of functions and build your own language. 



(Use Customize to make Flash part of your 
own MMSFORTH version ready every time 
you boot up.) 

Execute Mode 

The Execute mode performs direct func- 
tions and enters temporary word defini- 
tions. 

In the execute mode, if you entered the 
definition above for Pause you could run it 
right away, although it would not do much 
by itself. 

After defining Flash you could still run 
Pause. This is clearly far more useful than 
the Basic immediate mode, limited to one 
line. You can define words until RAM is 
filled. To purge the dictionary from time to 
time, define a dummy word (by convention, 
Task) before defining your test words. The 
MMSFORTH words Forget Task remove 
Task and all words defined more recently 
from the dictionary. 

You may redefine words; only the most 
recent definition of the word is active when 
it is executed. The system prints a message 
warning you of the duplication. The user 
has total disk access in execute mode. You 
can copy blocks, list blocks, get an index of 
a range of blocks, and load programs writ- 
ten in the edit mode for execution. 

Edit Mode 

To save programs, write them with the 
editor and save the source code to disk. 
When the source code loads from disk it is in- 
terpreted as if you were in the execute mode. 

The editor is easy to use; I wish I had its 
range of commands in a word processor. In 
edit mode you can: insert or delete charac- 
ters or lines; lock into insert mode; truncate 
to end of line; copy lines; treat the block as a 
continuous page of 1024 characters (that is, 
characters wrap around when inserting or 
deleting); and use the arrow keys to position 
the cursor anywhere on the screen. 

When you want to quit edit mode, update 
the block and Quit. Your edit is stored in a 
block buffer, but not on disk. To force 
changes to disk for all Updated blocks, use 
the rather colorful word Flush. 

To reenter edit mode, type E and the cur- 
rent block appears on the screen. You can 
review all blocks on disk with a shift Clear 
Down-Arrow (or Up-Arrow to go backwards). 
This visual disk search proceeds at better 
than one block per second. 

The editor also can be used on non-Forth 
disks as a Superzap-type program with di- 
rect visual access to any byte on a disk. 
This can be useful for inspection of text 
files. 

Assembler 

It is easy to include 8080 assembler code 
in a program using the MMSFORTH word 




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*H" drive operation requires special table, 8'*- 
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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 165 




If you have 

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EIGHTY 

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1 



''Edit and customize [utilities] 
by calling the appropriate block. 



Code to start the sequence and either Next, 
PSH, or PSH2 to return (passing nothing, 
HL, or DE and HL to the user stack). The 
8080 assembler is incomplete, but 
MMSFORTH words— like CMOVE (which 
moves a series of bytes from one memory 
location to another) render some assembler 
functions unnecessary. Control structures 
and word order for the assembler follow 
Forth conventions. 

Data Types 

Handle data in MMSFORTH by character, 
single, double and triple-precision integer, 
single and double-precision floating point 
and complex numbers. 

In an 8-bit computer all data is stored at 
memory locations as 8-bit bytes. Each byte 
can represent 256 different bit-patters or 
states. These 256 states represent ASCII 
characters, graphics codes, unsigned (posi- 
tive) numbers from to 255, or signed num- 
bers from minus 128 to plus 127 depending 
on the context. Numbers larger than 255 are 
represented by groups of two or more bytes 
called words (not to be confused with Forth 
words). 

You can consider a 16-bit FORTH vari- 
able as two characters, as two 8-bit num- 
bers or as a 16-bit number. The choice 
depends on the particular memory operator 
used to access the variable. Quite unlike 
Basic which is limited to the 8-bit PEEK and 
POKE commands, you can store and read 
from 8-bit characters to 64-bit complex 
numbers as units. 

Strings are a maximum of 255 bytes long 



Algebraic 


RPN 


(A* B) 


A B * 


«A * B) - C) 


AB * C - 


(A * (B - C)) 


ABC- 1 


(A + (B / (C - D))) 


A BC D - / + 


(A * (B / (C * D) + E)) 


A B C D * / E + * 


Table 7. Algebraic vs. RPN 



(A*(B/(C*D) 


tf.i) 




Entry 3rd 


2nd 


1st TOS 


A 
B 

c 

D A 

/ 

E 

+ 


A 

B 

A 
A 


A 
A B 
B C 
C D 
B (C*D) 
A (B/(CD)) 
(B/(C'D)) E 

A «B/(C*D)) + E) 
(A*((B/(C*D)) + E| 


Table 2. Stack values during execution 



(the first byte is the length); string functions 
are a superset of Disk Basic string func- 
tions. Unlike Microsoft Basic there are no 
string pointers, making it easier to directly 
access and change strings in memory. 
$XCH (exchange strings) is useful in sorting 
programs. 

Memory Functions 

The MMSFORTH words to locate 
numbers or strings in memory are: 



' <word> "tick"— gets memory address of <word>, 

where <word> is the name of a variable, con- 
stant or system word 
@ "fetch"— gets contents of memory location 

! "store"— stores to memory location 



Use prefixes for memory, math, and stack 
operations applied to numbers other than 
single-precision integers. Speed and pro- 
gramming flexibility are gained. 

Constants, variables and arrays can be 
defined for any data type, including strings. 
A constant's name evokes its value; a vari- 
able's name evokes its memory address 
making it easy to change its value with !. A 
variable's contents are fetched with @. 

The Stack 

You can write complex programs in Forth 
without one variable or constant. Forth 
uses a stack (a set of memory locations) to 
hold values and pass them from word to 
word. Passing numbers from one word to 
another is as simple as leaving the results 
ot one calculation on the stack for the next 
word to pick up. The result is a great sav- 
ings in coding. 

The stack is just a pile of numbers in 
memory with a top-of-stack (TOS) pointer 
showing the top of the pile. As numbers are 
entered into the stack the pile gets deeper. 
The TOS pointer always indicates the most 
recently entered number. Numbers can only 
be entered and taken away from the TOS. 
This sort of stack is also called a Last-In 
First-Out (LIFO) stack. 

All Forth functions involve the numbers 
in the TOS and the stack positions immedi- 
ately below. When a function is executed, 
the stack pops up removing the parameters 
used in the function and making the stack 
less deep. The result is left in the TOS. 

To use a LIFO stack with its semi-auto- 
matic management of number, you cannot 
use ordinary algebraic notation, with its 
parentheses and equals signs. Instead you 
use a more efficient notation called Reverse 
Polish Notation. 

Reverse Polish Notation 

RPN is a generalized way to evaluate for- 
mulas developed by J. Lukasewicz. RPN 
was named both in his honor and because it 



166 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



seems backwards to those used to algebra- 
ic notation. 

Table 1 shows some comparisons be- 
tween algebraic notation and RPN. 

To interpret an algebraic expression in 
RPN, take the operands (ABCDE) from left 
to right until there is an intermediate result 
(close-parenthesis) where the appropriate 
operator (+ - * I) is inserted. 

Each operand is pushed into the stack 
(further and further if there are no interme- 
diate results) and then popped back up as 
operations are performed on the top two 
numbers in the stack. Looking at the last ex- 
pression in Table 1, the stack would contain 
the values during its evaluation as shown in 
Table 2. 

In MMSFORTH in execute mode, for A = 2 
B = 20 C = 4 D = 5 E = 30, the entry for the 
above example would be: 

2 20 4 5 * I 30 + - . <ENTER> 62 

Each time a value is pushed into the 
stack, the stack gets deeper, and each 
time an operation is performed the stack 
pops back up with the result of that opera- 
tion. The result is that the original algebraic 
construct is faithfully executed, although 
the operators and operands are entered in 
an entirely different order. In addition to re- 
quiring fewer keystrokes than algebraic 
notation, RPN is relatively easier to imple- 
ment in machine language. This saves 
memory and increases speed. 

A variety of functions move around, dupli- 
cate and delete values on the stack to use 
the same numbers again and again if re- 
quired. In Forth, all functions involving 
numbers and operations are noted in 
RPN. Thus 17 88 ESET is the same as SET 
(88,17) in Basic (set a graphics character). 
Forth's difference of order looks strange to 
the Basic programmer. 

Programming 

Writing a program in Forth is unlike writ- 
ing a program in Basic. Programming in 
Forth consists of defining a hierarchy of 
words, up to the word that executes the pro- 
gramming. You add words of your own defi- 
nition to the dictionary. Each word's defini- 
tion must be in terms of system words or 
words defined earlier in the source code. 
The stack most often holds data to be 
manipulated by various words, although 
named constants and variables are also 
available. The main difficulty in learning 
Forth is visualizing and keeping track of 
values in the stack. The reward is faster ex- 
ecution using less RAM. 

As a program takes form you feel more 
and more power at your fingertips. Each 
word includes within itself more of the 
previously defined words and all the func- 
tions they imply. Tying together the pro- 
gram at the highest level is often the easiest 



Words can be up to 31 significant characters. . . 
they act like named subroutines." 



part. 

Debugging and testing can be done by re- 
vising the source code with the editor and 
running the updated program or by trying 
routines in the execute mode using PCRT 
(display to both printer and CRT) or the 



screen-print utility to record what you have 
written. If an error occurs during execution, 
the EEDIT function places the cursordirect- 
ly in the block where the error was sensed, 
ready to edit! Needless to say, this makes 
debugging far simpler than with Basic. 



BLOCK 184: 

8 < DYNAMIC STACK DISPLAY PAGE 1 OF 3 1 AUG 81 N. SPIES ) 
1 < MAKES STACK VISIBLE AND PERMITS FUNCTIONS ) 



2 
4 
5 

6 
7 

8 

9 

10 
11 

12 
13 

14 
15 



BLOCK 185 



TASK ; 

SETDISPLAY PAGE 
8 PTC 

5 PTC . " TOS" 

5 PTC 
5 PTC 



< SET DISPLAY, LABELS, PROMPTS > 



37 PTC 
37 PTC 
37 PTC 

37 PTC 
37 PTC 



STACK DISPLAY 1 



2 5 PTC . " 2ND" 



4TH" 5 
7TH" 8 
N NUMBER' 
D DROP " 
U DUP " 
S SWAP " 
OVER " 



5 PTC . " 5TH 
) PTC . " 8TH 

6 37 PTC . 

7 37 PTC . 

8 37 PTC . 

9 27 PTC . 
10 37 PTC . 



3 5 PTC . " 3RD" 

6 5 PTC . " 6TH" 

9 5 PTC . " 9TH" 

R ROT" 11 37 PTC . " -" 

<" 12 37 PTC . " *" 

13 37 PTC . " /" 

>" 14 37 PTC . " M /MOD" 

+ " 15 37 PTC . " BREAK" 



< CAUSES NEXT BLOCK TO BE LOADED ) — > 



< DYNAMIC STACK DISPLAV PAGE 2 OF 3 1 AUG 81 N. SPIES ) 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

18 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



DSTACK 1 
2 
3 

4 

5 
6 
7 



POS 8 

EL 38 

ENUMBER 

EDROP 

EDUP 

ESWAP 



15 PTC 
15 PTC 
15 PTC 
15 PTC 
15 PTC 
15 PTC 
15 PTC 
15 PTC 
15 PTC 
48 PTC ; 
EMIT 
POS1 EL 
DROP 
DUP 
SWAP 



'b 

•-s 

'S 
"5 

'"S 
'S 
'S 
'S 

• s 



2 
4 
6 
8 

10 

12 
14 

IS 



DUP U. 
+ DUP U. 
+ DUP LI. 
+ DUP U. 
+ DUP U. 
+ DUP U. 
+ DUP U. 
+ DUP U. 
+ DUP U. 
PGS1 8 



IS PTC 



TOS , 

2ND , 

ETC 



CLEAR TO END OF LINE 
NUMBER - ENTER" 
POS . " DROP" 
POS . " DUP" 
POS . " SWAP" 



; <. 9TH TOS > 
CURSOR POSITION 



#IN POS1 EL ; < 
EL ; (. DROP > 
EL ; < DUP > 
EL ; (. SWAP > 



NUMBER > 



— > 



BLOCK 186 



< DYNAMIC STACK DISPLAY PAGE 3 OF 3 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
14 
15 



EOVER 
EROT 

EC 



OVER 

ROT 

< 



:> 

+ 

/ 

/MOD 



POS 
POS 
POS 
POS 
POS 
POS 
POS 
POS 
POS 
POS 



1 OVER" 

' ROT" 

' LESS THAN" 

' EQUALS" 

' GREATER THAN" 

' ADD" 

1 SUBTRACT" 

1 MULTIPLY" 

1 DIVIDE" 

' /MOD" 

BEGIN DSTACK 

' KEY < WAIT 




E= 

E> 

E+ 

E- 

E* 

E/ 

E/M 

STACK SETDISPLAY 

. " SELECT BY KEY 
ACASE NDUSOR<=>+-*/M" ENUMBER EDROP EDUP ESWAP EOVER EROT 

E< E= E> E+ E- E* E/ E/M < ROUTINES ) 
CASEND 8 UNTIL ; STACK < EXECUTE PROGRAM WHEN LOADED ) 

Program Listing 1. Stack Memory Locations 



1 AUG 81 N. 
EL ; < OVER ) 
EL ; < ROTATE ) 
EL ; < LESS THAN > 
EL ■> (. EQUALS ) 
EL ; < GREATER ) 
EL ; (. ADD ) 
EL ; < SUBTRACT ) 
EL ; < MULTIPLY > 
EL ; C DIVIDE ) 
EL ; (. /MOD ) 

POS1 (. MAIN PROGRAM ) 
FOR INPUT, BRANCH ON INPUT ) 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 167 



"RPN was named both in his honor 
and because it seems backwards 
to those used to algebraic notation. 



Program Listings 

Program Listings are easy to read 
because each word is defined by words de- 
fined earlier. Enter notes on program flows 
and the actions of words parenthetically. 

I have included two MMSFORTH utility 
programs. 

Program Listing 1 shows the top nine 
stack memory locations and their contents 
dynamically, with the option to perform a 
variety of stack functions. Do not enter the 
line numbers. 

Program Listing 2 shows the keyboard 
scan memory locations and how their val- 
ues change when you press various combi- 
nations of keys. This is useful for game 
planning and where branching is based on 
keys pressed. 

Conclusion 

MMSFORTH is a complete version of the 
Forth language (a superset of the Forth 79 
Standard) and makes the TRS-80 a very 
powerful tool for developing programs. 
Build a powerful set of subroutines and 



build on your previous work with an ease 
unknown to Basic. 

Be prepared to spend some time learning 



the system, getting familiar with the stack 
and RPN, and mastering the data types. 
Your effort will be well spent. ■ 



BLOCK 107: 





< KEVBORRD SCAN DEMO - PRGE 1 OF 1 28 JUL 81 N. SPIES ) 


1 


: TRSK i < DUMMY WORD TO FORGET PROGRAM RFTER EXECUTION ) 


2 


< PROGRAM - FIRST PART PRINTS LABELS FOR MEMORV LOCATIONS ) 


3 


: KEYS PAGE 25 PTC . " 14337 


" 1 25 PTC . " 14338 


" 


4 


2 25 PTC . " 14340 


" 3 25 PTC . " 14344 


" 


5 


4 25 PTC . " 14352 


" 5 25 PTC . " 14368 


" 


6 


6 25 PTC . " 14400 


" 7 25 PTC . " 14464 


" 


? 


< START PROGRAM LOOP - FETCH/PRINT CHARACTER AT EACH MEM LOC > 


8 


BEGIN 35 PTC 14337 C? . " "1 35 PTC 14338 C? . " 


9 


2 35 PTC 14340 C? . " "3 35 PTC 14344 C? . " 


10 


4 35 PTC 14352 C? . " "5 35 PTC 14368 C? . " 


11 


6 35 PTC 14400 C? . " "7 35 PTC 14464 C? . " 


12 


UNTIL ; < END FOREVER LOOP - BREAK TO EXIT PROGRAM ) 


13 




14 
15 


KEVS < EXECUTE PROGRAM WHEN LOADED ) 




Program Listing 2. Keyboard Scan Memory Locations 



MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISO SYSMISOS YS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS 

IHES VI HIM 8 



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EDflS 15 

EDAS is a sophisticated Editor 
and Assembler for TRS-80 I & III 

• All text may be input in upper or 
lower case. 

. Assemble directly from one or 

more disk files via *GET. 
. Assemble to disk or memory 

• Binary, octal, decimal, hex, and 
string constants; Multiple con- 
stants may be input on a single 
line. 

. CMDFILE utility included. 

• Conditional assembly support. 

• Cross-Reference utility. 

. DOS functions DIR, FREE, KILL, 
and LIST are supported. 

• 14-character labels including 
special chars. "@", "$",".","?". 

• Editor includes block move, 
global change, renumber, find. 

. EDTASM & M-80 source files 
can be read or written. 

• Expression evaluator supports 
+, -, *, /, MOD plus logical AND, 
OR, and XOR. 

• Paged & titled listings with page 
numbers and date/time. 

. PAGE, TITLE, SUBTTL, SPACE, 
& COM pseudo-ops supported. 

• Set memory size, page prompt, 
JCL execution, Abort option. 

. EDAS is supported with TRSDOS 
compatible DOSs (LDOS, VTOS). 
. Price is $79.00 + $4.00. S&H. 




MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYSMISOSYS MISOSYS 

>. LDOS, Version 5.1 is the Ultimate in Operating ri 

<0 Systems for the TRS-80 Models I and III. g 

03 MISOSYS is your East Coast Headquarters ^ 

for LDOS, the documented system! Version < 

5.1 is priced at $129.00 + $5.00 S&H per " 
system. Deduct $35 if ordering both. 



CO 

O 

CO 

< 

CO 
SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI 



LI a J 



DSMBLR: A 2-pass Z-80 labeling disassembler. 

Output tc Video, Printer, or Disk. $20 

DISKMOD: Turn EDTASM 1.2. into disk assembler 

with block move, global change, more. $30 
THE B00Ks: Volume I gives access to all math 

operations in Level II. Volume II explains 

KI, DO, PR & Cassette I/O. Per volume: $15 

All programs Model I/I 1 1 compatible. For S&H 
include $2 + $.50 per unit. {VA res. add 4%} 




MISOSYS - Dept. M4 

P.O. Box 4848 

Alexandria, VA 22303-0848 

703-960-2998 MicroNET 70140,310 

Dealers Inquiry Invited 




s 123 



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CON80Z: Translates assembler 
source files from Intel 
8080 to Zilog Z-80. $50 

CONVCPM: Transfers CPM files 
(8"-SDEN, selected 5") 
to LDOS diskettes. $30 

FED: Screen-oriented FILE 
"zapping" utility. $40 

FILTER: Application pack of 
14 filter programs with 
assembler source. $60 

HELP/QRC: ^ery fast screen 
prompts for LIB, LBASIC 
Util i ties. With Quick 
Reference Card. $25 

MONITOR: Take control of I/O 
disk errors to attempt 
recovery w/o ABORT. $25 

LED: The LDOS ASCI I /HEX word 
processing type editor. 
Edit JCL KSM FIX + $40 

MSP-01: This support package 
includes PARMDIR: a JCL 
file generator & report 
generator for DIR info; 
MEMOIR: produces a DIR 
of high memory; DOAUTO: 
exec any AUTO command; 
DOCONFIG: re-initialize 
to a CONFIG/SYS. $50 

PDS: Add Partitioned Data 
Set functions. Directly 
exec CMD members. $40 

SOLE: Create Mod-I bootable 
DDEN diskettes. $25 

ZGRAPH: Graphic applications 
created on the screen 
With full ai:f:iq. U® 



CO 
O 
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< 

CO 

1 

CO 

o 

CO 

< 

CO 



5 SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI 



168 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



COMPUTER BOOKS FOR BEGINNERS 

Everything you need to know to get started programming your own computer. These handy books of programs and about 
programming are jammed with easy-to-understand info for beginners. They are crammed with hundreds of tips, tricks, 
secrets, hints, shortcuts and techniques plus hundreds of tested ready-to-run programs. Our full line includes program 
books and programming aids for eight of the most popular computers for beginners: TRS-80 Color Computer. APPLE II. IBM 
Personal Computer. TRS-80, Sharp and Casio pocket computers, including the new TRS-80 PC-2 and Sharp PC-1500 



Color Computer 

101 Color Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, learn-by doing instruc- 
tions, hints, secrets, techniques, insights, ior TRS-80 Color Computer, 
128 pages. S7.95 

55 Color Computer Programs for Home. School & Office, practical ready- 
to-run software with colorful graphics. 128 pages. S9.95 
55 MORE Color Computer Programs for Home, School & Office, handy 
book packed with useful type-in-and-run sottware. with colorful 
graphics, for TRS-80 Color Computer, 1 12 pages. S9.95 
Color Computer Graphics, complete guidebook loaded with lips, tricks. 
hints, secrels. shortcuts, lor making the most ot TRS-80 Color Computet 
video graphics Learn-by doing instructions plus complete programs. 
128 pages. S9.95 
The Color Computer Songbook, 40 tavonte pop. classical, folk & seasonal 
songs arranged for TRS-80 Color Computer, ready-to-run music pro- 
grams. 96 pages. S7.95 
My Buttons Are Blue and Other Love Poems from the Digital Heart of an 
Electronic Computer, for poetry lovers, computer lovers, a hi-tech 
classic, 66 heartwarming poems written by a TRS-80 Color Computer. 96 
pages. $4.95 



PRACTICAL 

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101 APPLE Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, secrets, hints, short- 
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My Buttons 
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101 Pocket Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, secrets, hints, short- 
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Sharp PC-1500, PC-1211 pocket computers. 128 pages. S7.95 

Pocket Computer Programming Made Easy, new fast easy read-and-learn 
way to make TRS-80 PC-2, PC-1. Sharp PC-1500. PC-1211. Casio FX- 
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50 Programs in BASIC for Home, School & Office, useful ready-to-run 
software for TRS-80 PC-2. PC-1. Sharp PC-1500. PC-1211 pocket com- 
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type-in-and-run software for TRS-80 PC-2. PC-1, Sharp PC-1500. 
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Murder In The Mansion and Other Computer Adventures, murder 
mystery, space adventure. 24 games for TRS-80 PC-2. PC-1. Sharp 
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Order direct from this ad. Send check, money order, or 
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Handy printed forms make writing BASIC software easy and fun. 
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Customers oulside North America wanting airmail send $4 postage per book Foreign customers 
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^See List ol Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 169 




'-"s 






i 






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'y-."- 









C- V, 



:d 



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**!** 



INTRODUCING 




NOW YOU CAN USE YOUR PRINTER 
WITHOUT WASTING COMPUTER TIME. 



Your computer is capable of 
sending data at thousands of 
characters per second. But the 
average printer goes no faster 
than 80 characters per second. 

This means your computer is 
forced to wait for the printer to 
finish one line before it can 
send the next. 

A waste of valuable time. 

THE NEW MICROBUFFER M 
INCREASES YOUR EFFICIENCY. 

Microbuffer allows you to print 
and process simultaneously. 
No waiting! 

MICROBUFFER 
ACCEPTS PRINTING DATA 

AS FAST AS YOUR 
COMPUTER CAN SEND IT. 

Microbuffer first stores the data 
in its own memory buffer and 
then takes control of your printer. 
This frees the computer for more 
productive functions. 

Additional output may be 
dumped to the buffer at any time 
and it will be printed in turn. 

Microbuffer — a must for any 
program that requires printed 
output. 



PARALLEL, SERIAL OR APPLE II. 




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MODEL MBS-8K rv is a full-featured 
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MICROBUFFER ir(pictured on the 
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SIMPLE TO INSTALL. 

Microbuffer MBP-16K and 
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Microbuffer II, being slot- 
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except zero. 

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PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS, INC. 
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WESTLAKE VILLAGE. CA 91362 
(213) 991-8200 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 171 



UTILITY 



Screen echo for your typed communications. 



Half Duplexer 



Richard C. McGarvey 
221 Hirschfield Drive 
Williamsville, NY 14221 



When you buy a Modem and an RS- 
232C for your TRS-80 you undoubt- 
edly plan on talking to other computers. 
You will get a machine language terminal 
program with the RS-232C to help you talk to 
other computers. When you power up you do 
not see what you type on your screen! 

Networks normally echo transmissions 
back so you can see what you type. But if 
you want to talk to another TRS-80 directly, 
you will not know what you are typing. 

The RS-232C manual suggests shorting 
pins 1 and 2 to get a CRT echo. Another sug- 
gestion is to go half duplex— a lot of work 
for a simple result. The new Modem I does 
not even have half duplex. If you short the 
pins you could disturb compatibility with 
CompuServe, The Source or any other net- 
work. Why bother with all that when a sim- 
ple software fix produces a CRT echo? 

My friend, John Storfer, and I went to 
work on the problem of RS-232C communi- 
cation. After looking at the RS-232C manual 
John's first reaction was, "This should be 
easy in Basic!" John wrote a short Basic 
program, transmitted it to me and together 
we debugged it. It worked! 

We wanted to write a game like Battle- 
ship to be played between operators on dif- 
ferent computers at remote locations. The 



success of our routine was an essential 
step toward that goal. 

How It Works 

The program checks for parity, sets baud 
rate at 300 (note line 90 in Program Listing 1) 
and sets the number of stop bits and all the 
rest. It is written for two TRS-80's with their 
RS-232C's set identically. If you want to 
make changes in baud, word length or other 
parameters refer to the RS-232C manual. 
Beware of manual errors. 

There are two clear screen options. To 
clear both screens, move the cursor to the 
top right corner of the screen and hit Clear. 
To clear only your CRT, just hit Clear. As 
long as the cursor is not in the home posi- 
tion it will clear only your screen. 

Using the Basic Terminal 

Enter the program, save and run it. The 
screen will clear and a message will print at 
the top of the screen. Call the other computer 
operator. Decide who will answer and who 
will originate. The other computer must have 
this program, or one like it, running. 

Set the Modems to Answer and Originate. 
Replace the phone as required by your 
Modem. Hit any key to start. The cursor will 
appear in the upper right corner of the 
cleared screen. Whatever you type on your 
screen will appear on the other and vice 
versa. 

You have full cursor control. To move the 
cursor without erasing text, hold the shift key 



Program Listing 1 



10 CLS:PRINT"PUT PHONE IN MODEM (OR HANG UP AS REQUIRED) AND 

SELECT 'ANSWER' OR 'ORIGINATE' - HIT ANY KEY TO START. 

** NOTE ** HIT <CLEAR> TO CLEAR IYOUR! CRT. 

20 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""GOTO20 

30 PRINTCHR$(14) : ' TURN ON CURSOR 

40 0UT(232),A:' MASTER RESET - VALUE OF A UNIMPORTANT 

50 A=INP(233):' GET SWITCH POSITIONS 

60 B=A AND 248:' STRIP BAUD RATE BIT 

70 A=B OR 5:' SET BREAK , RESET REQUEST TO SEND AND TERMINAL 

READY 

Program continues 



while you use the arrow keys. The space bar 
alone will erase a character. The unshifted 
arrows erase lines. The right arrow has no ef- 
fect at all without holding the shift key. 

There appear to be incompatibilities be- 
tween different TRS-80's. I have full cursor 
control while John has only partial cursor 
control. On the other hand, John can use 
hexadecimal numbers in his OUT, INP and 
AND statements while I have to use dec- 
imals in those areas. 

The program was written using Radio 
Shack Modem I's and Radio Shack RS- 
232C's. The program might not work on a 
home brew or hybrid system. If you use this 
program with a network that echos your 
transmissions, you will get double char- 
acters and a displayed password. This echo 
can be eliminated by deleting line 250 in 
Listing 1. The program is designed for 
TRS-80 to TRS-80 over direct phone line. 

The Programs 

Refer to your RS-232C manual for further 
information. The RS-232C manual uses hex 
values and the listing uses decimal values; 
make a conversion table for easy reference. 
The back of your Level II guide will help. 

Listing 1 is almost all remarks. Program 
Listing 2 is the actual program compacted 
to operating size. Short and sweet. ■ 



Richard McGarvey, a veteran police officer, 
started computing when the first TRS-80 hit 
the market. 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II or Disk Basic 

Model I 

16K RAM 

Radio Shack Modem I 

RS-232C 
Expansion Interface 



172 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Program continued 



80 OUT(234),A:' LOAD CONTROL REGISTER WITH ITEMS LINE 50 

90 A=85:* SET BAUD RATE 

100 OUT(233),A:' SET BAUD OF 300 TO RS-232C 

110 P=INP(232) AND 32:' WAIT FOR MODEM TONE 

120 IFPO0THENGOTO110ELSECLS: * IF NO TONE TRY AGAIN/ IF TONE 

CLEAR SCREEN 

130 A=INP(234):' GET DATA RECIEVED BIT 

140 B=A AND 128:' STRIP ALL BUT 7TH BIT 

150 IF B=0 THEN 180:' IF NO INCOMMING DATA CHECK FOR OUTGOING 

160 C=INP(235) AND 127:' GETS INCOMMING DATA STRIPS ONLY 7TH BIT 

170 PRINTCHR$(C) ; : ' PUT INCOMMING DATA ON SCREEN 
180 H$=INKEY$: 'SCAN KEYBOARD 
190 IF H$=""THEN130 

200 IF ASC(H$)=31 THEN PRINTCHR$ ( 28) ; CHR$ (31) 
210 A=INP ( 234) : 'LOAD A WITH STATUS REGISTER 
220 B=A AND 64:' STRIP ALL BUT 6TH BIT 

230 IFB=0THEN210: ' CHECK AGAIN TO SEE IF READY TO TRANSMIT 
240 OUT(235) ,ASC(H$) : 'IF LAST DATA TRANSMITTED THEN TRANS- 
MIT NEXT DATA 

250 PRI NTH $;: 'ECHO TO CRT - THIS LINE CAN BE DELETED IF YOU USE 
A TIMESHARING SYSTEM THAT ECHOS YOUR INPUT. 
260 GOTO130:END 



10 CLS:PRINT"PUT PHONE IN MODEM (OR HANG UP AS REQUIRED) AND HIT ANY KEY TO START." 

20 IS = INKEYS:IFI$ = ""THEN20ELSEPRINTCHR$(14):OUT(232),A:A = INP(233):B = AAND248:A = BOR5:OUT 

(234),AA:A = 85:OUT(233).A 

30 P=INP(232)AND32:IFP< >0THEN30ELSECLS 

40 A = INP(234):B = AAND128:IFB = 0THEN50ELSEC = INP(235)AND127:PRINTCHR$(C); 

50 H$ = INKEY$:IFH$ = ""THEN40ELSEIFASC(H$) = 31THENPRINTCHR$(28);CHR$(31) 

60 A = INP(234):B = AAND64.IFB = 0THEN60ELSEOUT(235),ASC(HS):PRINTH$;:GOTO40 

Program Listing 2 




First in 

Its Class 

and 

Looking 

for 

Work. 



TRS-80 Model I, II, III 

Five multiple regression procedures 
(including stepwise, backward elimination, all 
subset, and ridge), 24 transformations, com- 
prehensive data base manager (with search 
and sort), descriptive statistics, hypothesis 
testing (7 tests), time series analysis (7 
models), random variate generation, discrete 
probability distributions, sampling distribu- 
tions, nonparametrics (5 tests), and com- 
plete documentation. 

Complete package with manual — $125 

To order, send payment plus $2.00 shipping 
and handling to: 

Quant Systems 

P.O. Box 628 

Charleston, S.C. 29402 

803-571-2825 

S.C. residents add 4% sales tax 
Overseas orders add $7 for shipping 



^194 



FAVORITES 



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GHOST HUNTER. 

Gobble up the dots before a ghost gobbles you. Eat a power pill and it is 
your turn to chase the ghosts. 



INSECT FRENZY. 

Fight off an attack from the savage centipede but keep an eye out for the 
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Get your frog across the busy highway without being flattened. Then cross 
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sSee List ol Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 173 



PERSONALITY 



Build a better bulletin board and the world will beat a path to your door. 



Bob Rosen 
A Colorfu 




by Kerry Leichtman 
80 Micro Staff 



When forming an opinion of the Color 
Computer's success, it would be best 
to consider the story of Bob Rosen. Bob's 
claim to Color Computer fame is his bulletin 
board— Connection-80 of Woodhaven, NY. 
It is the only bulletin board exclusively serv- 
ing the Color Computer. 

It didn't start out that way. Bob began his 
bulletin board in March of 1981 on a Model I 
providing information on TRS-80 Models I 
and III. Then he bought a Color Computer. 
Bob's fascination with the Color Computer 
is similar to that of many other computer- 
ists. He was amazed by its power, ease and 
versatility. 

"I was kind of surprised there was no sup- 
port from Radio Shack— very little, like the 
Pocket Computer," Bob told 80 Micro. "I 
started putting things on about the Color 
Computer and all of a sudden I was getting 
a lot of out-of-state calls. 

"It just mushroomed; it's amazing. I can 
be here any time of the day and get a call 
from just about anywhere. I've gotten calls 
from England, Israel, Alaska, Puerto Rico, 
Canada, Mexico, Switzerland and all over 
the United States. 

Bob was a Radio Shack employee for 
seven and a half years. He enjoyed working 
for Radio Shack and, apparently, Radio 
Shack liked employing Bob. For four 
straight years, as a retail salesman, he was 
their area's number one man behind the 
counter in total sales. Is running a bul- 
letin board a profitable business? To leave 

174 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



behind the salary a number one salesman 
earns should lead to some positive conclu- 
sions. 

To be a good salesman you have to be- 
lieve in what you are selling. Bob was one of 
the first, if not the very first, New Yorker to 
buy a Model I TRS-80. His sales receipt is 
dated August 5, 1977. At the time he was at- 
tending New York City Community College 
as an electrical technology major. 

"I was always fascinated by computers. 
One thing led to another. I met a gentleman 
by the name of Tom Vande-Stouwe of B.T. 
Enterprises at a computer user's group. 
He started what I believe was the first bul- 
letin board service in the New York City 
area. He told me all you need is a Model I, 
two disk drives, an auto-answer modem 
and a software package. So I bought the 
package and set up my Model I. At the 
time it was mainly a hobby." 

The package is called Message 80, writ- 
ten by Richard Taylor of Programs Unlim- 
ited with enhancements by Vande- 
Stouwe. It consists of a 1K machine-lan- 
guage driver program and a 15K Basic pro- 
gram. The bare-bones system requires a 
32K micro and two disk drives. 

But let's back up a little more, to where 
Bob Rosen and the wonderful world of 
electronics collide. "It's all because of 
Roger Maris and Mickey Mantle," Bob 
confessed. (For the younger hobbyists: 
Maris and Mantle were not Radio Shack 
salesmen. They were the driving forces 
behind an almost unstoppable New York 
Yankee baseball team in the 1960s.) 

"I was a sports fan. I was always a 
Yankee fan. I got intrigued by listening to 
the AM radio at night trying to pick up 
Yankee games when they were on the road. 
I got interested in that and started reading 
articles about short-wave listening. I got in- 



to short-wave DXing, I got my amateur radio 
license (K82HKO), and that got me into elec- 
tronics." 

Connection-80 has been in existence 
slightly more than one year. Some of its fea- 
tures are electronic mail, bulletins, down- 
loading, a products section, a merchandise 
section, user log and chatting with the 
system operator— Bob Rosen. "If I'm 
around a caller can chat with me on line. Ac- 
cessing the chat feature sends the control 
G to my MX-80 which sounds a little bell to 
get my attention." 

Connection-80's hardware consists of 
three 80-track, double-headed drives and 
one 40-track, double-headed drive, a 48K 
Model III, an auto-answer modem and an 
MX-80 printer. 

The bulletin board is accessed more for 
electronic mail than anything else. "What 
happens is a lot of people put on fixes, hints 
and general information that they have 
found out for themselves about the Color 
Computer that you can't get anywhere else. 
People go on the board asking for a solu- 
tion to a problem, or something about a 
software bug. 




Bob Rosen— one of the first TRS-80 pur- 
chasers with the Connection-80 hardware. 



"What we have here is a central point 
now where people can call in and reason- 
ably get an answer, instead of calling Radio 
Shack's 800 number in Texas and getting, 
'We don't know.'" 

For users accessing Connection-80 for 
help, there is one aspect to Bob's service 
that might remind them of Radio Shack— a 
busy signal. At present Connection-80 can 
only handle one caller at a time. "If I get 40 
callers a day, I might have had 200 attempts 
to get on." Corrective measures are in the 
works. "I have plans to go multi-user in the 
near future. Maybe I'll purchase a Model 16. 

"I'm also looking at getting a 10-mega- 
byte hard-disk system with DOSPLUS from 
MTI. The only reason I didn't have one be- 
fore is that there wasn't any software for 
the Model III. Now there is." 

Even with his one-caller-at-a-time limita- 
tion, Connection-80 is enjoying financial 
success and gaining itself a reputation as a 



"When Bob Rosen dreams he sees 

a multi-user bulletin board with a 

toll-free 800 number, no errors and 

no disk or memory crashes." 



Color Computer resource. "Color Computer 
gurus, such as Alfredo Santos, Cal Rasmus- 
sen, Syd Hahn, Wayne Day and Jorge Mir 
started calling Connection-80 with all kinds 
of Color Computer secrets not yet released 
by Radio Shack. For example, to speed up 
the CPU, all you have to type is a POKE 
65495,0. Or to get 6K more memory, POKE 
25,6:POKE 27,6:POKE 29,6:POKE 31,6." 

To access Bob Rosen and Connection-80 
users need a TRS-80, a full-duplex, 300-baud 
modem and the phone number: (212) 
441-3755. There is no charge, other than 
what Ma Bell requires. To download from 
the system users need a ROM pack called 
ColorCom/E for $49.95, available either 
from Bob or Eigen Systems. 

"If someone calls me from my same area, 
with the same message rate, they could be 
on 10 hours and it would only cost them 
eight cents. That's it." 

Bob, through his company Spectrum Pro- 



jects, runs the bulletin board full time. He 
makes his living by mail order selling many 
of the products listed on the board's mer- 
chandising section and by selling advertis- 
ing. Bob gets calls on a daily basis from 
businesses requesting space on Connec- 
tion-80. With all this instantaneous success 
attributable to the Color Computer's popu- 
larity, Bob finds Radio Shack's slow-to-sup- 
port attitude puzzling. 

"It's still amazing to me that after all this 
Radio Shack still does not do anything. 
They say it's in the works. I can believe 
some of that, but I can remember waiting 
eight months to get Level II chips when I 
first got my Model I." 

Connection-80's future looks bright. 
When Bob Rosen dreams he sees a multi- 
user bulletin board with a toll-free 800 
number, no errors and no disk or memory 
crashes. And everyone who calls up will be 
able to access it.B 



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TRS-80 Model I or III 

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5 0UNGE0N ESCAPE (Computer Shack) 19.95/19.95 

6. ATTACK FORCE (Big Five) 14.95/19.95 

7. ELIMINATOR (All N/A 

8. COSMIC FIGHTER! Big Fvel 14.95/19.95 

9. GALAXY INVASION (Big ^ivei 14.95/19.95 

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We have a panel of expert game players who will give a 
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Utner games that we carry that are not -n the top ten 

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80 SPACE RAIDERS S24 95 tape onlv 

W Discount il you order 2 games- ! 5% it you order 3 or more' 



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2 Tapes or 2 Disks S29.95 

WARZONE 

A new game that pits you against the computer Trying to isolate 
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Tape SI 4.95 Disk $18.95 



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Greymoon is the medieval land in which this 
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Even has sound routines. It will keep you interes 
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speed. All ages will like it and it takes no special 
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TRS-80 Model I or III 

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^See List ol Advertisers on page 386 



ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS: ^ 109 

MC and VISA OK please add $2.00 for Shipping in USA Also to 
help us send you the best possible version include the type of 
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a doubler in the model I. ' 
DEALERS ... Wo are distributors for all items in this ad except 

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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 175 



SERIES 



Flesh out this skeleton to match your needs. 




Yourself Data Base 



Karl Townsend 

103 Knollwood Drive 

Lansdale, PA 19446 



The abundance of data base programs 
available demonstrates the demand for 
this type of program. Most are specialized 
and, due to their complexity, are not easily 
adapted to individual needs. 

Preliminary Thoughts 

A program built of modules controlled by 
a menu is the easiest to understand and 
modify. Following this direction I will de- 
velop a data base program section by sec- 
tion, and explain the operation of each. It 
will be a skeleton which you can flesh out to 
fit your own needs. 

Two key elements in the program's con- 
struction are the menu and the chaining in- 
sertion sort. Since I want to add, edit or 
delete records at will, the file should not be 
completely re-sorted after each operation. 
Chained file sequencing fills the bill. The 
menu is necessary to structure the program 
logically and to enable program changes 
and enhancements. 

In its initial form, the program holds up to 
50 records of one to five fields. You can 
change these limits to suit yourself and the 

176 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



size of your computer's memory. Memory is 
critical as the file is retained in memory for 
all operations. 

The program will contain two print for- 
mats. The first will print the records as con- 
tained in the file without alteration or se- 
quencing. This is a work print. The second 
print format is sorted, permitting you to run 
the listing in sequence by any selected 
field. This would be your normal output 
print. The resultant file is set up so you can 
use it for input to other programs for further 
data manipulation. 

For this or any other program, you must 
specify what the output is to be. In this case 
I have defined it to be a small data base 
which I can list in sequence by any field 



Add— Add new records to the file 

File P— Print the raw tile without modification 

Print— Print the file in sequenced format 

Edit— Provide corrections to individual records 

Delete— Delete selected records 

Purge— Remove unwanted records from the file 

Select — Select groups of records for printing 

Save-T— Save file to cassette tape 

Load-T— Load file from cassette tape 

Look — Scan records on the screen 

Save-D — Save file to disk 

Load-D — Load file from disk 

New— Start new file 

Restore— Restore file after a Select function 

Stop— End the program 

Table 1 



within the file record. It should also be able 
to serve as an input file for additional pro- 
grams. After you have made these deci- 
sions you can develop the functions re- 
quired for support. 

Menu 

To assist in the structure and to help in 
future program enhancements or mainte- 
nance, a menu will reference each function. 
Program Listing 1 shows the menu and the 
functions. Table 1 lists the definitions of 
these menu functions. 

I have made no attempt in these listings 
to save memory by compressing spaces or 
combining lines. Such programs are diffi- 
cult to analyze; one of the major objectives 
here is to demonstrate methods, so I have 
left the program in open format. The initial 
program (in this article) is about 2500 bytes 
long. It will approximately double in size 
before I finish. You may compress the 
spaces as you enter the various listings and 
save about 300 bytes. If you want to com- 
bine statements onto a single line, watch 
GOTO and If statements so you do not 
change the program's logic. 

Enter Listing 1 and then we can start add- 
ing the individual subroutines that do the 
work. Notice that the menu-referenced sub- 
routines begin each thousand lines. (It is 
better to have too much room than not 
enough!) Note also that each of the refer- 
enced lines now contains Print "Not yet im- 
plemented" and a Return. This avoids 

Reader Service lor lacing Page ^20-' 




/MLB 0TO3 



@csv 



by Roger Schrag 

SKY WARRIOR! Nerves of steel and 
supreme concentration are your only 
defenses against an alien strike force pois- 
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over a bizarre alien planetscape, ground-to- 
air missiles scream skyward without warn- 
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destroyed! And adding to your problems, 
your spacecraft has an ever-diminishing 
fuel supply (which can be replenished in 
flight if you're lucky) — if you're not careful, 
you and your ship will spiral down into a 
fatal, fiery crash! 

SKY WARRIOR! Great fun for one 
player or double the action with a friend. 
Features include sound, high score tallies, 
and a realistic scrolling landscape! 



Super 

Arcade 

Action 




© 1981 



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by Bob Shilling 
* War via the RS-232 • 
16K TRS-80's play against other TRS-80's or 
24K Atari 400/800's! 
Byte Magazine, December 1981: 
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test one's strategy, tactics, and reflexes 
. . . Commbat is a great success." 

Commbat is a strategic and tactical 
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and dexterity against that of another player 
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You play against your opponent by 
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has equal resources. Available weapons in- 
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RS-232 port and either full-duplex 
modem or direct connection modem 
eliminator cable required. Works with CON- 
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Includes a coupon allowing you to 
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by Wayne Westmoreland & 
Terry Gilman 
See the FANTASTIC Review in BYTE-June 
'82! 

Armored Patrol is a realistic arcade 
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discover and destroy the enemy tanks and 
robots in your sector before they locate 
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Your perspective is from the inside of 
your tank, looking out across a bleak land- 
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blockhouses, enemy tanks and robots are 
on the prowl. You may find the enemy either 
by a visual scan of the area or by making 
use of the radar tracking device displayed 
at the bottom of the screen. 

Armored Patrol is one of the most in- 
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the TRS-80! 
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WRITE FOR OUR FREE 150-PROGRAM CATALOG 



"This avoids crashing the program by 
selecting a subroutine not yet written." 



10 'DBI/L01 






500 PRINT "MENU" 






510 PRINT "ADD -<1> 


PURGE -<6> 


SAVE-D 


<11>" 






520 PRINT "FILE P -<2> 


SELECT -<7> 


LOAD-D 


<12>" 






530 PRINT "PRINT -<3> 


SAVE-T -<8> 


{'•JEW 


<13>" 






540 PRINT "EDIT -<4> 


LOAD-T -<9> 


RESTORE 


<14>" 






550 PRINT "DELETE -<5> 


LOOK -<10> 


STOP 


<15>" 






560 INPUT ME 






570 ON ME GOSUB 1000, 2000, 


3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 


7000, 8000,9 


000, 10000, 11000, 12000, 13000, 14000 




580 IF ME = 15 THEN GOTO 20000 ELSE GOTO 500 




1000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




2000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




3000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




4000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




5000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




6000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




7000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




8000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




9000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED": 


RETURN 




10000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED" 


: RETURN 




11000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED" 


: RETURN 




12000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED" 


: RETURN 




13000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED" 


: RETURN 




14000 PRINT"NOT IMPLEMENTED" 


: RETURN 




20000 END 






Program Listing 1 





crashing the program by accidentally 
selecting a subroutine not yet written. As I 
develop each subroutine, these lines will be 
overwritten and the subroutine will operate 
normally. 

Line 20000 provides the program end. On 
menu selection 15, Stop, the program will 
jump to 20000 for an orderly end. 

Housekeeping 

To begin any program, you should in- 
clude certain housekeeping items to ensure 
your program will work as planned. Enter 
the lines shown in Program Listing 2. 

Line 10 is a Remark statement identifying 
the program and the version number. I use 
an identification line within a program 
because there may be as many as a dozen 
different versions of a given program on my 
files at any given time. Using a version num- 
ber allows me to use a common program 
name to show relationship, but still permits 
selection of a specific program. 

To allow string space, we clear 2000 
bytes in line 100. Later you may need to ex- 
pand this figure; watch your memory size as 
you do so. Line 110 defines variables to 
save time entering the program, and to save 



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v* 158 



178 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



How to maximize 
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"Bugs will usually be limited 
to the routine last entered. . . 



memory space and running time. Our main 
data storage array (DA) is a string array; 
defining D as a string saves typing the 
dollar sign each time we reference it. I have 
defined all other variables as integers to 
save memory space and to speed up the 
program. 

The final housekeeping item is dimen- 
sioning the arrays. I have dimensioned the 
main data array (DA) to 50 records of five 
fields each. I have also dimensioned the 
chaining array (KY) to 50 by 5 since it must 
provide a position to correspond with each 
position in the data array. These values are 
flexible. For example, you can set it up as 
100 records of 10 fields each (if you have 
sufficient memory). You may change the 
number of records allowed without disturb- 
ing the program's operation. Be certain 
the KY array dimensions agree with any 
changes you make to the DA array. If you 
change the number of fields, you will have 
to change some of the statements in the re- 
mainder of the program to agree. 

Now run the program. It will do little ex- 
cept print the menu. If you make a selection, 
it will print the "Not yet implemented" com- 
ment and return you to the menu. 

This illustrates one of the valuable fea- 
tures of modular programming — the ability 
to run and debug each routine as you pro- 
gram it. Bugs will usually be limited to the 
routine last entered, and this limits the area 
you must examine. Do not fall into the trap, 
however, of insisting that that bug has to be 
in the routine you are working on. For ex- 
ample, if you inadvertently delete a record, 
the print routine will not print it. Use this 
concept with care and you will find it a great 
assist in debugging. 

New 

Since we are just getting started, the 
most logical subroutine to enter first is 
New. Designed to initiate a new file, we will 
use this as we input test data and check the 
other routines. New has two functions: one 
is to clear the arrays to make certain there 
is no garbage left in them to interfere with 
the new data input; the second allows you 
to name your file and tell the program the 
number of fields per record that will be 
used. New is a very small subroutine now, 
but it will grow as we enhance the program. 

Type in New from Program Listing 3. 

Lines 13010-13060 clear the data array 



10 

100 

110 

120 


DBI/L02 
CLEAR 1000 
DEFSTRD: DEFINT A-C 
DIM DA(50,5) , KY(50 

Program Listing 2 


E-Z 
5) 



(set all positions to null) and set the chain 
array to all zeros. The record counter (RC) is 
set to one in line 13070, as the only record in 
file at this time is the dummy record show- 
ing where the first record will be positioned. 
Lines 13110 and 13120 input the title (Tl$) 
and field count (FC). With this completed, 
line 13130 returns the program to the menu. 

Add 

The record input routine includes multi- 
ple fields. Enter Program Listing 4 and we 
can review the actions taking place. 

Using the new record count (NC) ob- 
tained from the prompt in line 1000, a 
For... Next loop inputs the new records and 
stores them at the end of the data array 
(DA). This input loop prints rather primitive 
prompts (an early enhancement will fix 
that) to give the operator some idea of 
where he is in the input cycle. Lines 



1010-1070 contain this loop. 

Lines 1090-1210 contain the insert sort 
that will chain each field. It is a triple-nest- 
ed loop. The first (I) loop cycles each new 
record against the current sorted file 
records. The second (J) loop cycles the sort 
across the fields so that each is sorted in 
turn. The final (K) loop cycles the new 
record against each of the current records 
until its location in the sort is found. The K 
loop will perform this action for each field in 
the record. 

Enter the statements in lines 1140 and 
1 150 with care because they are the heart of 
the sort; any error here can give real 
problems. 

On completion of the sort, the program 
returns to the menu via the Return in line 
1220. The new records have been sorted 
into the file and are awaiting printing. Enter 
some records to see that there are no er- 



10- 'DBI/L03 




13000 


PRINT " 


PREPARE FOR NEW FILE" 


13010 


FOR I = 


TO 50 


13020 


FOR J = 


TO 5 


13030 


DA(I,J) 


_ nit 


13040 


KY(I,J) 


= 


13050 


NEXT J 




13060 


NEXT I 




13070 


RC = 1 




13110 


INPUT " 


ENTER FILE TITLE. ";TI$ 


13120 


INPUT " 


HOW MANY FIELDS PER RECORD? 1-5" ;FC 


13130 


RETURN 


Program Listing 3 



10 'DBI/L04 




1000 


INPUT"H0W MANY NEW RECORDS TO INPUT?" 


;NC 


1010 


FOR I = RC+1 TO RC+NC 




1020 


PRINT "ENTER RECORD # " ; I 




1030 


FOR J = 1 TO FC 




1040 


PRINT "FIELD # ";J 




1050 


INPUT DA (I, J) 




1060 


NEXT J 




1070 


NEXT I 




1090 


FOR I = RC+1 TO RC+NC 




1100 


FOR J = 1 TO FC 




1110 


GO = 1 




1120 


FM = 1 




1130 


FOR K = 1 TO RC 




1140 


IF DA(I,J) =< DA(GO,J) THEN KY(I,J) = 
KY(FM,J) = I: 
K = RC: 
GOTO 1180 


GO: 


1150 


IF KY(GO f J) = THEN KY(I,J) = 0: 
KY(GO,J) = I: 
K = RC: 
GOTO 1180 




1160 


FM = GO 




1170 


GO = KY(GO f J) 




1180 


NEXT K 




1190 


NEXT J 




1200 


RC = RC + 1 




1210 


NEXT I 




1220 


RETURN 

Program Listing 4 





180 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 




You've Cot 

TOTAL A 




( Specializing In TRS80 & IBM) 



Rose 



TO YOUR COMPUTER HARDWARE & SOFTWARE 
NEEDS. CALL ROSE TODAY! 



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sSee List ol Advertisers on page 386 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 181 



"Any change of data in a field 

is likely to change its sequence in the file." 



rors. Without a print routine, however, it is 
difficult to ensure proper operation. 

Print 

The print routine (also somewhat primi- 
tive) is found at line 3000 of Program Listing 
5. When you run the program and select the 
print option you are asked which field the 
listing should follow. On response to this, 
the position count (PC) will direct the print 
routine to select the proper chain listing. 
Once the title is printed in line 3040, the "go 
to" (GO) variable is set to a one; in line 3100 
it looks at the "go to" chain in the dummy 
record to find where the first sorted record 
is located. The PC within the parenthesis 
will select the proper field. 

This routine uses nested loops. The I loop 
will cycle through each of the records from 
two (we do not want to print the dummy 
record) to the end of the file. The J loop 
prints each field in each record before drop- 
ping back to the I loop for the next record. 
After printing the last record, the Return in 



line 3240 sends execution back to the 
menu. 

Each line will contain the following infor- 
mation in order: a sequential line number, 
the position of the record in the storage 
array, and the data fields themselves. Since 
we are using very simple formatting via the 
comma, the print will be rather messy— 
another early enhancement required! 

We have now implemented three subrou- 
tines: New, Add, and Print. Play with the 
program to see how it works. Try entering 
different combinations of data and number 
of fields. Build the file by entering two or 
three records; then go back to enter a few 
more. Remember, if you are going to 
change the file, go back to New to clear 
everything. When you are satisfied that all 
is working properly, move on to saving and 
reloading data using tape. 

Save-T 

The tape save routine as shown in Pro- 
gram Listing 6 is straightforward: Once the 



10 'DBI/L05 

3000 PRINT "WHICH FIELD SHOULD THE PRINT FOLLOW? FIELD 1 

3020 INPUT PC 

3040 LPRINT TI$: LPRINT"" 

3 06 GO = 1 

3 80 FOR I = 2 TO RC 

3100 GO = KY(GO,PC) 

3110 IF DA(GO,0) = "D n THEN GOTO 3220 

3120 LPRINT 1-1, GO, 

3140 FOR J = 1 TO FC 

3160 LPRINT DA(GO,J) , 

3180 NEXT J 

3200 LPRINT 

3220 NEXT I 

3240 RETURN 

Program Listing 5 



- ";FC 



10 'DBI/L06 




8000 INPUT "MOUNT TAPE AND SET FOR RECORD - <ENTER>";X$ 




8010 PRINT#-1,TI$,RC,FC 




8020 FOR I = TO RC 




8030 PRINT#-1, KY(I,0), KY(I,1), KY(I,2), KY(I,3), KY(I,4), 


KY(I 


,5), DA(I,0), DA(I,1), DA(I,2), DA(I,3), DA(I,4), DA(I,5) 




8040 NEXT I 




8050 RETURN 




Program Listing 6 





10 'DBI/L07 






9000 INPUT "MOUNT TAPE AND SET FOR PLAY 


- <ENTER>";X$ 




9010 INPUT#-1,TI$,RC,FC 






9020 FOR I = TO RC 






9030 INPUT#-1, KY(I,0) , KY(I,1), KY(I,2) 


, KY(I,3) , KY(I,4), 


KY(I 


,5), DA(I,0), DA(I,1), DA(I,2), DA(I,3), 


DA(I,4) , DA{I,5) 




9040 NEXT I 






9050 RETURN 






Program Listing 7 







heading data is saved, the routine cycles 
through the file arrays saving chaining keys 
and data records. Since the chaining infor- 
mation will be saved in the same 
PRINT#-1 statement as the data, limit the 
character count in the data record to a 
maximum of 200. 

Line 8000 supplies a prompt reminding 
the operator to prepare the cassette and 
press Enter to start the save. The first 
record saved (line 8010) consists of the file 
title, the record count and the field count. 
These will be required next time the file is 
read in. 

The For.. .Next loop in lines 8020-8040 
saves the body of the text. Each cycle of the 
loop transfers one data record along with 
its chaining keys to the cassette. Line 8050 
returns the program to the menu when the 
subroutine completes the save. 

Load-T 

The tape load routine in Program Listing 
7 is almost the same as the save routine (ex- 
cept for the INPUT#-1 statement rather than 
the PRINT#-1 statement). Again, a prompt in 
line 9000 tells the operator to prepare the 
cassette unit for input and to press Enter 
when ready. Line 9010 reads into the pro- 
gram the file title, record count and field 
count. The loop in lines 9020-9040 reads in 
the individual records and chaining infor- 
mation. On completion, the program re- 
turns to the menu. The file is resident in 
memory awaiting your application. 

Edit 

One final subroutine completes the basic 
program. Since we are all likely to make 
mistakes on data entry, or find that we must 
modify our data, we will have to make pro- 
vision to edit the data file. 

To do this, a listing of the data file is re- 
quired, showing the record numbers and 
the fields to be edited. The program re- 
quests the record and field number to be 
edited, prints the current file data and waits 
for your corrected input. When editing is 
complete, entering minus one will return the 
program to the menu. 

Editing a chained file poses a particular 
problem: Any change of data in a field is 
likely to change its sequence in the file. To 
accommodate this, it would be necessary 
to remove the record from its current posi- 
tion in the chain, close up the chain to skip 
around the record and find its new location 
in file. This, as you can readily visualize, is a 
rather complex problem and requires some 
fancy programming. We are going to do it 
the easy way for now. 

When you select a record for editing, the 
Edit subroutine copies it and any changes to 
the end of the file where it will be treated as a 
totally new record. When editing is complete, 
these edited records will be sorted into the 



182 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



. keep a copy of the unmodified program 
for addition of the remaining functions." 



file just as any new record would be. In fact, 
the program jumps to the Add sort routine to 
do this. The initial location of the record that 
was edited will remain exactly as it was with 
one exception: A D will be inserted into the 
field zero position of the DA array. Before the 
program is complete, we will find uses for 
these zero positions. 

Looking at the Edit subroutine in Pro- 
gram Listing 8, you will note that the new 
record counter (NC) is set to zero. The new 
counter will keep track of how many records 
are changed and must be sorted into file 
again. 

Line 4020 prompts the operator for the 
record number to be edited. Entry of minus 
one at this point indicates that you are fin- 
ished editing and the program will go to line 
1090 to sort the edited records into file. En- 
try of a record number does three things im- 
mediately. First, the new record counter 
(NC) is incremented by one; second, the 
specified record is copied to the end of the 
file; and third, the current record is marked 
deleted. 

The program then requests the particular 
field to be changed (line 4060). On input of 



the selected field, the program prints the 
current field data contents and awaits key- 
board input of the new entry. This input is 
written to the "new" record at the end of the 
file. The program then returns to the field 
prompt to allow selection of another field 
within the same record. If there are none, 
entry of minus one returns the program to 
the "which record" prompt, where you can 
select another record for editing or enter a 
minus one to complete the editing function. 
This method has a drawback: If you do 
much editing, the file will grow as it is filled 
with deleted records. We will have to pro- 
vide a way to rid the file of these unwanted 
records. This is a function of the Purge sub- 
routine, which we will look at next time. 

Tune in Next Time 

You now have a rudimentary but usable 
data base program. You can enter data, 
save and retrieve it, edit it and provide a list- 
ing. Looking at our original specifications, 
many functions have not yet been imple- 
mented, but for the moment we can work 
around them. 

Until next time try different exercises 



with the program, making your own ten- 
tative modifications to fit your needs. 
However, be certain to keep a copy of the 
unmodified program for addition of the re- 
maining functions. Also keep notes on the 
glitches you may encounter; some of them 
can be frustrating as well as a lot of fun to 
overcome. Consider some humanizing fea- 
tures, making it easier for the operator to 
use the program. ■ 



10 'DBI/L08 


4000 


NC = 


4020 


INPUT "EDIT WHICH RECORD?", «RN 


4040 


IF RN = -1 THEN GOTO 1090 


4042 


NC = NC + 1 


4044 


FOR I = 1 TO FC 


4046 


DA{RC+NC,I) = DA(RN,I) 


4048 


NEXT I 


4050 


DA(RN,0) = "D n 


4060 


INPUT "WHICH FIELD?" ; CN 


4080 


IF CN = -1 THEN GOTO 4020 


4100 


PRINT DA(RN f CN) 


4120 


INPUT DA(RC+NC,CN) 


4170 


GOTO 406 




Program Listing 8 




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Phone 817/625-6333 • Telex Number 794836 



►'See List ot Advertisers 



80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 183 



GENERAL 



Back to April '80 80 Micro. 



tint That Index 



Carl Everett 

6835 Bridge Lk. Rd. 

Clarkston, Ml 48016 



After purchasing my printer, 
I found I needed a cassette- 
based address file. I found Wil- 
liam Klungle's "Magazine In- 



dex" program (80 Micro, April 
1980) convenient to modify. 

The file holds 175 addresses 
and the printer routine is spaced 
to print equally on 15/16 inch la- 
bels. It creates, corrects, stores, 
lists, and searches just as the 
original program. 

The essential program 
change, other than minor data 
handling routines and titles, is 
the printer routine in lines 700- 



800. (See the Program Listing.) 
This routine allows you to print 
only selected names, selected 
cities, or start with any file num- 
ber you choose. Selecting a file 
number allows you to interrupt 
the printing and start again with- 
out reprinting the complete 
list.B 

Carl Everett is an electrical 
supervisor at Pontiac Motor Di- 



vision. He uses industrial com- 
puter systems at work and a 
family computer at home. 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I and III 
16K RAM 
Any printer 



1 REM: ADDRESS FILE PROGRAM - MODIFIED MAGAZINE INDEX PROGRAM 

2 REM: MAGAZINE INDEX PROGRAM BY WILLIAM KLUNGLE 

3 REM: 80 MICROCOMPUTING - APRIL 1980 

4 REM: MODIFIED BY CARL EVERETT, 6835 BRIDGE LK . RD . , CLARKSTON, 
MICHIGAN 48016 

5 CLEAR11000:DIMR$(175) :XS=" " :NS="ADDRESS" 
10 CLS:PRINTNS;" FILE INDEX" : PRINT: PRINT" 1 = KEYBOARD ENTRY":PRI 
NT"2 = READ DATA TAPE" : PRINT" 3 = CORRECTIONS" : PRINT" 4 = PRINT LI 
ST":PRINT"5 = NAME SEARCH ": PRINT" 6 = CITY SEARCH" : PRINT" 7 = PRIN 
TER":PRINT"8 = STORE DATA ON TAPE" : PRINT" 9 = EXIT" 

15 ONERRORGOTO10:PRINT:E=1:INPUT"SECTION";S:ONSGOTO100,200,300,4 

00,500,600,700,800,900:GOTO10 

100 IFLEN(RS(E) ) >1THEN125ELSECLS:PRINT"NEW ENTRY RECORD *";E;" 

(0=RETURN) ":DS=" ":TS=" ":SS=" " 
105 P=3:GOSUB1000:INPUT"NAME (20 MAX): " ;DS : IFDS=" 0"THEN10 
ELSEIFDS = "DELETE"THEN305ELSEPRINTTAB(22) ;CI(RS(27) ; " " ; DS : IFLEN ( D 
S) >20THENGOSUB1100:GOTO105 

110 P=4:GOSUB1000:INPUT"ADDRESS (20 MAX): " ; TS : PRINTTAB ( 22) ; C 
HRS(27) ;" " ;T$: IFLEN (TS) >20THENGOSUB11 00 :GOTO110 

115 P=5:GOSUB1000:INPUT"CITY (20 MAX): " ; SS : PRINTTAB( 22) ; C 
HR$(27) ;" ";S$:IFLEN(SS)>20THENGOSUB1100:GOTO115 

120 P=7:GOSUB1000:INPUT"MORE ENTRIES ( Y-N-E) " ; YS : I FY$= " "THEN1 20 
ELSEIFYS="E"THEN105ELSED$=D$+XS:TS=TS+X$:SS=S$+X$:R$(E)=LEFTS(DS 
,20)+LEFTS(T$,20)+LEFTS(SS,20) : IFY $="N"THEN10 
125 E=E+1:IFE>175THEN10ELSK100 
200 CLS:PRINT"READ DATA TAPE" : PRINT: PRINT "SET TAPE TO READ (*PLA 

Y') DATA.": INPUT" ENTER WHEN READY (0 = RETURN) " ; Y 5 : I FY S = " "TH 

EN10ELSEINPUT#-1,NS:E=) : PRINT@386 ,N$; " DATA READ IN PROGRESS." 

205 PRINTP530, "READING FILES " ; E ; "-"E+3 ; : INPUTI-1 , RS ( E) , RS ( E+l ) , 

R$(E+2) ,RS(E+3) :IFR$(E+1)=""ANDR$(E+2)=""ANDRS(E+3)=""THEN10ELSE 

E=E+4: IFE>175THEN10ELSE205 

300 CLS:PRINTNS;" CORRECTIONS (COMMANDS: 0=RETURN, DELETE) " : PR 

INT: INPUT "CORRECT FILE * " ; E : IFE=0OR ( E) >300THEN 10 ELSE IFLEN ( R$ ( E) ) 

<1THEN300ELSED$=MID$(R$(E) ,1,20) : TS=MIDS ( RS ( E) ,21,20) :SS=MIDS(R$ 

(E) ,41,20) :GOSUB1200:GOTO105 

3 05 IFSO3THEN10ELSERS(E)="":GOTO300 

400 E=1:L=0:GOSUB490 

40 5 IFRS(E)=""THEN410ELSEGOSUB480 

410 E = E + 1:IFE<17 6ANDL<5THEN40 5EI,SEPRINT@990,"C = CONTINUE, F = FINIS 

H"; :INPUTYS:IFY$="F"ORE>17 5THEN10ELSEL=0:GOSUB4 90:GOTO405 

480 PRINT:PRINTE;TAB(9) ;MIDS(RS(E) ,1,20) :PRINTTAB(9) ;MIDS(RS(E) , 

21 ,20) :PRINTTAB(9) ;MIDS(RS(E) ,41,20) : L = L+1 : RETURN 

490 CLS:PRINT"REC #" :L-2: RETURN 

500 CLS:PRINTNS" SEARCH BY NAME (0=RETURN - S=STOP SEARCH) " : PR 



INT:B=1:IN=20:E=1:INPUT" ENTER NAME : " ; SS : IFSS = " "THEN10ELSEGOS:i 
B490 

505 YS=INKEY$:IFY$="S"THENL=3ELSEZ$=MIDS(RS(E) ,B,IN) :GOSUB1300:I 
FI=0THEN510ELSEGOSUB4 80 

510 E=E + 1:IFE<176ANDL<5TIIEN50 5ELSEPRINT@9 90,"C = CONTINUE, F=FINIS 
H"; : INPUTYS: IFE>17 5ORYS="F"THEN10ELSEGOSUB490 : GOTO505 
600 CLS: PRINT" SEARCH ";NS;"FILE FOR CITIES . (0=RETURN - S=STOP 
SEARCH) ": PRINT: B=41 : IN=20 : E=l : INPUT" ENTER CITY :"; SS : IFSS=" "THE 
N10ELSEGOSUB4 90:GOTO50 5 

700 CLS: INPUT" L=COMPI,ETE LIST, N=SELECTED NAMES, C=CITIES" ; AS : I 
FA$=""THEN10ELSE1FAS="L"THEN7 6 8ELSEIFAS="N"THEN710ELSEIFA$="C"TH 
EN740 

710 B=1:IN=20:E=1:INPUT" ENTER NAME : " ; SS : IFSS=" 0"THEN10ELSEIFLE 
N(SS) <10RLEN(SS) >20THEN710 
712 INPUT" STARTING RECORD #";E 

715 ZS=MIDS(RS(E) ,B,IN) : GOSUB1300 : IFI=0THEN720ELSEGOSUB780 
720 E=E+1:IFE<176THEN715ELSE10 

740 B=41:IN=20:E=1:INPUT" ENTER CITY : " ; SS : IFSS=" "THEN10ELSEIFL 
EN(SS) <10RLEN(SS) >20THEN740ELSE71 2 
76 8 INPUT" STARTING RECORD #";E 
770 IFRS(E) =""THEN775ELSEGOSUB780 
775 E=E+1:IFE<176THEN770ELSE10 

780 GOSUB480:LPRINT:LPRINT;MIDS(RS(E) ,1 ,20) : LPRINT; MIDS ( RS ( E) ,21 
,20) :LPRINT;MIDS(RS(E) ,41,20) : LPRINT: LPRINT: RETURN 
800 CLS:YS="":PRINT"STORE ";NS;" DATA ON TAPE ( 0=RETURN) " : PRI 

NT:PRINT"SET RECORDER TO PRINT ('RECORD') DATA ":INPUT"ENTE 

R NAME OF DATA FILE : " ; YS : IFYS="0 "THEN10ELSEIFLEN ( YS) >0THENN$=Y 

805 CLS:E=1:PRINT@130, "STORING "N$" DATA ON TAPE" : PRINT : PRINT#-1 

,N$ 

810 PRINT@390, "WRITING FILES * " ; E ; n -"E+3 ; : PRINT#-1 , RS ( E) , RS ( E+l ) 

,RS(E+2) ,R$(E+3) :IFR$(E+l)=""ANDRS(E+2) =" " ANDRS ( E+3 ) =""THEN10ELS 

EE=E+4:IFE>300THEN10ELSE810 

900 CLS : PRINTTAB) 20 ) ;"* WARNING *": PRINT: PRINT"WHEN THE PROGRAM 

TERMENATES, ALL DATA WILL BE LOST I ": PRINT: INPUT'HAS THE DATA BEE 

N STORED ON TAPE " ; YS : IFLEFTS ( YS , 1 ) <> " Y"THEN800ELSEEND 

1000 PRINTCHRS(28) ; : FORI=lTOP : PRINTCHRS ( 26) ; : NEXTI : RETURN 

1100 PRINTTAB(22) ;CHRS(27) ;" 1 *:PRINTTAB( 

55) ;CHRS(27) ; "* ERROR *":RETURN 

1200 CLS:P=3:GOSUB1000:PRINTTAB(23) ; DS : PRINTTAB ( 23 ) ; TS : PRINTTAB ( 

23) ;SS: RETURN 

1250 FORI=lTOLEN(WS)-LEN(DS)+l:IFD$=MIDS(W$,I,LEN(DS) ) RETURN 

13 00 FORI=lTOLEN(ZS)-LEN(SS)+l:IFS$=MIDS(ZS,I,LEN(SS) ) RETURN 

1305 NEXTI:I=0:RETURN 



Program Listing 



184 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Reader Service for lacing page ^29- 




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SERIES 



The systems approach to selling Girl Scout cookies. 




estiny— Part III 



Gary Dilllio 

1109 Madison Ave. 

Prospect Park, PA 19076 



The development of a com- 
puter software system is not 
an easy task. It involves good 
communications, sound prob- 
lem analysis, efficient program- 
ming, extensive testing, docu- 
mentation, audit trails, user 
acceptance and program/file 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 

Model I 

4-48K RAM 

NEW DOS 80 

One 80-track disk drive 

Epson MX-100 Printer 

Material in this article is not 

machine dependent. 



maintenance procedures. Unfor- 
tunately, microcomputer users 
are often their own program- 
mers and analysts. As a result, 
they never learn the systems 
development process. 

The next few articles in this 
series will address the systems 
development process as prac- 
ticed by the best data proces- 
sors in industry. We will ex- 
amine each step necessary to 
transform a user concept into a 



step becomes more apparent. 
Throughout the process, keep in 
mind the system we develop is 
only serving as a vehicle for the 
process we are learning. Its 
value is as a teaching aid, rather 
than as a unique application 
package. 

Problem Definition 

Computer programs are not 
created in a vacuum. No pro- 
grammer develops a system 



Wo programmer develops 

a system without a 

need for that system." 



computer reality utilizing the 
TRS-80. The systems develop- 
ment process is usually ex- 
plained by paralleling an exist- 
ing complex business system, 
but we will concentrate our 
efforts on actually developing a 
system that can be used in most 
homes. Since our problem will 
be much simpler than a complex 
business system, some steps in 
the process may seem trivial. 
But, as the complexity of a prob- 
lem increases, the value of each 



without a need for that system. 
The need usually arises when 
someone develops a problem or 
foresees a potential problem. 

Shortly after I began writing 
this series, my daughter re- 
turned from a Girl Scout meet- 
ing and casually announced 
that my wife would again be 
Cookie Mother. Painfully, I re- 
membered the two previous 
years we experienced as Cookie 
People. Hundreds of cases of 
Girl Scout cookies littered the 



186 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



house. We ordered, reordered, 
returned and distributed cook- 
ies, keeping track of over two 
thousand dollars trickling in, in 
dimes, nickels and crumpled 
dollar bills. Who owed how 
much? How many boxes of 
mints were available? Both 
years we had to make up pay- 
ment shortages totalling $45.00. 
Who didn't pay? Who knows! 
My wife thought this problem 
would be an excellent applica- 
tion for this E.D.P. series. 

I asked my wife, the potential 
user, to help define the problem. 
The following list of problems 
emerged: 

• Past experience showed a 
lack of control over money and 
cookies. My wife could not al- 
ways be sure who had outstand- 
ing money and who was given 
what type of cookies. The prob- 
lem would take on another level 
of complexity this year— two 
troops merged for the cookie 
drive, but each troop's sales and 
profits had to be kept separately. 

• My wife consistently or- 
dered too many cases of one 
kind of cookie or too few cases of 
another. No attempt had been 
made to analyze initial and re- 
plenishment orders based upon 
past sales. 

Reader Service for facing page ^28— 




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• Money was not adequately 
controlled in past years, and 
attempts to balance inventory 
and cash received were never 
successful. 

• Adequate records of how 
many boxes each child finally 
sold and paid for were a dis- 
aster. Since the Girl Scouts off- 
ered incentive awards for the 
sale of cookies, it was not an 
easy task to decide which girls 
earned what incentives. 

System Goals 

Assuming the problem defini- 
tion is accurate, step two in the 
systems development (SD) pro- 
cess is to define what the user 
expects of the new system. 
Users often have neither the 
knowledge, nor the appreciation 
of computers and their program- 
ming limitations. It is the job of a 
computer analyst to temper 
user expectations with reality 
without destroying the useful- 
ness of the project. System 
goals and expectations are ar- 
rived at by communication be- 
tween the ultimate user and the 



Data Element 


File 


Picture 


Source 


Notes 


Goal 


Alterable 


Just. 


Last Name 


GCF/CHF 


X(15) 


User 


GCF File Key 


4/8 


No 


Left 


First Name 


GCF/CHF 


A(5) 


User 




4/8 


No 


Left 


Troop Number 


GCF/CHF 


9(3) 


User 




4/8 


No 


None 


Cookies Sold — Type 1 


GCF/CHF 


9(3) 


User 




4/8 


Yes 


Right 


Cookies Sold— Type 2 


GCF/CHF 


9(3) 


User 




4'8 


Yes 


Right 


Cookies Sold— Type n 


GCF/CHF 


9(3) 


User 




4/8 


Yes 


Right . 


Last Payment Date 


GCF 


9<5) 


User 


Julian Date Format 


4 


Yes 


None 


Total Paid 


GCF/CHF 


9(4).99 


Computer 


To Date 


4/8 


Yes 


Decimal 
Aligned 


Payments Outstanding 


GCF 


9(4).99 


Computer 




4 


Yes 


Decimal 
Aligned 


Boxes Outstanding 


GCF 


9(3) 


Computer 




4 


Yes 


Right 


Total Boxes Sold To Date 


GCF/CHF 


9(3) 


Computer 




4/8 


Yes 


Right 


Cookie Type 


CRF/CHF 


X(10) 


User 


Total;Cookie Type 
1+2... + n 


6/8 


No 


Left 


On Hand 


CRF 


9(6) 


Computer 


In Stock 


6 


Yes 


Right 


Sold 


CRF/CHF 


9(6) 


Computer 


To Girls 


6/8 


Yes 


Right 


Reorder Level 


CRF 


9(4) 


User 


Reorder Point 


6 


No 


Right 




Table 1. COMS system data elements 









system analyst. 

Based on the problems stated 
above, the following goals of the 
proposed Cookie System were 
negotiated: 

• The System would recom- 
mend an initial ordering quanti- 
ty for each type of cookie based 




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on a user-supplied percentage 
of total sales of the previous 
year. 

• The System would com- 
pute an average sale per child 
for each type of cookie from pre- 
vious-year data supplied by the 
user. 

• The System would subtract 
or add to the total initial order a 
per-child average based upon 
children no longer in the troop or 
children who joined the troop 
since the last cookie drive. This 
figure would become the actual 
initial order for each type of 
cookie. 

• The System would keep 
track of all children participat- 
ing in the cookie drive, their 
troop number, the number of 
boxes sold by type, payments to 
date, payments outstanding 
and boxes outstanding. 

• The System would com- 
pute reorder levels for inventory 
falling below a specific user- 
supplied quantity based upon 
total sales of that item to date. 

• The System could, at any 
time, display totals of cookies or 
money or both for each child, 
each troop or both troops. 

• The System would com- 
pute which children qualify for 
incentive awards based on user- 
supplied data. 

• The System could produce 
a composite file of data used for 
future year projections. 

Feasibility Analyses 

At this point, the analyst has 



some serious thinking to do. 
How much effort will be involved 
in producing such a system? 
How much data will be entered 
to initialize the system? How 
much effort is necessary to 
maintain the system? Is the ef- 
fort involved in producing, up- 
dating and maintaining the sys- 
tem greater than that of the 
manual system? How long will 
the new system be used? How 
frequently will it be updated or 
accessed? In short, is the devel- 
opment of the new system 
worth the effort? 

There is always a tendency 
for the user to underestimate 
the labor in developing a 
system. After all, television com- 
puters answer English language 
questions effortlessly. New 
analysts often fall into this 
same trap. A good rule of thumb 
is to double the estimate of 
work hours and costs projected 
by an inexperienced analyst. 

Our Cookie System is certain- 
ly not worth the effort if it will on- 
ly be used for the eight week 
cookie drive. However, realizing 
this is our third year of cookie 
distribution, there is no reason 
to conclude that future years' 
cookie drives will not be our re- 
sponsibility. In addition, the 
final product can be adapted to 
a host of other Girl Scout drives, 
including calendar drives, 
subscription drives, fund drives 
and just about every other kind 
of drive except disk drives. Be- 
cause I estimate the system 



188 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



could be used for at least three 
months per year, I decided to 
create it. 

The next step in feasibility 
analysis is to examine software 
that can be purchased and mod- 
ified without sacrificing the 
goals of the proposed system. 
The only applicable software 
available which would satisfy 
our criteria were a few Data 
Base Management Systems 
(DBMS). A good DBMS costs be- 
tween $90 and $400. Despite the 
fact that a DBMS is almost es- 
sential to a serious disk user, I 
chose to develop the system 
from scratch to better demon- 



On a lesser system, the pro- 
gram and file access times and 
the reliance on hand copying 
CRT screens would make the 
system slow and inconvenient. 

Identifying Necessary Files 

Our next task is to examine 
the goals and decide which files 
will be necessary to accomplish 
those goals. Goals 1-3 are 
calculations, based upon user- 
prompted data. They will not re- 
quire external files. Goal 4 re- 
quires a disk data file. For the 
sake of simplicity, the example 
system will be called COMS, an 
acronym for the Cookie Man- 



" . . double the estimate 

of work hours and 

costs projected by 

an inexperienced analyst." 



strate the SD process. 

Hardware Analysis 

Next, we must determine if 
the proposed application can be 
utilized on the available hard- 
ware. Since the data will be 
assessed and updated while ac- 
tually receiving cash or dis- 
tributing cookies, the programs 
necessary to query and update 
the data base should load quick- 
ly and operate in a real-time 
mode. These factors effectively 
eliminate a cassette based sys- 
tem. Reports must be portable 
and should have the option to be 
printed as well as displayed on 
the CRT screen. The minimum 
system adaptable to this appli- 
cation is a one disk, 32K system 
with a printer. 



agement System. The file re- 
quired to fulfill Goal 4 may be 
called the Girls Cookie File 
(GCF). This same file should 
contain enough information to 
satisfy Goals 6 and 7. 

The fifth goal requires a file to 
compute reorder levels of inven- 
tory. We will call this file the 
Cookie Reorder File (CRF). 
Finally, Goal 8 requires combin- 
ing and storing the data from 
the two original files (GCF and 
CRF) for next year's use. We will 
call this combined file the 
Cookie History File (CHF). 

Access Keys 

For every file updated ran- 
domly, one data element must 
be used as a key. A key is a data 
field unique to a specific record; 















M 


A 


R 


Y 










LEFT JUSTIFIE 


:d 






[ """I 


M 


A 


R 


Y 










RIGHT JU 

Fig. 1. Justification 


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80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 189 



the program can call it to access 
that specific record. The GCF is 
accessible by the Girl Scout's 
last name. The CRF will be ac- 
cessed by cookie name. 

Data Elements 

A data element is a data field 
that enhances the meaning of 
the record. At this point it is 
necessary to define what infor- 
mation is needed to initialize, 
maintain and update the sys- 
tem. It is also necessary to 
determine what data elements 
the system will compute from re- 
lated user supplied information. 
Table 1 contains the data 
elements necessary to ac- 
complish system goals. The first 
column supplies the data ele- 
ment name. The second column 
outlines the file containing the 
data element. In some cases, 
the data element appears in 
more than one file. Column 
three supplies the future pro- 
grammer with information on 
the data element's size and 
composition. A field marked "X" 
is alphanumeric and can con- 



tain any letter or number. A field 
marked "A" is alphabetic and 
will contain only letters. A field 
marked "9" is numeric and can 
only contain numbers. The num- 
ber in parentheses represents 
the character length of the field. 
These symbols can be mixed to- 
gether. A field marked 9(3) 
XXA(2) would accept the follow- 
ing data: 736A9RAK. 
The next column shows the 



source of the data. Some of the 
data elements are supplied by 
the user; others are computed 
based upon other user-supplied 
data. Notes and Goal columns 
are self-explanatory. The Alter- 
able column tells if the data 
element can be changed after 
it is initially given a value. 
Any data element defined as a 
key cannot be changed. The final 
column, JUST, is the data 



NAME; SHARON 



s 


H 


A 


R 






LEFT JUSTIFIED 



H 


A 


R 





N 



RIGHT JUSTIFIED 

Fig. 2. Justification of truncated fields 



storage field justification. A 
right-justified field places the 
data to the far right with trailing 
spaces. Left justified fields do 
the opposite. If a data element 
fits the field size exactly, 
justification is moot. Fig. 2 
shows the field First Name as it 
would appear justified. Fig. 3 
shows justification if the value of 
the field is larger than the al- 
located field space. When a data 
element is larger than the field it 
occupies, truncation occurs. 

Summary 

So far, we have looked at the 
first phase of systems analysis. 
We have identified the problem, 
and explored the goals, objec- 
tives, scope and limits of the 
potential solution. We have de- 
termined the system software, 
hardware files and data elements 
necessary to begin system prep- 
aration. In Part IV we will begin to 
design the system. ■ 

Gary Dilllio is a Computer 
Systems Analyst for the Depart- 
ment of the Navy. 




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190 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



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GENERAL 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I or III 
16K RAM 



An aid to learning graph theory. 



DIGRAPH Digressions 



Len Gorney 

Box 91 R.D. 5 

Clarks Summit, PA 18411 



Do you remember the last 
time you solved a problem in 
chemistry, economics, opera- 
tions research, physics, probabil- 
ity, or numerical analysis? You 
probably applied some aspect 
of graph theory to the problem 
solution. 

Graph Theory 

Graph theory uses the funda- 
mental concepts of set and rela- 



tion to depict the relationships of 
a given graph. Mathematically, a 
graph G consists of a finite non- 
empty set of N nodes and E 
edges. Think of the cities listed 
on a road map as nodes and the 
highways linking these cities as 
edges. 

My program takes this defini- 
tion of a graph further by intro- 
ducing a directed graph (digraph). 
In this case, the nodes of the 
graph represent the same collec- 
tion of points of interest; but, the 
edges which connect one node 
to another have direction. If you 
think of the program flowchart 
shown in Fig. 1 as a graph, the 





Program Listing 


i a a ■<• 


DIM G(25,25), Sl(25), S2(2S): 




CLEAR 2000: 




DEFSTR G, L, 


1010 


CLS: 




INPUT-ENTER NUMBER OF NODES IN GRAPH";N: 




IF N <= THEN GOTO 1620 


1020 


PRINT'ENTER LOGICAL VALUES OF GRAPH" 


1 ii J 


FOR R ■ 1 TO N 


1040 


FOR C - 1 TO N 


1050 


PRINT"NODE";R; "TO NODE";C; 


1060 


L = "": 




L = INKEYS: 




IF L » "" THEN GOTO 1060 


1070 


IF L X "T" AND L >< "F" THEN GOTO 1050 




ELSE PRINT L: G(R,C) - L 


1080 


NEXT C 


1090 


NEXT R 


L100 


CLS 


1110 


FOR R - .' TO f. 


1120 


FOR C = 1 TO N 


1 ! 3 


PRINT G(R,C) ; 


1140 


NEXT C 


1150 


PRINT 


1160 


NEXT ft 


1 1 / 


INPUT-STARTING NODE'jS: IF S > N THEN GOTO 1170 


1180 


INPUT-TERMINAL NODE";E: IF E > N THEN GOTO 1180 


1190 


■ 




PATH FOUND WHEN STARTING NODE EQUALS TERMINAL NODE 




AND NODE IS REFLEXIVE. 


1200 


IF S - E AHD G(S,E) - "T" THEN OK = "T": PI = 2: 




Program continues 



operations enclosed in the flow- 
chart symbols are the nodes of 
the graph while the arrows con- 
necting specific operations 
represent the edges of the graph. 
Organizational charts apply 
graphs to real-world situations. 

We must now define a path. 
Use our road map example (as- 
suming one-way and two-way 
roads) to find a way from one city 
to another. We initialize our start- 
ing point at our present location 
and follow the edges through the 
various connecting nodes to the 
destination. Our path is the list of 
cities (nodes) passed through 
following the various roads 
(edges). 

Our physical world allows us 
to represent a digraph with 
circles for nodes and arrows for 
edges, but computers do not 
recognize this type of data. For 
this reason, we will use an array 
which contains the logical values 
relating to the presence or the 
absence of a connecting edge 
between particular nodes. This 
array is known as the adjacency 



matrix. An example of a digraph 
and its associated adjacency 
matrix is in Fig. 2. The matrix is a 
square array where the number 
of rows and the number of col- 
umns are both equal to the 
number of nodes in the digraph. 
Whenever an edge connects two 
nodes, the matrix entry has a 
logical value of T. A logical F 
represents no connecting edge 
between two nodes. 

The Program 

I will use the example shown in 
Fig. 2 to demonstrate the pro- 
gram. Load and run the program 
as listed. The program requests 
the number of digraph nodes; en- 
ter four. The dimension state- 
ment for the adjacency matrix G 
as well as the two other lists ac- 
cepts up to 25 nodes. If you have 
a larger digraph, redimension 
these lists and the matrix. 

Next, enter the adjacency ma- 
trix values. Load a logical T or F 
into the required edge; input is 
row by column (left to right and 
top to bottom). Do not use the 









1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


T 


T 


T 


T 


2 


F 


F 


F 


F 


3 


T 


F 


F 


F 


4 


F 


F 


F 


F 



Fig. 2. Digraph and Adjacency Matrix 



192 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



Enter key during this data input. 
Next enter starting and ter- 
minal node values. To determine 
if a path exists from node three to 
node four of the digraph, enter 
three for the starting node and 
four for the terminal node. The 
program will search for a path 
through the adjacency matrix. If 
you entered the program cor- 
rectly, it will tell you that the path 



from node three to node one to 
node four exists as a path from 
node three to node four. 

Trace a few other paths 
through this digraph and try the 
program. It tells you if a path 
does or does not exist at the end 
of its search. 

As a final test of the program, 
convert the flowchart in Fig. 1 to 
its equivalent adjacency matrix. 



Program continued 



Sl(l) = S: Sl(2) = E: 
GOTO 1550 



PATH FOUND WHEN STARTING NODE AND TERMINAL NODE ARE 
SEPARATED BY ONE EDGE. 



1226 
1236 



1246 
1251 



1266 
1276 
1286 
1296 



1306 
1316 



1326 
1336 



1346 
1356 
1366 



1376 
1386 



1396 

1406 



1416 
1426 



1436 
1446 



1456 
1466 



1476 
I486 



1496 
1501 



1516 
1526 



1546 
1551 



1566 

L57I 

1586 
1596 
1606 
1616 



IF G(S,E) = 



THEN OK = "T": PI =2: 

Sl(l) = S: Sl(2) = E: GOTO 1556 



INITIALLIZE FIRST LOCATION IN STACK TO STARTING NODE. 

P2 » 1: S2(P2) = S 

DOES A PATH EXIST FROM THE STARTING NODE TO ANY NODE? 
IF AT LEAST ONE EDGE EXISTS, THEN OTHER EDGES MAY EXIST 
FROM THE J(TH) NODE TO THE TERMINAL NODE. 

POR J ■ 1 TO N 

IF G(S,J) = "T" THEN GOTO 1310 
NEXT J 

FALLING THRU ABOVE LOOP SAYS NO PATH EXISTS FROM THE 
STARTING NODE TO ANY OTHER NODE. 

OK = "F": GOTO 1560 

A PATH EXISTS FROM THE STARTING NODE. INITIALIZE R TO 
THE STARTING NODE THEN TO THE NODE TO WHICH THE STARTING 
NODE CONNECTS TO ETC. 

R = S 

PI KEEPS TRACK OF THE PATH BEING TRACED INTO STACK SI. 

PI = 1: S1(P1) = S 
FOR C = 1 TO N 

DISREGARD REFLEXIVE LOOPS. 
IF R = C THEN GOTO 1490 

DOES AN EDGE EXIST BETWEEN NODE R TO NODE C? 
IF G(R,C) » "F" THEN GOTO 1490 

SKIP OVER NODE WHICH HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN TRACED. 
IF SI (PI) = C THEN PI = Pi - 1: GOTO 1490 

WHEN NODE C IS AT TERMINAL NODE, PATH IS TRACED IN SI. 
IF C=E THEN PI = PI + 1: S1(P1) = C : OK = "T": GOTO 1550 

P3 IS THE RETRACE POINTER THRU SI. 

P3 - PI 

CHECK IF PATH IS BEING RETRACED; I.E., IF THE C(TH) NODE 
IS ALREADY IN SI THEN THE PATH HAS BEEN TRACED INTO SI. 

IF P3 <= THEN PI = PI + 1: P2 = P2 + 1: S1(P1) = C: 

S2(P2) = C: R = C: GOTO 1350 

IF C = S1(P3) THEN GOTO 1490 

ELSE P3 = P3 - 1: GOTO 1470 
NEXT C 

EXIT LOOP WHEN NO PATH FOUND FROM R TO C . 

IF P2 < = THEN GOTO 15 40 

ELSE P2 = P2 - 1 

BACK UP ONE NODE SINCE NO PATH IS FROM R TO C. 

IF P2 <= THEN GOTO 1540 

ELSE R = S2(P2): GOTO 1350 
OK = "F" 

IF OK IS TRUE THEN A SIMPLE PATH EXISTS FROM THE 
STARTING NODE TO THE TERMINAL NODE ELSE ( WHEN OK 
IS FALSE ) NO PATH EXISTS. 

IF OK » "F" THEN PRINT'NO PATH EXISTS FROM NODE" ; S; "TO" ; E : 
GOTO 1610 

PRINT'SIMPLE PATH EXISTS FROM NODE" ; S; "TO" ; E: 

PRINT'PATH IS";S; 

FOR J ■ = 2 TO PI 
PRINT"TO";Sl(J) > 

NEXT J 
PRINT: 

INPUT'ENTER Y FOR SAME GRAPH ELSE ENTER N";L: 
IF L •= "Y" THEN GOTO 1100 ELSE RUN 1000 
END 



Trace through the flowchart to 
see the paths taken by program 
logic. The next time you develop 



a flowchart, use the path tracing 
program as a test of the program 
logic. ■ 




-•/STARTJ 




INITIALIZE 
PATH STACK 




CD- 




Fig. 1 
80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 • 193 



UTILITY 



Keyword changes for Basic dialects. 



Basic Translator 



Howard E. Miller 

335-E Winding River Drive 

Atlanta, GA 30338 



Telephone line computer in- 
formation exchanges have 
become a subset of the comput- 
er hobbyist field. In the Atlanta, 
GA area alone, there are at least 
six full time and three part time 
bulletin board services. 

Unfortunately, there are sev- 
eral dialects of Basic. Reediting 



a program written in one dialect 
to run in another can bedifficult. 
My character change program 
uses the computer to shorten 
the job (see Program Listing). 
CLOAD this program and ap- 
pend the program to be altered. 
The appended program must 
have a starting line number 
greater than 32. 

Basic statements such as If, 
Then and Print are stored in 
memory as single byte numbers 
ranging from decimal 129-250. 
These numbers decode the 
corresponding subroutine's 



location in ROM and shorten the 
amount of memory space taken 
by the program. When a pro- 
gram is listed, the Basic key- 
word is substituted for the num- 
ber. Keyword numbers are on 
page E/1 of the Level II Basic 
manual. Note particularly the 
keyword numbers 205-214. 

When the program begins it 
prompts Character To Change?. 
Type in the character you want 
changed. To change a keyword 
or character not on the key- 
board, type shift-A. The program 
will respond Keyword Number?. 



Enter the keyword number or 
character you want changed. 
The program prompts Change 
To?. Respond with the character 
you want. 

Once the entries are com- 
pleted, the program's text will 
appear on the screen. Char- 
acters in quotation marks are 
not changed. ■ 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 



TRST 
5 RU 


TIME PROGRAM 


POKE 
INTO 
READ 


PATCH ADDRESS 
KEYBOARD 
ADDRESS 






I 








BACK 
TO 

BASIC 
PROMPT 





IME A KEY 



PAUSE FOR A FEW 








NSURE THAT KEY 








TWICE 






MOVE SCREEN 

INTO 

HIGH MEMORY 



Fig. 1 
194 • 80 Microcomputing, June/July 1982 



1 CLS:DEFSTR K :D=17129 : DIM K(122):FOR K=l TO 122:READ K(N) jNEXT 

2 PRINT-CHARACTER TO CHANGE?"; 

3 AS=INKEYS:IF AS=" n THEN 3 

4 IF AS="a" THEM PRINT: INPUT" KEYWORD NUMBER" ; Al : A$=" " : ELSE PRINT 
A? 

5 PRINT"CHANGE TO?"; 

6 B$=INKF.Y$:IF B$="" THEN 6 

7 IF BS="a" THEN PRINT: INPUT"KEYWORD NUMBER" ; Bl : B$=" ": ELSE PRINT 
B$ 

8 IF AS<>"° THEN A1=ASC(AS) 

9 IF BSO"" THEN B1=ASC(B$) 

IB A=PSEK(D)+PEEK(D+l)*256:B=PEEK(D+2)+PEEK(D+3)*2S6:C=( PEEK (166 
33) +PEEK(16634) *256)-3 

11 IF B<=34 THEN 19 

12 PRINT B; 

13 FOR J=D+4 TO A-l 

14 :F=PEEK(J) : IF F=Al,POKE J,B1:F=B1 

15 :IF F=34 THEN GOSUB 20 

16 :IF F>31 AND F<129 THEN PRINT CHRS(F); 

17 :IF F>128 AND F<251 THEN PRINT K(F-128); 

18 NEXT:PRINT 

19 D=A:IF D<C THEN 10 ELSE RUM 

20 PRINT CHRS(F) ; : J=J+1 :F=PEEK ( J) : IF F<>34 THEN 20 ELSE RETURN 

21 DATA FOR, RESET, SET, CLS,CMD, RANDOM, NEXT, DATA, INPUT, DIM 

22 DATA READ, LET, GOTO, RUN, IF, RESTORE, GOSUB, RETURN, REM 

23 DATA STOP, ELSE, TRON ,TROFF ,DEFSTR,DEFINT,DEFSNG,DEFDBL 

24 DATA LINE, EDIT, ERROR, RESUME, OUT, ON, OPEN, FIELD, GET, PUT 

25 DATA CLOSE, LOAD, MERGE, NAME, KILL, LSET,RSET, SAVE, SYSTEM 

26 DATA LPRINT,DEF, POKE, PRINT, CONT, LIST, LLIST, DELETE, AUTO 

27 DATA CLEAR, CLOAD, CSAVE, NEW, TAB, TO, FN, USING, VARPTR,USR 

28 DATA ERL, ERR, STRINGS, INSTR, POINT, TIMES, MEM, INKEYS, THEN 

29 DATA NOT, STEP, +,-,*,/, [ , AND ,OR, > , = , < ,SGN, INT, ABS ,FKE 

30 DATA INP,POS,SQR,RND, LOG, EXP, COS, SIN, TAN, ATN, PEEK, CVI 

31 DATA CVS,CVD,EOF,LOC,LOF,MKI$,MKS$,MKD$,CINT,CSNG,CDBL 

32 DATA FIX, LEN,STRS,VAL,ASC,CHRS, LEFTS, RIGHTS, MIDS 



Program Listing 



ALL PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS FOUND IN THIS CATALOG 
ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT PRIOR NOTICE 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 

SPRING VALLEY. NEW YORK 1097", 

(914) 425-1535 



Dear Computer Owner: 

Here is your NEW H & E COMPUTRONICS, INC. CATALOG. Feel free to rip the pages apart. Everytimeyou place an 
order, we will send you a new catalog with our latest catalog updates. 



FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE * 



CATALOG #10 WILL CONTAIN MANY NEW ITEMS FOR OWNERS OF THE TRS-80, APPLE, PET, 
ATARI, XEROX, IBM, HEWLETT-PACKARD. SHARP. CASIO AND MANY OTHER COMPUTERS. TO 
RECEIVE A FREE COPY OF CATALOG #10. JUST FILL OUT THE POST CARD ATTACHED TO THIS 
CATALOG AND AFFIX A STAMP. YOU WILL REMAIN ON OUR CATALOG MAILING LIST FOR THE 

NEXT 12 MONTHS. NOTE-PRESENT SUBSCRIBERS TO ANY OF OUR THREE PUBLICATIONS AND 
THOSE H & E COMPUTRONICS, INC. CUSTOMERS WHO HAVE PURCHASED ANYTHING FROM US 
SINCE JANUARY 1, 1982 WILL AUTOMATICALLY RECEIVE OUR NEXT CATALOG AND DO NOT 
HAVE TO FILL OUT THIS POST CARD. 



*FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE • FREE * 



NOW THREE PUBLICATIONS 

H & E COMPUTRONICS, INC. NOW HAS THREE PUBLICATIONS. 

1. BUSINESS COMPUTING is a NEW publication for serious business computer users and owners (and those people considering the pur- 
chase of a business computer). The publication is fact oriented and non-technical in nature The publication deals with all small business 
computers. (IBM. APPLE, TRS-80, PANASONIC. SHARP, XEROX. HEWLETT-PACKARD, NEC ). 

2. THE H & E COMPUTRONICS MAGAZINE was the first and original publication for TRS-80 OWNERS. The magazine is now in its fifth year 
of publication, 

3. The MOD-II NEWSLETTER is an essential publication for all owners of the TRS-80 MOD-II COMPUTER. It is especailly geared to a non- 
technical audience and is especially aimed at letting MOD-II owners learn more about their computer and what is available for their com- 
puter. 

SEE THE INSIDE OF OUR CATALOG FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE ABOVE THREE PUBLICATIONS 



IMPORTANT NOTICE ABOUT YOUR ORDER 

H&ECOMPUTRONICS. INC. selects its software very carefully. We feel that the items we choose to sell are the best products currently available. 
Our software selections are based on value, documentation, support, saleability and reputation of the software house writing the product. We mon- 
itor the return rate of each piece of software very carefully We normally only sell software written by the major software houses (such as MICRO- 
SOFT, PERSONAL SOFTWARE, RACET COMPUTES. ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL, etc.), but we do choose software written by lesser known 
software houses when we feel the product has merit. We currently sell about 400 different items (out of the over 50,000 items available to MICRO- 
COMPUTER owners). If you disagree with our choice we offer our money-back guarantee because we feel that our customers should not be 
"stuck " with software that they consider unsatisfactory. If you do not feel satisfied with the product we have sent you, please follow the return (or 
exchange) procedures below. IN ANY CASE, H & E COMPUTRONICS. INC. IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE RESULTS OF ANY DEFECTS THAT 
MAY APPEAR IN THE SOFTWARE PURCHASED FROM H& E COMPUTRONICS. INC. OR ANY FINANCIAL LOSS INCURRED DUE TO THE USE 
OF ANY SOFTWARE PURCHASED FROM H & E COMPUTRONICS. INC. It is up to the user to properly test any software that they purchase. 

TO EXCHANGE OR RETURN MERCHANDISE 

1 . Merchandise must be returned within 30 days of the day it was shipped. The 30 days are calculated from the day that your package was in- 
voiced until the day your package was re-shipped to H & E COMPUTRONICS, INC. 

2. It is the customer's responsibility to insure each package and obtain a receipt. We can NOT be responsible for packages that are lost in the 
mail. If the package is valuable.. .we suggest that you insure it (although it is certainly not mandatory). 

3. Our receiving department will reject all packages shipped to H & E COMPUTRONICS, INC. that do not contain our return authorization label 
affixed to the outside of the package. This return authorization label is contained in every order shipped by H & E COMPUTRONICS. INC. If 
your return authorization label is missing, please call (or write) to Darlene at Customer Service (914) 425-1535 (between 10:00 A.M. to 
4:00 P.M. New York Time) for a replacement 

4. A copy of your original invoice must be included within the package. WE WILL RETURN ANY PACKAGE THAT DOES NOT CONTAIN THE 
ORIGINAL INVOICE (OR MACHINE COPY) WITHIN THE PACKAGE. 

5 Please include brief instructions so that we know what to do with your returned package. For example, do you want credit towards another 
. program? PLEASE do not send a lengthly description. PLEASE do be short and to the point. If you have any further comments to makeabout 
the software, please address them to Darlene, Software Manager (and send them in a separate envelope). We wish to process your return as 
soon as possible. please do NOT complicate the process by referring to previous phone calls or letters. 

6. If you are returning, exchanging, or updating any material that you have had for more than 30-days, you must obtain prior approval before 
returning the merchandise. You may obtain a special return authorization number by calling (914) 425-1535 and speaking to Darlene, our 
software manager. Approval may also be obtained by sending a request through the mail. 

7. Merchandise must be returned in NEW condition. Although we do expect that sealed packages will undergo some damage, please keep it to a 
minimum. In any case, we reserve the right to refuse any package we feel has been overly abused. 

POSTAGE RATES: 

1. Add S3. 00 for postage and handling for any order shipped within the United States by U.P.S. 

2. Add $4.00 for orders shipped C.O.D. or by U.S. Mail within the U.S. 

3. Add $5.00 for postage and handling for any order shipped to Canada and Mexico. 

4. Add exact postage outside of U.S.. Canada and Mexico. 

5. Overnight delivery is available through EMERY AIR FREIGHT and other air services. If you require overnight delivery, the appropriate 
charges will be added to your order. 

METHOD OF PAYMENT: 

1. We accept VISA, MASTER CARD or AMERICAN EXPRESS. 

2 Your PERSONAL CHECK is welcomed. All checks must be payable in U.S. Funds. 

3. C.O.D. on request. (C.O.D. orders in excess of $100 require cash or certified check). 

4. We do not have open accounts. Cash, Check, Credit Card Number or C.O.D. request must accompany each order. 

5. N.Y. STATE RESIDENTS MUST ADD LOCAL SALES TAX. 



^READER SERVICE FOR H & E COMPUTRONICS ^9 



.j> 




Tired Cf your 

CAL LEDGER? 

* THE ULTIMATE PERSONAL CHECK REGISTER 

* A PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

* A PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGER 

* A SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

* A COMPLETE GENERAL LEDGER 



'"* 



mm 






V 



"TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. - 'APPLE is a Irademark of Apple Corp - "IBM is a trademark of IB M. Corp - "XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp 
"ATARI is a trademark of Atari Inc - "OSBORNE is a trademark of Osborne Corp 

HOW IT WORKS 

VERSALEDGER is a complete accounting system that grows as you or your business grows. To 
start, your VERSALEDGER acts as a simple method of keeping track of your checkbook. Just 
enter your check number, date and to whom the check is made out to. As you or your business 
grows, you may add more details to your transactions .... account number, detailed account 
explanations, etc. 



VERSALEDGER 



VERSALEDGER can give you an instant cash 
balance at anytime. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

VERSALEDGER can be used as a small per- 
sonal checkbook register. (IF YOU WANT IT 
TO) 

VERSALEDGER can be used to run your 
million dollar corporation. (IF YOU WANT IT 
TO) 

VERSALEDGER prints checks. (IF YOU WANT 
IT TO) 

VERSALEDGER stores all check information 
forever. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

VERSALEDGER can distribute one check to 
multiple expense accounts. (IF YOU WANT IT 
TO) 

VERSALEDGER can handle more than one 
checkbook. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

VERSALEDGER can be used to replace a 
general ledger. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

VERSALEDGER HAS AN ALMOST UNLIMITED CAPACITY 

( 300 checks per month on single density 5V»" disk drives such as the TRS-80 Model I) (6000 checks per month on the TRS-80 Model II) 

( 500 checks per month on the Apple II) (3000 checks per month on single density 8" CP/M) 

(2400 checks per month on the TRS-80 Model III) (almost unlimited capacity on hard disk drive) 

VERSALEDGER will soon have an add-on payroll package. (IF YOU NEED IT) 

— CAN BE USED WITH 1 or MORE DISK DRIVES with 48K — 




INTRODUCTORY PRICE 
$9995 



VERSALEDGER HAS BEEN CREATED WITH THE FIRST TIME COMPUTER USER IN MIND 



30-Day Money Back Guarantee 
Also Available: VERSARECEIVABLES, VERSAPAYABLES, VERSAPAYROLL, and VERSAINVENTORY 



iCQiriPlJTRQMICS! 



N^lIX^AflTI^,. fl^VCJX'Ofc b£"^i' 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 




* ADD $3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

• ADD $4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 

* ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

• ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE U.S., CANADA & MEXICO 



HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



ALL PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
DELIVERY SUBJECT TO AVAILABILITY 




• THE ULTIMATE PROFESSIONAL PAYROLL SYSTEM 

• HANDLES ALL PAYROLL FUNCTIONS AND REPORTS 

• QUICK QUARTERLY AND END OF YEAR SUMMARIES 

• PERFECT FOR A SMALL BUSINESS 

• EXPANDS TO HANDLE LARGE CORPORATE PAYROLLS 

. 00, 000 9 W • MS * • JJL* • »®1F • mSD ft 

ao(M»ir mm® mmwm 

' TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. - ' APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. - 'I.B.M. is a trademark of i.B.M. Corp. - 'XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. - 'ATARI is a trademark of Atari Inc. 



HOW IT WORK! 



VERSAPAYROLL is a complete menu driven payroll system that grows as you or your business grows. YourVERSA- 
PAYROLL acts as a simple payroll system keeping track of all government required payroll information. Just enter the 
employees, VERSAPAYROLL will perform all the necessary payroll calculations automatically and display to totals 
on your screen. The user has complete control to accept the totals, to print or not print out a check and to post or not 
post the total to our VERSALEDGER system. 

• VERSAPAYROLL automatically prints out your PAYROLL checks. (IF YOU 
WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL allows you to override any payroll deduction. (IF YOU WANT 
IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL automatically posts all checks written to our VERSALEDGER 
system. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL allows the user to print out PAYROLL checks one at a time. 
(IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL allows the user to print out all your PAYROLL checks at the 
same time (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL gives you a summary of any employee's year to date payroll 
totals or all employee totals at any time. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL will allow you to correct any error made at any time and auto- 
matically refigure all totals. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL works in every state. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL automatically calculates all federal and states taxes. (IF YOU 
WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL allows for all of the standard deductions plus state, city and 
three miscellaneous deductions. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL prints all government required reports. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL permanently stores all PAYROLL transactions. (IF YOU WANT 
IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYROLL HAS AN ALMOST UNLIMITED CAPACITY 

Can handle up to 300 employees on a TRS-80 MODEL I, 600 employees on a TRS-80 MODEL 1 1 1, 1200 employees on a TRS-80 MODEL 
II. 500 employees on an APPLE II, 600 employees on any single density 8" CP/M computer and almost unlimited capacity on hard disk 
systems. 

CAN BE USED WITH 1 or MORE DISK DRIVES (AND 48K) 




INTRODUCTORY PRICE 
$QQ 95 



1TI 



ISAPAYR0LI 
FIRST TIMI 



MIND 



ICQMPLITRQNICS; 



v»ive*>ic». 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

ADD $3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
ADD $4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 
ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF U.S., 
CANADA AND MEXICO 



NEW TOLL-FREE 
ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



HOUR 

ORDER 

LINE 




ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE* 



(914) 425-1535 




• THE ULTIMATE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEM 

• HANDLES ALL ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE FUNCTIONS 

• QUICK PERIODIC SUMMARIES AND REPORTS 

• PERFECT FOR PERSONAL OR BUSINESS USE 

• EXPANDS TO HANDLE LARGE CORPORATE 
RECEIVABLES 



•TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. - "APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. • 1B.M. is a trademark of I.B.M. Corp. - "XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. - 'ATARI is a trademark of Atari Inc. 



HOW IT WORKS 

VERSARECEIVABLES is a complete menu driven accounts receivable system. It keeps track of all 
information related to who owes you or your company money. It prints all necessary statements, 
invoices and all summary reports to keep you in touch with the flow of money owed to your com- 
pany. In short, VERSARECEIVABLES is a complete invoicing and monthly statement generating 
system which keeps track of current and past due receivables. 

• VERSARECEIVABLES invoices your customers. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSARECEIVABLES prints customer mailing labels. (IF YOU WANT IT 



TO) 



^S 



■ARE 



• VERSARECEIVABLES generates monthly (or periodic) statements at 
any time (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSARECEIVABLES uses commonly available preprinted statements 
and invoices. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSARECEIVABLES allows partial payments on open invoices. (IF 
YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSARECEIVABLES prints out all commonly used ACCOUNTS 
RECEIVABLE reports to give you a total picture of money owed to your 
company. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSARECEIVABLES keeps a history of each account, both current and 
aged. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSARECEIVABLES is ideal for doctors, lawyers, small and large 
businesses. 

• VERSARECEIVABLES HAS AN ALMOST UNLIMITED CAPACITY .... 

400 customers and transactions per month on single density 5'V' disk drives such as the TRS-80 Model i 

600 per month on the APPLE II 
'2400 per month on the TRS-80 MODEL III 3000 per month on single density 8" CP/M 

6000 per month on the TRS-80 MODEL II Almost unlimited on hard disk drive systems 

Above capacities are estimates and depend on the customer-transaction mix and the amount of disk space available 



CElv A 




fii.es 



INTRODUCTORY PRICE 
$9995 




'CQMPUTRQMCS! 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

ADD $3 00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
ADD $4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 
ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF US. 
CANADA AND MEXICO 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N Y STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE* 



HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 



- j 



yet 







• THE ULTIMATE ACCOUNTS PAYABLE SYSTEM 

• HANDLES ALL ACCOUNTS PAYABLE FUNCTIONS 

• QUICK PERIODIC SUMMARIES AND REPORTS 

• PERFECT FOR PERSONAL OR BUSINESS USE 

• EXPANDS TO HANDLE LARGE CORPORATE PAYABLES 



TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. - ' APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. - ' I.B.M. is a trademark of I.B.M. Corp. - "XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. • ' ATARI is a trademark of Atari Inc. 



HC 



VERSAPAYABLES is a complete menu driven accounts payable system. It keeps track of all 
information related to how much money you (personally) or your company owes. It prints all 
necessary checks and statements on easily obtainable tractor feed forms (or on plain paper). 
Prints all summary reports to keep you in touch with the flow of money going out of your hands (or 
leaving your company). In short, VERSAPAYABLES is designed to keep track of current and aged 
payables. The system maintains a complete record of each vendor, helps determine which trans- 
actions to pay by due date within certain cash requirements and prints checks automatically with 
a detailed check register. 

• VERSAPAYABLES prints out your checks. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYABLES prints out a detailed check register. (IF YOU WANT IT 

TO) 

• VERSAPAYABLES allows for full or partial payments. (IF YOU WANT IT 
TO) 

• VERSAPAYABLES prints out vendor mailing labels. (IF YOU WANT IT 
TO) 

• VERSAPAYBLES prints out all commonly used ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 
reports to give you a total picture of money you or your company owes. 
(IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAPAYABLES integrates with VERSALEDGER. (IF YOU WANT IT 
TO) 

• VERSAPAYBLES HAS AN ALMOST UNLIMITED CAPACITY 

400 vendors and transactions per month on sinlge density 5 V disk drives such as 

the TRS-80 MODEL I 

600 per month on the APPLE II 
2400 per month on the TRS-80 MODEL III 
6000 per month of the TRS-80 MODEL II 
3000 per month on single density 8" CP/M 
Almost unlimited capacity on hard disk drive systems 

Above capacities are estimates and depend on disk space available and your vendor-transaction mix 




NTRODUCTORY PRICE 
$99_95 



WITH 



i HAS BEEN CREATED 
TIME COMPUTER USER IN MIND 



iCQKPU'IHMCS! 



t^Arw^PvAA' k .al At**. r:.A' ty-Jh ^* **/< t 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

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ADD $4.00 FOR COD. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 
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"*• ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE*** (°14) 425-1535 




• THE ULTIMATE INVENTORY SYSTEM 

• HANDLES ALL INVENTORY FUNCTIONS 

• QUICK PERIODIC SUMMARIES AND REPORTS 

• PERFECT FOR PERSONAL OR BUSINESS USE 

• EXPANDS TO HANDLE LARGE CORPORATE INVENTORIES 

n oo nnn flf| • /WLH * • 0.JJL* • MM* • mSO* 



"TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. - 'APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. - "IBM. is a trademark of I.6.M. Corp. - 'XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. 'ATARI is a trademark of Atari Inc. 



HCW IT WORKS 

VERSAINVENTORY is a complete menu driven inventory control system. It keeps track of all 
information related to how many of a particular item you have. It prints all necessary inventory 
reports and gives you instant access to any inventory item. VERSAINVENTORY allows the user 
to stay in touch with items that directly affect sales. Update INVENTORY through easy MENU 
driven processes. 

• VERSAINVENTORY allows the user to instantly add to or deduct from 
INVENTORY (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 



' NTFi0 ^CTn 
P*t£ 0R 



• VERSAINVENTORY handles reorder point levels. (IF YOU WANT ITTO) 

• VERSAINVENTORY gives period-to-date and year-to-date sales reports. 
(IF YOU WANT ITTO) 

• VERSAINVENTORY can be linked to VERSARECEIVABLES and 
VERSALEDGER. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAINVENTORY gives all standard INVENTORY REPORTS. (IF YOU 
WANT IT TO) 

• VERSAINVENTORY instantly values your INVENTORY. (IF YOU WANT 
IT TO) 

• VERSAINVENTORY HAS AN ALMOST UNLIMITED CAPACITY ..... 

To figure out estimated VERSAINVENTORY limitations, just multiply 8 by the number of kilobytes of disk 

storage available. For example, the store capacity on a TRS-80 MODEL II disk drive is500K That will allow 
the user to have about 4,000 inventory items on record. This total is an estimate and depends on how you 
set up your inventory system 



in 



INVENTORY HAS BEEN GR 
IRST TIME COMPUTER USER 



iCQMPJTRQNICS? 



• ,•.«■»*>■. -..v 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

ADD S3. 00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
ADD $4 00 FOR COD OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 
ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF U.S., 
CANADA AND MEXICO 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N Y STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE* 



HOUR /^fc^- 
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LINE 

(914) 425-1535 



• • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80™ • ATARI™ • APPLE" • 

• TRS-80 is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. - • ATARI is a trademark of Atari Inc. - • APPLE is 
* CP/V. is a trademark of Digital Research - 'XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp. - 



PET™ • CP/M™ • 

a trademark of Apple Corp. - " 
IBM is a trademark of IBM Cc 



XEROX™ • IBM™ • • 

PET is a trademark of Commodore 





I . ss ed within 24-Hours 

* AH orders P'**** 8 * grantee 
* 3 0-Dav money back gu 



Business Programs 



(ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE) Includes 128 Page Users Manual 

Inventory Control Payroll Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations. 

Checkbook Maintenance Accounts Receivable Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM 



NAME 



1 RULE78 


2 ANNU1 


3 DATE 


4 DAYYEAR 


5 LEASEJNT 


6 BREAKEVN 


7 DEPRSL 


8 DEPRSY 


9 DEPRDB 


10 DEPRDDB 


11 TAXDEP 


12 CHECK2 


13 CHECKBK1 


14 MORTGAGE/A 


15 MULTMOri 


16 SALVAGE 


17 RRVARIM 


18 RRCONST 


19 EFFECT 


20 FVAL 


21 PVAL 


22 LOATH PAY 


23 REGWJTH 


24 SIMPDISK 


25 DATEVAL 


26 ANNUDEF 


27 MARKUP 


28 SINKFUND 


29 BOMDVAL 


30 DEPLETE 


31 BLACKSH 


32 STOCVAL1 


33 WARVAL 


34 BOMDVAL2 


35 EPSEST 


36 BETAALPH 


37 SHARPE1 


38 OPrWRrTE 


39 RIVAL 


40 EXPVAL 


41 BAYES 


42 VALPRINF 


43 VALADINF 


44 UTILITY 


45 SIMPLEX 


46 TRANS 


47 EOQ 


48 QUEUE 1 


49 CVP 


50 CONDPROF 


51 OPTLOSS 


52 FQUOQ 


53 FQEOWSH 


54 FQEOQPB 


55 QUEUECB 


56 NCFANAL 


57 PROFlhD 


58 CAP1 



DESCRIPTION 

Interest Apportionment by Rule of the 78s 

Annuity computation program 

Time between dates 

Day of year a particular date falls on 

Interest rate on lease 

Breakeven analysis 

Straightline depreciation 

Sum of the digits depreciation 

Declining balance depreciation 

Double declining balance depreciation 

Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

Prints NEBS checks along with dairy register 

Checkbook maintenance program 

Mortgage amortization table 

Computes time needed for money to double, triple, 

Determines salvage value of an investment 

Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

Effective interest rate of a loan 

Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

Present value of a future amount 

Amount of payment on a loan 

Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

Simple discount analysis 

Equivalent & nonequivalent dated values for oblig. 

Present value of deferred annuities 

% Markup analysis for items 

Sinking fund amortization program 

Value of a bond 

Depletion analysis 

Black Scholes options analysis 

Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 
Value of a warrant 
Value of a bond 

Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

Portfolio selection model-i.e. what stocks to hold 

Option writing computations 

Value of a right 

Expected value analysis 

Bayesian decisions 

Value of perfect information 

Value of additional information 

Derives utility function 

Linear programming solution by simplex method 

Transportation method for linear programming 

Economic order quantity inventory model 

Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

Cost-volume-profit analysis 

Conditional profit tables 

Opportunity loss tables 

Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 

As above but with shortages permitted 

As above but with quantity price breaks 

Cost-benefit waiting line analysis 

Net cash-flow analysis for simple investment 

Profitability index of a project 

Cap. Asset Pr. Model analysis of project 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

61 DISCBAL True rate on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 FINRAT Financial ratios for a firm 

64 NPV Net present value of project 

65 PR1NDLAS Laspeyres price index 

66 PRINDPA Paasche price index 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 T1METR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 T1MEMOV Time series analysis moving average trend 

70 FUPRINF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system-iinks with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABEL 1 Shipping label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 BUSBUD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 TIMECLCK Computes weeks total hours from timeclock info. 

78 ACCTPAY In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

79 INVOICE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 INVENT2 In memory inventory control system 

8 1 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 TIMUSAN Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitrage computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZONE Finds UPS zones from zip code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope including return address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 INSF1LE Insurance policy file 

94 PAYROLL2 In memory payroll system 

95 DILANAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase price for rental property 

98 SALELEAS Sale-leaseback analysis 

99 RRCONVBD Investor's rate of return on convertible bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



D Cassette Version (TRS-80 Only) $99.95 
□ 5-1/4" Diskette Version $99.95 

D TRS-80* Model II & CPM Versions $149.95 

ADD $3.0U FOR SHIPPING IN OPS AREAS 
ADD $4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 
ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF U.S., 
CANADA AND MEXICO 



Si)*? 



eQMRJTRQNICS 



rVlATVHSvAAT C-AL 



^B& 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY. NEW YORK 10977 



ASK FOR OUR 64-PAGE CATALOG 




o A ofU> ER 

^ H LINE 
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... ALL prices AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE" 



90* • APPLE* • • • 

• TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. - • APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp. 




BUSINESS AND PERSONAL FINANCE 

1. CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE 

2. TIME FOR MONEY TO DOUBLE 

3. FEDERAL FICA & WITHHOLDING TAX 

3. COMPUTATIONS 

4. HOME BUDGET ANALYSIS 

5. ANNUITY COMPUTATION 

6. UNIT PRICING 

7. CHANGE FROM PURCHASE 

8. NEBS CHECK PRINTER 

9. DAYS BETWEEN DATES 

10. MORTGAGE AMORTIZATION TABLE 

11. INVENTORY CONTROL 

12. PORTFOLIO VALUE COMPUTATIONS 

13. VALUE OF A SHARE OF STOCK 

14. SALES RECORD KEEPING SYSTEM 

15. FUTURE VALUE OF AN INVESTMENT 

16. EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATE (LOAN) 

17. PRESENT VALUE OF A FUTURE AMOUNT 

18. RATE OF RETURN VARIABLE INFLOW 

19. RATE OF RETURN-CONSTANT INFLOW 

20. REGULAR WITHDRAWAL FROM INVESTMENT 

21. STRAIGHT LINE DEPRECIATION 

22. SUM OF DIGITS DEPRECIATION 

23. DECLINING BALANCE DEPRECIATION 

24. BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS 

25. SALVAGE VALUE OF INVESTMENT 

26. PAYMENT ON A LOAN 

27. FUTURE SALES PROJECTIONS 

28. CREDIT CARD FILE 

29. ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY (EOQ) 
INVENTORY MODEL 

30. VALUE OF HOUSE CONTENTS 

31. TEXT EDITOR 

32. MONTHLY CALENDAR 

33. DAY OF WEEK 

34. CASH FLOW VS. DEPRECIATION 

35. COMPLETE MAIL SYSTEM 

36. INTEREST RATE ON A LEASE 



STA" 



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STATISTICS AND MATHEMATICS 

37. RANDOM SAMPLE SELECTION 

38. ANGLO METIC CONVERSION 

39. MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, 
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM 

40. SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION 

41. MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS 

42. GEOMETRIC REGRESSION 

43. EXPONENTIAL REGRESSION 
44 SIMPLE MOVING AVERAGE 

45. SIMPLE T-TEST 

46. CHI SQUARE TEST 

47. NORMAL PROBABILITIES 

48. BINOMIAL PROBABILITY 

49. POISSON PROBABILITY 

50. MATRIX ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 

51. MATRIX TRANSPOSE 

52. MATRIX INVERSE 

53. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION 

54. SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 

55. QUADRATIC FORMULA 

56. LINEAR EQUATION SOLUTIONS 

57. ROOT HALF INTERVAL SEARCH 

58. ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS 

59. ROOTS-NEWTON'S METHODS 

60. PRIME FACTORS OF INTEGER 

61. LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR 

62. RADIAN DEGREE CONVERSION 

63. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 

UTILITIES 

64. QUICK SORT ROUTINE 

65. PROGRAM STORAGE INDEX 

66. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ BUILDER 

67. FORM LETTER WRITER 

68. SHELL SORT 

69. CASSETTE LABEL MAKER 

70. CODES MESSAGES 

71. MERGE TWO FILES 

72. SORT WITH REPLACEMENT 



MAt« 



GRAPHICS 

73. DRAWS BAR GRAPH 

74. DRAWS HISTOGRAM 

75. MOVING BANNER DISPLAY 

GAMBLING AND GAMES 

76. RANDOM SPORTS QUIZ 
77 GOVERNMENT QUIZ 

78. HORSE RACE 

79. MAGIC SQUARE 

80. ARITHMETIC TEACHER 

81. HIGH LOW GAMBLE 

82. UNSCRAMBLE LETTERS 

83. HANGMAN 

84. GAME OF NIM 
85 RUSSIAN ROULETTE 

86. ROULETTE GAME 

87. ONE ARMED BANDIT 

88. HIT THE TARGET 

89. WALKING DRUNK 

90. STATE CAPITAL QUIZ 

91. TIC-TAC TOE 

92. DICE GAME 

93. LUNAR LANDAR GAME 

94 BIORHYTHM 

95 HORSE SELECTOR (CLASS CALCULATOR) 

96. RANDOM DICE ROLL 

97. RANDOM ROULETTE ROLL 

98. RANDOM CARD DEALER 

99. GUESS THE NUMBER 
100. WHITE OUT SCREEN 



GAM»tl* G 






GUARANTEED SATISFACTION 

30-DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 



ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE* 



•CQMPLJTRQNXCS 



■vWVeMAT 



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SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

PLEASE SEND ME: 



HOUR 

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D MASTER PAC 100 CASSETTE VERSION $99.95 

□ MASTER PAC 100 DISKETTE VERSION $99.95 

□ MASTER PAC 100 (MODEL II DISKETTE VERSION) . . $149.95 



(914) 425-- 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 

+ All orders processed within 24-Hours 

•k 30-Day/ money back guarantee on all Software 




CREDIT CARD NUMBER EXP. DATE. 



SIGNATURE. 



NAME • 

ADDRESS CITY STATE ZIP 

*** ADD $3 FOR POSTAGE & HANDLING - ADD $4 FOR COD. OR NON-UPS AREAS • ADD $5 CANADA & MEXICO - EXACT POSTAGE ELSEWHERE 









VERSION 2.0 



The New Enhanced Version Of The 
World's Greatest Word Processor Is Here. 



The new ELECTRIC PENCIL 2.0 for TRS-80 Models I and III 
Available for Disk, Cassette and Stringy Floppy Systems 

The ELECTRIC PENCIL System is easy to learn and easy to use - its simple command structure will make you a word processing 
expert in minutes. The ELECTRIC PENCIL Manual serves both as a quick reference guide and as a self-teaching manual, including 
pictures and examples. 
The ELECTRIC PENCIL 2.0 has more features than any other word processor for the TRS-80, including: 



D Easy lo learn-easy to use-menu driven 

D Alt settings are displayed in menus 

D Extensive HOW-TO' documentation with examples 

□ Disk version supports tape and Stringy Floppy 

D Compatible with all ASCII files (including BASIC'S) 

□ Configure program to your own format 

□ All print format settings saved with file 
D Runs on Model I and Model III 

D Runs under all versions of TRSDOS and NEWDOS 
D Fast buffer shift and type-ahead in INSERT' mode 

□ Underlining 

D No keyboard modifications required 

D Compatible with all lower case modifications 

□ Three print drivers, (parallel, serial and TRS232) 
D Recognizes high memory 

Q Uses printer DCB - you can use any print driver 
D Commands to load and save special print-drivers 
D Special print drivers may be loaded at any time 

□ Set RS232c and TRS232 options from SYSTEM menu 
D Supports serial baud rates from 110 to 9600 baud 

D Supports 1500 and 500 baud tape operations 

D Cursor speed command 

D Incomplete/'bad' loads saved for your inspection 

D 'Printer hangs' eliminated 

D All file commands use standard TRS-80 mnemonics 

D ALL versions runs with 16K, 32K or 48K 

P Automatic print formatting 

D Automatic repeating keyboard 

D Automatic 'whole word' wrap-around 



□ Cursor control - up - down - right - left 
D Cursor to end of file 

D Cursor to beginning of file 
O Tabbing 

□ Scrolling - 5 speeds forward and reverse 
D Freeze and continue scrolling 

D Cursor to top of screen 
D Cursor to beginning of line 
D Delete and insert characters 

□ Delete and insert lines 

D Erase line from cursor position to end 
D Insert and delete blocks of text 
D Backspace and erase characters 

□ Search from 1 to 38 characters at one time 

□ Replace from 1 to 38 characters at one time 

□ Search without replace 

D 'Conditional' search and replace 

D Cursor positions over 'search' character 

D Selective (wild card) search and replace 

□ Selective (wild card) search without replace 

D Search and replace carriage return and form feed 

□ Repeal command 

D Hard Space character 

D Concatenation of long lines 

D Upper and lower case shift key lock 

D Exit any command with a single keystroke 

D Automatically displays free memory 

□ Automatically displays words in file 
D Selection of cursor speeds 



□ Selective clearing of memory 

□ Set your own power-up configuration 
D Warm start command 

D Optional automatic titling 

D Optional automatic page numbering 

D Right justification 

D Left margin may be set from to 255 spaces 

D Line length may be set from 1 to 255 characters 

D Line spacing may be set from 1 to 255 lines 

D Page length may be set from 1 to 255 lines 

D Page spacing may be set from to 255 lines 

D Starting page number may be from 1 to 65535 

D Optional print length may be set to print partial files 

D Multiple printing of text files 

□ Single page printing 

D Printer configuration control: 
can lage return on/of! 
line feed on. off 

□ All options may be changed at any time 
D Loads any ASCII file 

D Compatible with all files created by previous releases 

D Easy backup ■ no fancy protection features 

O Cassette control for dictation - DICTAMATIC 

D Loads multiple files 

D Fast disk I/O - loads 36K in under 8 seconds 

D 36K text buffer (48K disk system) 

D All machine language program 

O Manual available separately 

D Source code available - THE ELECTRIC PENCIL HANDBOOK' 



The ELECTRIC PENCIL 2.0 for TRS-80 Models I and III (disk) $ 89.95 

(cassette) $ 79.95 

(stringy floppy) $ 79.95 
Also Available: 

The ELECTRIC PENCIL II for TRS-80 Model II (TRSDOS version) $325.00 

(TRSDOS version for Diablo, Qume and NEC serial printers) $350.00 

(CP/M version) $275.00 

(CP/M version for DIABLO, QUME and NEC serial printers) $300.00 



DEALER INQUIRIES ONLY: 



1260 West Foothill Blvd. 
Upland, CA 91786 



END USER ORDERS: 



ICQKIHJTROWICSt 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



ALL PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
DELIVERY SUBJECT TO AVAILABILITY 

NEW r O L L - F R E f ^^ --,, 

ORDER LINE ^£m **3m 



(800) 431-2818 



HOUR /<«"^^- 
24 ORDER £$*©/ 
LINE 

(914) 425 1535 



TRS-80™ is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 

FROM 

T COMPUTES ltd 




• All orders processed within 24 Hours 
• 30-Day money back guarantee 
• Add $3.00 for shipping in UPS Areas 
• Add $4.00 for C.O.D. or NON-UPS Areas 
• Add $5.00 to Canada or Mexico 
• Add exact postage to all other countries 



*** ESSENTIAL UTILITY PROGRAMS FOR EVERY TRS-80 OWNER *** 



Tadk Afoul Ravd Cmputw UtiCUy Vwquam 



'" ALL PROGRAMS ARE WRITTEN IN MACHINE LANGUAGE 

*** ABSOLUTELY NO KNOWLEDGE OF MACHINE LANGUAGE IS NECESSARY TO USE ANY OF THE UTILITY PROGRAMS 

"* EACH UTILITY PROGRAM IS CALLED UP FROM BASIC USING THE SIMPLE BASIC COMMANDS PROVIDED 

*** EACH UTILITY PROGRAM COMES WITH A RACET COMPUTES INSTRUCTION MANUAL 

*** EACH INSTRUCTION MANUAL INCLUDES SEVERAL EXAMPLES OF UTILITY USAGE 

*** EACH UTILITY ALLOWS THE USER TO PERFORM CERTAIN BASIC OPERATIONS TEN, TWENTY OR MORE TIMES FASTER THAN THE 

EQUIVALENT BASIC ROUTINE (FOR EXAMPLE, GSF CAN SORT AN ARRAY OF 1000 RANDOM NAMES INTO ALPHABETICAL ORDER IN 

UNDER9SECONDS!!) 



GSF (GENERALIZED SUBROUTINE FACILITY) 

• SORTS 1000-ELEMENT ARRAYS IN 9 SECONDS 

• SORTS UPTO 15 ARRAYSSIMUITANEOUSLY (MIXED STRING FLOATING POINT AND 
INTEGER) 

• SORTS SINGLE OR MULTIPLE SUBSTRINGS AS ASCENDING OR DESCENDING SORT 
KEYS 

• READ AND WRI rE ARRAYS TO CASSET ; E 

• COMPRESS AND UNCOMPRESS DATA IN MEMORY 

• MOVE ARRAYS IN MEMORY 

• DUPLICATE MEMORY 

• FAST HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL LINES 

• SCREEN CONTROLS FOR SCROLLING THE SCREEN UP. DOWN, LEFT. RIGHT AND FOR 
GENERATING INVERSE GRAPHIC DISPLAYS 

• ADDS PEEKS AND POKES (MOD-II VERSION ONLY) 



MODEL-I VERSION $25 00 

MODEL-II VERSION $50 00 

MODEL-III VERSION $30.00 



KFS-80 (KEYED FILE SYSTEM) 

• CREATE ISAM FILES (INDEX SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD) 

• ALLOWS INSTANT ACCESS TO ANY RECORD ON YOUR DISKETTE 

• INSTANTLY RETRIEVE RECORDS FROM MAILING LISTS. INVENTORY. ACCOUNTS 
RECEIVABLE OR VIRTUALLY ANY APPLICATION WHERE RAPID ACCESS IS RE- 
QUIRED TO NAMED RECORDS 

• PROVIDES THE BASIC PROGRAMMER THE ABILITY TO RAPIDLY INSERT OR ACCESS 
KEYED RECORDS IN ONE OR MORE DATA FILES 

• RECORDS ARE MAINTAINED IN SORTED ORDER BY A SPECIFIED KEY 

• RECORDS MAY BE INSERTED OR RETRIEVED BY SUPPLYING THE KEY 

• RECORDS MAY BE RETRIEVED SEQUENTIALLY IN SORTED ORDER 

• RAPID ACCESS TO ANY FILE REGARDLESS OF mE NUMBER OF RECORDS 

• MULTIPLE INDEX FILES CAN BE EASILY CREATED WHICH ALLOWS ACCESS OF A 
SINGLE DATABASE BY MULTIPLE KEYS (FOR EXAMPLE. BY BOTH NAME AND ZIP- 
CODE i 

MODEL-I VERSION $100.00 

MODEL-II VERSION $175.00 

MODEL-III VERSION $100.00 



DSM (DISK SORT MERGE) 

• SORT AN 85K DISKETTE IN LESS THAN THREE MINUTES! 

• SORTS LARGE MULTIPLE DISKETTE FILES ON A MINIMUM ONE DRIVE SYSTEM 

• ALL RECORDS ARE PHYSICALLY REARRANGED-NO KEY FILES ARE REQUIRED 

• SORTS RANDOM FILES CREATED BY BASIC, INCLUDING FILES CONTAINING SUB- 
RECORDS SPANNING SECTORS 

• SORTS ON ONE OR MORE FIELDS IN ASCENDING OR DESCENDING ORDER 

• FIELDS MAY BE STIRNGS, INTEGER. BINARY INTEGER OR FLOATING POINT 

• THESORTEDOUTPUT FILEMAYOPTIONALI YHAVEFIELDSDELETED. REARRANGED 
OR PADDED 

• SORT COMMANDS CAN BE SAVED FOR REUSE 

• SINGL E SOR r, MERGE OR MIXED S CRT MERGE OPERA PONS MA ■ BE PERFORMED 

• SORTED OUTPUT MAY BE WRITTEN TO A NEW FILE. OR REPLACE THE ORIGINAL IN- 
PUT FILE 



MODEL I VERSION $75 00 

MODEL-II VERSION $150.00 

MODE1 III VERSION $90 CO 



MAIL-LIST (A MAILING LIST DATABASE SYSTEM) 

• IDEALLY SUITED FOR ORGANIZATION MAILING LISTS. PERSONAL ADDRESSBOOK. 
OR MAILING LISTS BASED ON DATES SUCH AS REMINDERS FOR BIRTHDATES OR 
DUES PAYABLE 

• USED ISAM (INDEX SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD) FOR RAPID ACCESS TIMES 

• YOUR MAILLIST CAN ALWAYS BE SORTED AND MAINTAINED BY UP TO FOUR INDEX 
FILES (FOR EXAMPLE. NAME. ZIPCODE. DATE AND NUMBER) 

• MAILLIST ALLOWS UP TO 30 ATTRIBUTES TO BE SPECIFIED (TO BE USED IN SEL- 
ECTION OF SPECIFIED RECORDS WHEN GENERATING REPORTS OR MAILING 
LABELS 

• MAILLIST SUPPORTS BOTH 5 OR 9-DIGIT ZIPCODES 

• PRINTING MAY BE STARTED OR ENDED AT ANY POINT IN THE LIST. THEUSERCAN 
SPECIFY FIELDS OR CODES TO BE PRINTED 

• CAPACITY IS 600 NAMES FOR MODEL-I .3500NAMES FOR MODEL 1 1. 38. 0G0NAMES FOR 
MODEL II WITH HARD DISK DRIVF 1200 NAMES FOR MODEL III 

MODEL-I VERSION $75 00 

MODEL-II VERSION $150.00 

MODEL-III VERSION $75.00 



CQMPUTRQNICS? 



HSDS HARD DISK DRIVE SOFTWARE 

• MAKES TRSDOS COMPATIBLE WITH MOST HARD DISK DRIVES. 

• ADDS MANY EXTRA FEATURES TO TRSDOS 



MODEL II FASTBACK — FULL DISK BACKUP 
IN 55 SECONDS 

IN BUSINESS TIME IS MONEY. AND ONE BACKUP IS WORTH A THOUSAND TEARS. 

• WORKS ON SYSTEMS WITH 2 OR MORE DRIVES 

• CAN REPLACE YOUR EXISTING TRSOOS 1.2 or 2 BACKUP UTILITY 

MODEL M ONI Y 17' 00 



COMPROC (COMMAND PROCESSOR) 

• AUTO YOUR DISK TO PERFORM ANY SEQUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONS THAT YOU 
NORMALLY GIVE FROM THE KEYBOARD (FOR EXAMPLE. INSERT THE DISKETTE. 
PRESS THE RESET BUTTON. YOUR COMMAND FILE COULD AUTOMATICALLY SHOW 
YOU THE DIRECTORY. SHOW THE FREE SPACE ON THE DIKSETTE. LOAD A MA- 
CHINE LANGUAGE SUBROUTINE. LOAD BASIC. LOAD AND RUN A BASIC PROGRAM, 
AND SELECT A GIVEN ITEM ON YOUR MENU. .ALL WITHOUT TOUCHING THE KEY- 
BOARD 1 ) 

MODEL-I VERSION $20.00 

MODEL-MI VERSION $30.00 

NOT AVAILABLE FOR MODEL-II 



MODEL-II UTILITY PACKAGE 



DISCAT (DISKETTE CATALOG SYSTEM) 

• THIS COMPREHENSIVE DISKETTE CATALOGUING/INDEXING UTILITY ALLOWS THE 
USER TO KEEP TRACK OF THOUSANDS OF PROGRAMS IN A CATEGORIZED LI- 
BRARY FILE INCLUDES PROGRAM NAMES AND EXTENSIONS. PROGRAM LENGTH. 
DISKETTE NUMBERS AND FREE SPACE ON EACH DISKETTE KEEP A COMPLETE 
CATALOG OF THE DIRECTORIES ON ALL YOUR DISKETTES IN ALPHABETICAL 
ORDER (SORTED ON EACH DISKETTE. OR COMPLETE ALPHABETICAL LIST OF 
PROGRAMS ON ALL YOUR OISKETTES) 

MODEL-I VERSION $50.00 

MODEL-MI VERSION $50.00 

MODEL-II VERSION (SEE MODEL-II UTILITY PACKAGE) 



ESSENTIAL FOR EVERY MOD-II OWNER 

RECOVER AMI; REPAIR Fll ES AND DIRECTOR ES (Rv JUST ENTERING A SINGLE 
COMMAND) 

XCOPY SIMILAR TO COPY BUT CAN COPY ANY NUMBER OF FILES AT ONE TIME 
FASTER AND MORE ACCURATE THAN COPY SINCE RECORDS ARE COPIED IN 
GROUPS RATHER THAN ONE RECORDS AT A TIME USING XCOPY YOU CAN COPY 
FILES THAT CAN NOT BE COPIED USING THE COPY COMMAND 
SZAP... PROVIDES THE CAPABILITY TO READ AND MODIFY ANY SECTOR ON A 
DISKETTE 

XHIT ...CAN BE USED TO REPAIR A DISKETTE DIRECTORY 

DCS DIRECTOR CATALOG SYSTEM IS A UTILITY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USER 
DISKETTES-SETS OF A MULTIPLE DISKETTE DIRECTORY FILE (WITH UP TO 1200 
INDIVIDUAL FILE NAMES). ALLOWS SELECTIVELY LISTED OR PRINTED LISTS OF 
DIRECTORY FILES IN COMBINED SORTED ORDFR (FOR EXAMPl I ISTED ALPHA- 
BETICALLY BY DISKETTE. OR A COMPOSITE ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ALL YOUR 
DISKETTES') 

DEBUG-II. .ADDS SEVERAL FEATURES TO THE PRESENT TRSDOS DEBUG UTILITY 
INCLUDING SINGLE INSTRUCTION CYCLE. AUTO (LOOP) BREAKPOINTS. SUB- 
ROUTINE CAI LING \'P{:^< KEY DETECTION AND MANY OTHERS 



MODEL-II ONLY 



BLINK (BASIC LINK FACILITY) 

• LINK TROM BASIC PROGRAM TO ANOTHER SAVING ALL. VARIABLES 

• THE CHAINED PROGRAM MAY EITHER REPLACE THE ORIGINAL PROGRAM OR CAN 
BE MERGED BY STATEMENT NUMBER 

MODEI - /EHSU >N $25.00 

MODEL-MI VERSION $50.00 

MODEL-II VERSION (SEE MODEL-II UTILITY PACKAGE) $30 00 



MODEL-II DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

• THIS PACKAGE IS A MUST FOR ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMERS 

• INCLUDES THE MICROSOFT EDITOR ASSEMBLER PLUS WITH ENHANCEMENTS FOR 
THE MODEL-II 

. A COMPLETE DISASSEMBLER 

• SUPERZA" FOR READING AND MODIFY ANY SELECTOR ON A DISKETTE 



MODEL-II ONLY 



$125 00 



INFINITE BASIC 



• ADDS OVER 80 COMMANDS TO BASIC 

• SORTING. ..STRING CENTERING/ROTATION/TRUNCATION.. JUSTIFICATION-DATA 
COMPRESSION-STRING TRANSLATION/COPYING. ..SCREEN DISPLAY SCROLL- 
ING MATRIX OPERATIONS SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS (THROUGH MATRIX 
INVERSION) DYNAMIC ARRAY RESHAPING 

MODEL-I VERSION $50.00 

MODEL-III VERSION $60 00 

NOT AVAILABLE ON MODEL-II 



MOD-II BASIC CROSS REFERENCE UTILITY 

• LIST OR PRINT A SORTED CROSS REFERENCE TO ALL NUMBERS OR VARIABLES 
WITHIN A PROGRAM 

• LIST OF PRINT ALL LINE NUMBERS CONTAINING A SPECIFIED STRING OF CHAR- 
AC! ERS 



MODFL-II ONLY 



.S50 00 



*** ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE "* 



INFINITE BUSINESS 



• ADD ON PACKAGE TO INFINITE BASIC (REQUIRES INFINITE BASIC) 

• ADDS PACKED DECIMAL ARITHMETIC WITH 127 DIGIT ACCURACY (♦.0,'./) 

• COMPLETE PRINTER PAGINATION CONTROLS ..AUTO HEADERS. FOOTERS AND 
PAGE NUMBERS 

• BINARY SEARCH OF SORTED AND UNSORTED ARRAYS (INSTANT SEARCH OF AN 
El EMENT WITHIN AN ARRAY) 

- hash CODES 

MODEL i VERSION 53C 00 

MODEL-III VERSION $30 00 

NOT AVAILABLE ON MODEL-II 



END USERS 
CALL: 



REMODEL-PROLOAD 



THE ULTIMATE RENUMBERING PROGRAM ..RENUMBERS ALL OR PART OF A PRO- 
GRAM (ALLOWS PARTIAL RENUMBERING IN MIDDLE OF PROGRAMS) 
PARTIAL OR COMPLETE MERGE OF TWO CASSETTE PROGRAMS 



MODEL-I VERSION 

MODEL-MI VERSION 

NOT AVAILABLE ON MODEL-II 



.$35.00 
.$35.00 



HOUR , 
24 ORDER L 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 



iCQMPLJTRQNICS? 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

NEW TOLL-FREE 
ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 

ADD $3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
ADD $4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 
ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF U.S., 
CANADA AND MEXICO 



COPSYS 



• COPY AND VERIFY ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE (SYSTEM) TAPES WRITTEN IN STAND- 
ARD FORMAT. ..IF YOU BUY A MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAM, COPSYS ALLOWS 
YOU TO EASILY COPY THE PROGRAM ONTO ANOTHER CASSETTE AS A BACKUP 

MODEL-I VERSION $-5 00 

MODEL-III VERSION $20.00 

NOT AVAILABLE ON MODEL-II 



FOR DEALER 
INFORMATION CALL: 



RACET COMPUTES - ^ 



1330 N. GLASSEL, SUITE M, ORANGE CA 92667 
(714) 997-4950 




cs 



80™ • APPLE™ • • 

I Tandy Corp. - • APPLE is a trademark oi Apple Corp. 



from 





Level III 



Add new dimensions to your Level 
Feature inrii ide: 

1. Advanced graphics! New commands to do plotting 
etc.! 

2. Renumber a basic program! 

3. Single stroke instructions. Type 1 key to get full 
command print outs like PRINT, EDIT ETCJ 

4. New save and load commands. Replaces level II 
CSAVE and CLOAD! Improves loading reliability! 

5. INPUT#LEN and LINEINPUTSLEN. Allows you to 
write programs that set a time limit on INPUTS! 

6 Keyboard Debounce. Prevents . evel II key bounce 
problems. 

7. Spelled out error messages. 

8. 10 user defined routines. 

9. LINEPUT command. 
10 Flexible MID routines. 
11. I NSTR function. 

1? Use: defined (unctions 

13. Hex and Octal Conversions! 

TRS-80 (MODEL I) (tape) $29.95 

TRS-80 (MODEL I) (disk) $49.95 




Typing Tutor 



* FOR THE PROGRAMMER: Learn how to type your 
programs in faster with less mistakes! 

* FOR THE STUDENT: There is no easier or faster 

way to learn typing 1 

* FOR THE YOUNGSTER: Learning to type at an 
early age can lead to better language skills! 

* FOR THE "SOMETIMES" TYPIST: Clean up BAD 

HABITS 

TRS-80 MOD I & MOD III $19.95 (tape only) 

APPLE $24.95 (disk) 




Editor Assembler Plus: 

Includes MACRO tai ihties assemble directly into mem- 
ory, expression, evaluator, auto ORG, quash command, 
move and copy, edit, substitute, extend, ZBUG, Super D- 
Bugger 80 page reference manual and handy reference 
card! 16K Level II PMC/TRS-80. 

TRS-80 MOD I (tape) $29.95 

TRS-80 MOD I & III (disk) $49.95 




rosoft's muMATH and 
Extended muMATH 

Now a!i vol mathematicians out there can use your com ou- 
ter to answei complicated math equations with extended 
Algebraic equations for answers and much much more. The 
finest Math System previously available only on large com- 
puter systems is now available for the TRS or pmc-80. 

32K $74.95 

32K 249.95 



Now The Softcard Can Take 
You Beyond The BASICS. A PP'e Softcard 

$399.00 

The following Software requires the 
"Softcard" from Microsoft 

FORTRAN, Disk 195.00 

Z80 Disk Assembler, Disk 1 25.00 

BASIC, Compiler, Disk 395.00 

COBOL, Disk 750.00 

MUmath Extended, Disk 250.00 

RAMCARD 16K 195.00 

APPLESOFT COMPILER-TASC 175.00 



BASIC COMPILER 



$195.00 




With TRS-80'" BASIC Compiler, your Level II programs will run 
at record speeds! Compiled programs execute an average of 3-10 
times faster than programs run under Level II. Make extensive use 
of integer operations, and get speeds 20-30 times faster than the 
interpreter. 

Best of all, BASIC Compiler does it with BASIC, the language 
you already know. By compiling the same source code that your 
current BASIC interprets, BASIC Compiler adds speed with a 
minimum of effort. 

And you get more BASIC features to program with, since 
features ot Microsoft's Version 5.0 BASIC interpreter are included 
in the package. Features like the WHILE. .WEND statement, long 
variable names, variable length records, and the CALL statement 
make programming easier. An exclusive BASIC Compiler features lets you call FOR- 
TRAN and machine language subroutines much more easily than in Level II. 

Simply type in and debug your program as usual, using the BASIC interpreter. Then 
enter a command line telling the computer what to compile and what options to use. 

Voila! Highly optimized, 2-80 machine code that your computer executes in a flash! 
Run it now or save it for later. Your compiled program can be saved on disk for direct 
execution every time 

Want to market your programs? Compiled versions are ideal for distribution. You 
distribute only the object code, not the source, so your genius stays fully protected. 

BASIC Compiler runs on your TRS-80" Model I with 48K and disk drive. The package 
includes BASIC Compiler, linking loader & BASIC library with complete documentation. 




Adventure 



The original adventure for your TRS-80 and APPLE 1 Don't 

take substitutes 1 Requires 3?K i Disk 

MODEL I / APPLE $29.95 




* 4 1. a ►" 



Olympic Decathlon 

The most beautiful graphic display ol loo human body in 
actioo All the Decathlon events are depicted in excellent 
graphics with you at the keyboard control Snot put Long 
jump, High jump, Hurdles Pole vaio;! For- tor the whole 
family. 

TRS-80 $29.95 (tape) 

TRS-80 $29.95 (disk) 

APPLE $29.95 (disk) 




Microsoft's FORTRAN 

Now you too can program in FORTRAN. This package was 
previously priced at S350.00! New low price! 

$99.95 

Microsoft's Disk Macro Assembler 

The best assembler-editor around! Original price was 
$350.00! NEW PRICE! 

$99.95 



rVXATV^fvWT Oil !_ 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




NEW TOLL-FREE 
ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 

ADD $3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
ADD $4.00 FOR COD. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 
ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF U.S.. 
CANADA AND MEXICO 



ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE*** 



EVE! 



FOR YOUR TRS-80™ MODEL I or MODEL HI • 

• TRS-80 is 4 ir jdf nurk ol Ihe Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. 



introduces 



UKJO 

For the 80s— 

an enhanced NEWDOS 

for your TRS-80™ 










Apparat, Inc., announces the most powerful Disk Operating System tor the 
TRS-80". It has been designed for the sophisticated user and professional 
programmer who demands the ultimate in disk operating systems. 



DOUBLE DENSITY ON MODEL I 

Use of the LNW DOUBLE or the PERCOM DOUBLER will expand storage 80% under 

NEWDOS/80 Version 2.0. mixing single and double density specifications without 

any patches. 

SINGLE DENSITY ON MODEL III 

Will allow the MODEL III to read disk from MODEL I and to write disks the MODEL t 

can read, making it easy to move programs between the two machines 

EXPANDED DIRECTORIES 

Directories can be expanded three times the normal numberof available entries, even 

on DOS disks. This is extremely useful when using double density. 

DYNAMICALLY MERGE IN BASIC 

To allow sections of BASIC programs to be deleted and replaced with lines from a 

disk file during program execution Also allows merging of non-ASCII format files. 

SELECTIVE VARIABLE CLEARING 

Allows the programmer to keep some variables and release the space used by the rest. 

also specific variables may be erased releasing the space they use 

PAGE SCROLLING IN BASIC 

Scrolling ha:, been modified to allow the iser to display programs page by page in 

addition to the regular line scrolling. 

REPEAT FUNCTIONS 

Keys in MODEL I repeat when held down Entering "R" as a DOS command causes the 

previous DOS command to be repeated. 

ROUTING FOR DEVICE HANDLING 

To send input and output from one device (display, printer, keyboard, etc.) toothers 

or to a routine in main memory. 

DISASSEMBLER OUTPUT TO DISK 

The Disassembler will now write a source code file to disk, which the editor assembler 

can read and edit 

CHAINING ENHANCEMENTS 

Features to allow chain files to be written from SCRIPSIT: also chaining may be 

switched on and off without changing chain file positioning, and may be executed via 

CMD "xxx" and DOS-CALL 

SUPERZAP 

Has the ability to scan diskettes or disk files to find the occurences of specific values. 

Also will generate disk file passwords and hashcode. 

FAST SORT ROUTINE 

Basic function CMD "O" provides direct or indirect in-memory sort of multiple arrays. 

MERGING OF NON-ASCII BASIC PROGRAMS 

BASIC SINGLE STEPPING 



New 8ASIC commands that supports files with variable record lengths up to 4095 
Bytes long. 

Mix or match disk drives. Supports any track count from 18 to 80. Use 35. 40 or 77 
track 5" mini disks drives or 8" disk drives, or any combination. 

A security boot-up for BASIC or machine code application programs. User never sees 
"DOS READY" or " > READY" and is unable to "BREAK", clear screen, or issue any 
direct BASIC statement including "LIST " 
New editing commands that allow program lines to be deleted from one location and 

moved to another or to allow the duplication of a program line with the deletion of the 
original 

Enhance and improved RENUMBER that allows relocation of subroutines 
CDE function, simultaneous striking of theC. Dand E keys will allow the user to enter 
a mini-DOS to perform some DOS commands without disturbing the resident pro- 
gram. 

Upward compatible with NEWDOS 2.1 and TRSDOS 2 3. 
Includes Superzap 3.0 and all Apparat 2.1 utilities. 



•CQMPJTRQNICS; 



V\A-v«Mfl' 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 




HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 



NEW DOS/80 

(TRS-80 MODEL I or MODEL III) $149.00 



* ADD $3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

* ADD $4.00 FOR COD. OR NON-UPS AREAS 

* ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

* ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE U.S., CANADA & MEXICO 



** ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE" 



• •• EVERYTHING For 

' TRS-80'" is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



: >™:iVisOFT, 



• All orders processed within 24 Hours 
• 30-Day money back guarantee 
•Add S3.00forshipping in UPS Areas 
• Add $4.00 for COD. or NON-UPS Areas 
• Add $5.00 to Canada or Mexico 
• Add exact postage to all other countries 



!HM»«SD.»S< 



Let Your TRS-80 1 
Teach You 



TT 



■MBmHaBBHanaasHna 



REMASSEM-1 

Tired of buying book after book on assembly language programming and 
still not knowing your POP from your PUSH? 

R t MSOFT proudly announces a more efficient way, using your own 
TRS-80'" to learn the fundamentals of assembly language programming 
at YOUR pace :ma at YOUR convenience 

Our unique package, "INTRODUCTION TO TRS-80'" ASSEMBLY 

PROGRAMMING", will provide you with tne following: 

* Ten 45-minute lessons on audio cassettes 

* A driver program to make your TRS-80'" video monitor serve as a 

blackboard for the instructor. 

* A display program for each lesson to provide illustration and rein- 
forcement for what you are hearing. 

* Step-by-step dissection of complete and useful routines to test 

memory and to gain direct control over the keyboard, video moni- 
tor and printet 

* How to access and use powerful routines in your Level II ROM. 
This course was developed and recorded by Joseph E Willis and is based 
on the successful series of courses he has taught at Meta Technologies 
Corporation, the Radio Shack Computer Center, and other locations in 
Northern Ohio. The minimum system required is a Level II, 16K RAM. 






LEARN TRS-80™ 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

DISK I/O 

REMDISK-1 

Your disk system and you can reallystep out with REMsof-t s Educational 
Module, REMDISK-1, a "short course" revealing the details of DISK I/O 
PROGRAMMING using assembly language 



Using the same format as our extremely popular introduction to assem- 
bly language programming, this "ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE DISK I/O 
PROGRAMMING" course includes: 

* Two 45-minute lessons on audio cassette 

* A driver program to make your TRS-80'" video monitorserve as a 
blackboard for the instructor 

* A display program for each lesson to provide illustration and rein- 
forcement for what you are hearing 

* A booklet of comprehensive, fully-commented program listings 
illustrating sequential file I/O. random-access file I/O, and track 
and sector I/O. 

* A diskette with machine-readable source codes for ail programs 
discussed, in both Radio shack EDTASM and Macro formats. 

* Routines to convert from one assembler format to the other. 
This course was developed and recorded by Joseph E. Willis, for the 
student with experience in assembly language programming; it is an 
intermediate-to advanced-level course Minimum hardware required is a 
Model I Level II, 16K RAM one disk drive system 



■CQMPLTTRQNICS! 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



PLEASE SEND ME: 

□ REMASSEM-1 (TRS-80 MODEL I CASSETTE) . 

□ REMASSEM-1 (TRS-80 MODEL I DISKETTE) . . 
D REMASSEM-1 (TRS-80 MODEL III CASSETTE) 

□ REMASSEM-1 (TRS-80 MODEL III DISKETTE) 
D REMDISK (TRS-80 MODEL I DISKETTE) 





$74 95 
S79 95 
$74.95 
$79.95 
$29.95 



HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 



(914) 425-1535 




Dealer inquiries 

REMsoft, INC. 

571 East 185th Street 

Euclid, Ohio 44119 

(216) 531-1338 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER EXP. DATE 

SIGNATURE NAME 



ADDRESS CITY STATE 

*** ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



ZIP. 




YOUR TRS-80 



* TRS-80' 



is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corporation 

• All orders processed within 24-Hours 
•k 30-Day money back guarantee on all TRSDOS Software 
*Add $3.00 for shipping in UPS Areas 
-kAdd $4.00 for COD. or NON-UPS Areas 
+Add $5.00 outside U.S.A., Canada & Mexico 
* We will match any bonafide advertised price 
in any of the Major Computer Magazines 



A 



S 

o 

F 
T 
W 
A 
R 



LISTED 
HERE 



w 


R 
K 

S 

w 



H 

T 

R 

S 
D 
O 

s* 



(1) ELECTRIC PENCIL (Michael Shrayer Software).... 
Complete word processor with extensive editing and 

printer formatting features $325 

(S r ANDARD TRSDOS VERSION) $350 

(DIABLO, NEC OR OUMt TRSDOS VERSION) 

(2) GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE. INVENTORY CONTROL. 
INVOICING AND PAYROLL (Small Business Systems 
Group) an extensive business system for the serious 
user, can be used one module at a time or as a co- 
ordinated system... $295... per module... $1299 for the 
complete system. 

(3)FASTBACK (Race! Computes) A full disk backup 
in 55 seconds on systems with 2 or more disk drives - 
including verification. Can replace your existing TRS- 
DOS 1 2 or 2 Backup Utility $75.00 

(4) MOD-II UTILITY PACKAGE (Racet Computes)., 
adds important utilities to TRSDOS copy files 
selectively ..faster and more accurate file copying... 
repair bad directories displays sorted directory of 
all files on 1 to 4 disk drives SUPERZAP ..change 
disk ID and more $150 

(5) ADVENTURE »1-»12 (Scott Adams - Adventure 
International) a series of games formally only 
available on the large computers your goal is to work 
your way through a maze of obstacles in order to 
recover a secret treasure or complete a mission the 
package includes all 12 Adventures written by Scott 
Adams $129.95 

(6) GSF (Racet Computers) Generalized Subroutine 
Facility, a series of super fast machine language 
utilities that can be called from a BASIC program (no 
machine language knowledge required) sorts 1QQQ 
items in under 5 seconds allows PEEK and POKE 
statements move data blocks compress and un- 
compress data works under TRSDOS $50 

(7) DSM (Racet Computes) Disk Sort Merge, sorts 
and merges large multiple diskettes files on a 1 to 4 
drive system NOT AN IN MEMORY SORT can 
actually alphabetize (or any other type of sort) 4 disk 
drives worth of data sorts one complete disk of 
information in 10 minutes information is provided to 
use DSM with the RS MAILING PROGRAM works 
under TRSDOS $160 

(8) RSM (Small Systems Software) a machine 
language monitor and disassembler can be used to 
see and modify memory of disk sectors contains all 
the commands found on the Model-I version plus 
some additional commands for the MOD-II works 
under TRSDOS $39.95 

(9) BLINK BASIC LINK FACILITY (Racet Computes) 
Link from one BASIC program to another saving all 
variables chain program without losing variables 
$50 

(10) BASIC CROSS REFERENCE UTILITY (Racet 
Computes), lists all variables and strings used in a 
program (with the line numbers in which they appearl 

lists all GOTO's (with the line num- 
bers in which they appear) searches for any specific 
variables or strings (with the line number in which 
they appear) $50 

(11) DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE (Racet Computes) 
SUPERZAP (to see. print or change any byte on a 
diskette). Disassembler and MOD-II interface to the 
MICROSOFT EDITOR ASSEMBLER PLUS including 
uploading services and patches for Disk I/O. assemble 
directly into memory save all or portions of source 
to disk dynamic debug facility (ZBUG). entended 
editor commands $125 



(12) HARD/SOFT DISK SYSTEM (Racet Computes) 
The software essential to interface any of the copula: 
large hard disk drives... completely compatible with 
your existing software and files. ..allows up to 20 
megabytes of storage (and large') directory expand- 
able to handle thousands of files $400 

(13) CAMEO HARD DISK DRIVE CONTROLLER... 

CALL FOR PRICF 

(14) HARD DISK DRIVES CALL FOR PRICE 

(15) H a E COMPUTRONICS, INC. SHARE-A-PRO- 
GRAM DISKETTE #1... works under TRSDOS a 
collection of programs written by MOD-II owners, 
programs include data base management a word 
processor, mail system mortgage calculations- 
Checkbook register and many others $12 FREE if 
you send us a diskette containing a program that can 
be added to the SHARE-A-PROGRAM DISKETTE. 

(16) WABASH CERTIFIED DISKETTES $39 95 

(per box of 10) 

(17) FLIP SORT DISKETTE STORAGE TRAY Stores 
50 diskettes comes complete with index-dividers, tilt 
plates and adjustable spacing $44 95 

(18) MASTER PAC 100 100 essential programs 
BUSINESS PERSONAL FINANCE STATISTICS 

MATH GAMBLING GAMES- includes 125 page 
manual and 2 diskettes $99 95 

(19) BUSINESS PAC 100 100 essential business 
programs INVENTORY CONTROL PAYROLL 
BOOKKEEPING SYSTEM STOCK CALCULA- 
TIONS CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE AC- 
COUNTS RECEIVABLE ACCOUNTS PAYABLE... 

includes 125 page manual and two diskettes $149.95 

(20) EDITOR ASSEMBLER (Galactic Software Ltd .)... 
The first user oriented Editor Asssembler for the 
MODEL II and was designed to utilize all the features 
of the MODEL II It includes innovative features for 
ease of coding and debugging and complete docu- 
mentation (over 120 pages! works under TRSDOS 
S179 

(21) BASIC COMPILER (Microsoft! changes your 
source program into machine language increases 
program execution by 3 10 times $395 

(22) MAIL/FILE SYSTEM from Galactic Software Ltd 
Stores 2.500 names per disk No sorting time is 
required since the file is automatically sorted by first 
and last name plus Zip Code on input Retrieve by any 
combination of 19 user codes Supports an 11 digit 
alphanumenca Zip Supports a message line Comes 
complete with user-oriented documentation (100- 
page manual) Allows for company name and individ- 
ual of a company and complete phone number (and 
extension) works under TRSDOS $1 99.00 

(23) INCOME TAX PAC Professional income tax 
package . most forms and schedules output to video 
or line printer automatic memory storage of all 
information data can be loaded from diskette 
changed and edited built in error checking $199.95 

(24) COMPUTER GAMES (SBSG) Mean Checker 
Machine. Star-Trek III. Concentration. Treasure Hunt. 
Banco. Dog Star Adventure $74.95 

(25) INTERACTIVE FICTION. ..is a story-teller using a 
computer, so that you. the reader, can actually take 
part in the story instead of merely reading . $69 95 



-.vm *' r 'A " r 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 




NEW TOLL-FREE 
ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 



(1) CP/M (Lifeboat Associates), an alternative 
operating system for the MOD-II that allows MOD-II 
owners to use any of the hundreds of programs 
available under CP/M $170 

(2) CP/M HANDBOOK. (Sybex) a step-by-step 

guide to CP/M takes the reader through each of the 
CP/M commands numberous sample programs., 
practical hints reference tables $14 95 

(3) GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE, INVENTORY CONTROL, 

AND PAYROLL (Peachtree Software) requires CP/M 
and MICROSOFT BASIC ..professional business 
systems, turn key operation can be used as single 
modules or as a coordinated system $500 per 
module $2500 for the complete system 

(4) WORD-STAR The ultimate word processor a 
menu driven word processing system that can be used 
with any printer All standard word processing 
commands are included plus many unique com- 
mands only found on WORD STAR, requires CP/M 
$49500 

(5) mail LIST MERGE An add on package that 
allows the user to send form letters (created on 
WORD-STAR) to any compiled mailing list (using any 
CP/M based MAIL program such as the PEACHTREE 
MAIL PROGRAM) requires CP'M WORD STAR and 
CP/M based mail program $150 

(6) CBASIC-2 a non-interactive BASIC used for 
many programs that run under CP/M allows user to 
make more efficient use of disk files eliminates the 
use ol most line number references require on such 
programs as the SELECTOR $120 

(7) MICROSOFT BASIC an enhanced version of the 
MICROSOFT BASIC found on TRSDOS adds 
commands such as chaining (allows the user to LOAD 
and RUN a new program without losing the variables 
currently in memory), long variable length file 
records. WHILE/WEND and others can be used with 
the BASIC COMPILER to speed up programs (3-I0 
times faster execution) $325 

(8) ELECTRIC PENCIL (Michael Shrayer Software) 
Complete word processor with extensive editing 

and printer formatting features $274 

(Standard printer version) $300 

(DIABLO NEC or OUME version). 

(9) BASIC COMPILER (Microsoft) changes your 
source programs into machine language increases 
program execution by 3-10 times . . $395 

(10) SELECTOR V (Micro-Ap) ..The ultimate data 
management system user defined fields and codes 
manages any list defined by the user includes addi- 
tional modules for simplified inventory control, 
accounts receivable and payable data file format 
conversions full page report formatter computa- 
tions global search and replace data text merging 
hard disk compatible requires CBASIC-2 $495 

(11) T/MAKER II (Lifeboat Associates) The most ad- 
vanced utility for the analysis and presentation of 
numerical data and text material just set up your 
data in columns and rows, and T /Maker II does the rest 

change any number in the model and all the others 
are adjusted and recalculated 300-character wide 
screen editor justify lines, formattables move 
blocks of copy global editing $275 

(12) SMART TERMINAL Enables your TRS-80 to be 
used a remote terminal to a time sharing computer 
system Supports upper lower case and full range of 
control keys, including control key mapping into any 
ASCII character Automatic transmission of files 
between TRS-80 and host computer Files can be read 
from or written to cassette tape or disk Incoming data 
can be printed on line printer or stored in memory for 
subsequent save to cassette or disk Disk and tape 
files are fully compatible with the ELECTRIC PENCIL 
program Baud rate and RS-232C sense switches can 
be reset without opening Expansion Interface. Re- 
quires RS-232C interface and modem $79 95 

• (CP/M IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF 

DIGITAL RESEARCH) 



ALL PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



(914) 425-1535 



A 

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P 
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R 
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U 

I 

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E 

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P 

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NEW!!! 

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$18/year (or 12 issues) 



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Small Business Systems Group 




SMALL BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS GROUP 



GENERAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM For TRS-80™ 

S.B.S.G. has created the first completely user-configurable accounting system 
available for the TRS80 T ". 

User configurable? Each S.B.S.G. General Accounting System Module (except 
Order Entry) can be operated independently, or any of the modules can be 
combined in any configuration, providing a complete, coordinated system to 
fit the needs of your business. 

The S.B.S.G. System allows you the maximum efficient use of available disk 
space. Each module will run on a standard 1 disk drive system (except for Model 
I systems, which require 2 drives). As you add more disk drives to your system, 

the amount of on-line data storage increases. Now here's an important fact 

the S.B.S.G. General Accounting System "spans" your disk drives --that means 
that you can instantly access your data on any of up to 8 disk drives at any 
time! Since your S.B.S.G. Accounting System is user-configurable, it will work 
with 1 , 2, 3, 4 or more disk drive systems - and it is fully compatible with most 
hard disk drive systems (at additional cost). 



General Ledger 

The General Ledger accounting system consolidates financial data from other 
accounting subsystems in an accurate and timely manner. Major reports in- 
clude Trial Balance, Income Statement, Balance Sheet, a user-defined report, 
and more. All data is maintained and reported by month, quarter, year and 
previous three quarters. Transactions may be entered via direct posting and 
external posting generated by A/R, A/P, Payroll - or any other user source. 

Accounts Receivable 

The objective of a computerized A/R system is to prepare accurate and timely 
monthly statements to credit customers. Management can generate informa- 
tion required to control the amount of credit extended and the collection of 
money owed in order to maximize profitable credit sales while minimizing 
losses from bad debts. This system is invoice-oriented. Invoices can be entered 
before they're ready for billing, after billing, or even aftertheyare paid. Accounts 
Receivable allows entry of new invoices, credit memos, debit memos, or modi- 
fication or deletion invoice and allows for progress payment. The transaction 
information includes: type of A/R transaction, P.O. **, description of P.O., 
billing date, general ledger sales account **, invoice amount, shipping and 
transportation charges, tax charges, payment, and progress payment informa- 
tion. Reports include: summary or detail listing of invoices not yet billed, open 
items (unpaid invoices), closed items (paid invoices), and aging. Statements 
may be printed at any time and follow the format of nationally available forms. 

Order Entry 

The Order Entry Module was designed as a supplement to the Accounts 
Receivable Module, and will not operate independently. This system allows you 
to add, change, delete, list and print invoices; apply an invoice to correct custom- 
er account: generate computer assigned invoice numbers; note type (invoice 
credit memo, debit memo); record customer order number, invoice date, 
shipping date, FOB location, method of shipping, salesman, and payment 
terms; print selected number of shipping labels; enter, display and correct 10 
lines of data per invoice, noting the part number, description, price, quantity 



ordered, extension, taxable or not It also allows the user to enter, display and 
correct invoice totals, noting the invoice subtotal, taxes, shipping and handling, 
with disbursement up to 5 General Ledger accounts; print a transaction report; 
maintain a terms code file in the system; update Account Receivable and 
generate summary report totals. It automatically coordinates to the Inventory 
Module (if used) to determine description, price and out of stock status, and to 
immediately deplete inventory stock Price fields are easily modified to include 
percent or dollar discount 



Payroll 

Payroll involves many complex calculations and the production of reports and 
documents, many of which are required by government agencies. The Payroll 
system performs all necessary payroll tasks including file maintenance, pay data 
entry and verification, computation of pay and deduction amounts, and the 
printing of reports and checks. State and Federal Tax changes are easily im- 
plemented by the user via menu prompting. In its link to General Ledger, each 
employee's payroll information is distributed to as many as 1 2 different GL 
accounts; system automatically posts to cash account. 

Accounts Payable 

The Accounts Payable system receives data concerning purchases from 
suppliers and produces checks in payment of outstanding invoices. Several 
reports are available to supply information needed for the analysis of payments, 
expenses, purchases and cash requirements. The Accounts Payable system is 
invoice-oriented. It handles new invoices, credit memos and even debit memos 
and allows modification and deletion of invoices. The flexible check calculation 
procedures allows checks to be calculated for a set of vendors, specific vendors 
or even specific invoices. The reports include open item listings and closed 
item listings (both detail and summary), debit and credit memo listings, aging, 
check register report (to give an audit trail of checks printed), and vendor listing 
and vendor activity. (Jpdate reports are useful for audit trails and checking for 
accuracy. Checks may be printed at any time and follow the format of nationally 
available forms. 



Inventory 

Status reports and minimum reorder reports help to reduce the potential hazard 
of overstocking which results in cash flow problems. Program selection allows 
the user to store data for inventory located at up to five separate sites (divisions), 
coding up to 9 sales people. Available reports include inventory master list, 
price listings, period and year-to-date sales, stock status, minimum reorder 
point and commission information. 



Model I, 48K and 2 Disk Drives . . . $195.00 Per Module 

Model HI, 48K $195.00 Per Module 

Model II, 64K $295.00 Per Module 

Sample Report Printouts $ 10.00 



H & E COMPOTRONICS Gives You A 30-Day Money Back Guarantee On All Modules 



Experience Shows - S.B.S.G. has over 11,000 Installed Systems! 



COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 

Small Business Systems Group markets a complete line of software which inter- 
faces the TRS-80™ with ANY computer that communicates in ASCII. This family 
of products offers both terminal and host capabilities to users with even the 
most minimal hardware configurations. There has been wide interest in these 
products from "comm buffs," the educational community, and businesses 
and individuals who need to communicate on a regular basis. Our 
systems are among the most versatile and comprehensive on the market today 
for TRS-80" microcomputers. 




SMALL BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS GROUP 



ST80-IH™ -- The Ultimate Communications System 

The "state of the art" in communications processors, designed for complex 
commercial applications. Included in this package is a set of programs that 
allow your TRS-80'" to talk to a timesharing computer, transfer files to and from 
your central business computer, and customize your ST80-III to your specific 
application. 

Features include: Selectable RS232 Setting • Help Display* Echo Feedback 
• Job Log (LDOS Mod I, Mod 111) • 2-CIser Translation Tables • Auto Logon • 
10 Function Keys (Definable) • RCIBOUT Key (Definable) • Warm Restart • 
Automatic I.D. • True Break • Direct Cursor Addressing • DOS Command 
Support • Transmit Line Feed • Printer Support • Video Display Modes: 
SCROLL, FORMAT, PAGE, REVERSE VIDEO (Mod II), CURSOR ON/OFF* 
Auto-answer • Autodial (certain modems) • Append to memory buffer • Big 
buffer for printer • Off hook / on hook • 1 predefined ASCII strings in transla- 
tion tables, • Registered users include NASA, (JSM, UPS, Westinghouse, and 
many colleges, universities and major banks. 

Minimum Requirements: One disk drive, RS232-C, 32K Model I or III, 64K 
Model II. 

Model I or HI $150.00 

Model II $250.00 

FORUM-80™ - Communications Network 

With Bill Abney's hot new communications product, you and your TRS-80™ 

can become part of one of the fastest growing communications networks in the 

country; your computer becomes an on-line bulletin board system: users can 

leave messages, get messages, swap information; exchange VisiCalc™ reports, 

charts, graphs or other correspondence with other computers. 

Features Include: Security System • Constantly displayed time-in-use figure* 

User Friendly • User Configurable or can be modified for custom application • 

Future updates and upgrades available to register owners • Multiple command 

strings • Non-technical user and operator manuals. 

Minimum Requirements: TRS-80'" (3-drive Mod I, 2-drive Mod 111), 48K, 

RS232C, Auto-answer modem. 

Model I or III $350.00 



ST-80-PBB™ -- Personal Bulletin Board 

A small yet powerful bulletin board for the individual to gather and leave electro- 
nic mail. Messages reside in data base in memory, eliminating the problem of 
scanning magnetic media. 

Features Include: Password Security System • Four levels of Access-Guest, 
Member, Owner, Operator • User Log • Four message types • Smart reverse 
scan to view messages from most recent to oldest. 

Minimum Requirements: TRS-80'" (Mod I or III), 16K, Level II, Auto-answer 
modem, ST80-X10 Host Program (550), RS232-C. 

Model I or III $50.00 



ST-80-CC™ - Communications Center 

More than a personal bulletin board, this is a complete communications system 
for low to moderate traffic. Like ST80-PBB'" it supports four levels of users and 
four levels of messages with text editing and reverse scan of messages. 
Additional Features Include: Transmit same message to many individuals 
• Auto logon and multiple command scanning • Print messages on line printer, 
save messages in memory buffer, maintain database without user intervention. 
Minimum Requirements: TRS-80'" (Mod 1 or III), Level II, 48K, one disk. Auto- 
answer modem. ST80-X10 Host Program ($50), RS232-C. 

Model I or III '. . $100.00 



MouseNet™ - Advanced Bulletin Board System 

Designed to accommodate high volume traffic, to operate simply enough for 
novice users, yet is fast and powerful enough for experienced callers. 
Features Include: Messages stored on disk in keyed file • Uses machine 
language subroutines for speed • Supports text editing commands • Help 
commands guide user • System bulletins display each time a user logs on • All 
messages are dated. 

Minimum Requirements: TRS-80'" (Mod 1 or III), 48K, RS232-C. 3 Disks. Auto- 
answer modem, text editor (such as Scripsit). 

Model I or HI $295.00 



DELUXE PERSONAL FINANCE For TRS-80" Model II 

This is a sophisticated and unique financial analysis package which can be 
readily customized to suit your personal financial situation. It will: 

• Accept and apply transactions to user-formatted budget categories. 

• Separate cash and check disbursements. 

• Allows up to ten category disbursements per check. 

• Credit income/deposits according to source. 

• Search, correct or void checks. 



• Maintain an accurate checking account balance. 

• Cancel returned checks. 

• Provide monthly summaries of income vs. expenses. 

• Calculate profit/loss. 

• Summarize data by categories. 

• Provides up to ten savings account summaries. 

Model II 

Model I Version 



$75.00 
$35.00 



ACCESSIBILITY 

We are here to serve your after-purchase needs. You can read our Monthly 
Newsletter containing current information about SBSG's products. Our News- 
letter is free to our customers and is available at a minimal cost to anyone 
interested in Microcomputers or call SBSG directly for Programming and 



Accounting Support. We have 8 incoming lines or call our COMM: Micronet 
Bulletin Board: ID * 70319236; FORUM-80'": (617) 692-3973; MouseNet'": 
(617) 692-8121; The Source: TCC 413. 



H & E COMPUTRONICS Gives A 30-Day Money Back Guarantee On All SBSG Products 



DEALER INQUIRIES ONLY: 



6 CARLISLE ROAD 

WESTFORD, MASS. 01886-5762 

(617) 692-3800 



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GROUP 



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APt^CflTCNS SC»^C£ 



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SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



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> All orders processed within 24 hours 
• 30-Day money back guarantee 

(Diskette seal must not be broken) 
• Add $3.00 for shipping in UPS Areas 

• Add ?>! 00 loi C O D oi NON-UPS Areas 
■ Add 55 00 to Canada or Mexico 
• Add exact postage to all other countries 




• Each Module Can Be Operated Individually Or As A Completely Coordinated System. 

• Turn-Key Error Catching Operation For Beginners. 

• Each Module Is Accompanied By More Than 100 Pages Of Step-By-Step Documentation. 

• Manuals Available Separately. ($50 each) • Complete Sample Report Listings ($10) 

$195 Per Module (Model I or Model III TRSDOS Version) 

$295 Per Module (Model II TRSDOS Version) 

$495 Per Module (Model II Peachtree CP/M Version) 



BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 



GENERAL LEDGER 

Processes 

* Flexible design allows system to be easily adapted to both small business- 
es and also to firms performing client writeup services. 

* Add, change or delete records within the Chart of Accounts (Master) File. 

* List the Chart of Accounts File. 

* Key in transactions into the Transactions (Journal Entries) File. 

* List the Transactions File. 

* If other Peachtree Software packages are present, pass summary trans- 
actions from these packages to the General Ledger at the end of the 
accounting period. 

* At the end of an accounting period, print out the major reports. 

(1) Trial Balance (Detail Report) 

(2) Transaction Registers 

(3) Balance Sheet 

(4) Prior Year Comparative Balance Sheet 

(5) Income Statement 

(6) prior Yeai Comparative Income Statement 

(7) Department Income Statements 



File Information 

There are two main computer files maintained within the General Ledger 
System 

(1) The of Accounts !: iie 

Account Number 

Description 

Account rype 

Balance Sheet Column Code 

Current Amount 

Year-To-Date Amount 

Budget Amount 

Prior Year Monthly Amounts 

(2) The Transactions File 

Account Number 

Description 
Source Code 

Reference 

Date 

Amount 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Processes 

• Add, change or delete records within the Customer File. 

* List the entire Customer File, or any Customer within the File 

* Enter invoices, payments, credits and ad|ustments. 

• Prepare invoices and statements. 

• Produce the following reports: 

(1) Aged Accounts Receivable 

(2) Invoice Register 

(3) Payment. Credit and Adjustment Register 

(4) Customer Account Status Report 

* At the end of a month, post the following items to the General Ledger: 

(1) Invoiced Sales 

(2) Freight Charges 

(3) Sales ""ax 

(4) Service Charge Income 

(5) Cash Payments 

(6) Discounts Allowed 

(7) Returns/Credits 

(8) Income Adjustments 

(9) Accounts Receivable 
File Information 

There are three main computer files maintained within the Accounts Receiva- 
ble System, the Customer File, the Invoice File, and the Transaction File. 
CUSTOMER FILE 

Customer Account Number 

Customer Name 

Address 

Phone 

Type of Account 

Credit Terms 

Credit Limit 

Tax Rate 

Discount Rate 

Date of Last Credit 

Date of Last Debit 

Amount of Last Credit 

Amount of Las; Debit 

Current Balance 

High Balance 

Year-To-Date Sales 

Year-To-Date Payments 

Automatic Billing Amount 



INVOICE FILE 

Invoice Number 
Invoice Date 
Invoice Amount 
Credit Terms 

TRANSACTION FILE 
Transaction Type 
Transaction Date 
Transaction Amount 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Processes 

* Add, change or delete records within the Vendor File. 

* List the Vendor File. 

* Enter vouchers. 

* Automatically determine which vouchers to pay. 

* Print checks and a Check Register. 

* Produce the following reports: 

(1) Open Voucher Report. 

(2) Accounts Payable Ageing Report. 

(3) Cash Requirements. 

* At the end of a month, prepare the General Ledger Transfer File, passing 
the following information for each debit or credit transaction: 

(1) Account Number 

(2) Description 

(3) Source Code 

(4) Date 

(5) Amount 

File Information 

There are two main computer files maintained within the Accounts Payable 
System, the Vendor File and the Voucher File. 
VENDOR FILE 

Vendor Code 

Vendor Name 

Address 

Phone 

Year-To-Date Purchases 

Year-To-Date Payments 

Current Balance 

Last Payment 

Date of Last Payment 

Monthly Entry Flag 

Due Date of Month 

Debit Account Number 

Amount (Debit) 

Month Last Paid 
This file may also contain information to enable generation of automatic 
vouchers for those items such as rent or bank payments that are paid every month. 

VOUCHER FILE 

Voucher Code 
Voucher Date 
Amount Due 
Date Due 
Discount Percent 
Discount Amount 
Discount Date 
Invoice Number 
Invoice Date 
Status 
Plus up to six account number-amount fields for General Ledger account 
numbers to which the amount due is to be distributed. 



PAYROLL 

Processes 

• Add, change or delete records within the Employee File. 

• List the Employee File. 

• Modify the Tax Information Files. 

• At the end of a pay period - 

(1) Calculate Pay 

(2) Print Checks 

(3) Print Payroll Register 

• At the end of a month - 

(1) Print the monthly summary 

(2) Print the Unemployment Tax Report 

(3) Prepare the General Ledger Transfer File, passing the following 
information: 

Net Pay (Cash) 

Employee FICA Withheld 

Federal Tax Withheld 

Insurance Deductions 

Miscellaneous Dedutions 

State Tax Withheld 

Local Tax Withheld 
The gross pay for up to twenty payroll departments may also be 
passed to the General Ledger. 

• At the end of a quarter, print the 941A report information. 

• At the end of a year, print the W-2 forms. 

File Information 

There are two main computer files maintained within the Payroll System, the 
Employee Master File and the Tax File 
EMPLOYEE MASTER FILE 
Name 
Address 
Local Code 
State Code 
Marital Status 
Exemptions, Federal 
Exemptions, State 
Social Security Number 
Pay Period 
Pay Type 
Pay Rate _ 

Insurance Deduction 
Miscellaneous Deduction 
Date Employed 
Date Terminated 
Last Check Information 



Payroll (con't) 

And current, month-to-date, quarter-to-date and year-to-date totals for: 
Regular Earnings 
Overtime Hours/Earnings 
Other Hours Rate/Earnings 
Commission Earnings 
Miscellaneous Income 
FICA Deductions 
Federal Deductions 
State Deductions 
Local Deductions 
Insurance Deductions 
Miscellaneous Deductions 

TAX FILE 

(for single and married persons) 

Federal Tax Information Tables 

State Tax Information Tables 

Local Withholding Tax Information Tables 



INVENTORY SYSTEM 

Inventory is probably the most speculative of all of a company's assets. A true 
measure of the effectiveness of management is the ability with which it supervises 
the inventory control function. 

The Peachtree Software™ Inventory Management System is designed to (1) 
give you better merchandise control, (2) allow you to lower your dollar investment 
in inventory, and (3) improve customer service and response. 

The System maintains detailed information on each inventory item including 
the part number, description, unit of measure, vendor and reorder data, item 
activity, and complete information on current item costs, pricing, and sales. 
Transactions effecting inventory (sales, receipts, adjustments) may be applied at 
any time to insure the inventory data is always up to date and accurate. 

As with all Peachtree products, the system is interactive, simple to operate, 
and provides reports that are up to date and comprehensive. 

Particular features of the Peachtree Software'" Inventory Management 
System include: 

• Interactive, menu-driven programs 

• Self-instructing user documentation 

• Long item number - up to 15 characters 

• Departmentalizing of items 

• Multiple pricing levels 

• Processes items on reserve (committed but still in stock) 

• Online item query at any time 

• Comprehensive management reporting 

• Automatic month end file backup 

• Recovery routines for hardware failures 

• Sample data for demonstration and training 

How the System is Designed 

The Inventory Management System operates with an Inventory Master File 
which allows for the creation of each inventory item and for the recording of 
transactions (sales, receipts, returns, reserves, and adjustments; to each inven- 
tory item. 

The Inventory Master File contains the item number, description and various 
other data on item costs, prices, reorder levels, vendor refereence, and activity. The 
items within the Master File are entered, changed, deleted, and queried through 
the Inventory Master File Maintenance program. All data on all items may be listed 
by using the Detail Inventory Report program. 

Transactions may be applied at any time to the Master File through the Enter 
Inventory Transactions program. An Update Report automatically prints during 
this entry process to provide an audit trail of all inventory acitivity. 

Several reports are available for the maintaining of stock, analysis, and fore- 
casting. These reports include the Physical Inventory Worksheet, Inventory Price 
List, Departmental Summary Report, Inventory Status Report, the Reorder Report 
and the Period-to-Date and Year-to-Date reports. 

At the end of an accounting period (usually a month), and then again at the 
end of a year, the End of Period Processing program is run to update current 
balances and clear previous balances. 




50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 





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ORDER LINE 

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» EVERYTHING 

And All Microsoft BASIC Compn 



TRS-80 is a trademark ol the Radio Shack Divis on ot Tandy Corp 

■■■■■■■■■I^HBaUMMaMUlte^tfiHHHHMii 



. *• 4«4aBBmBBMM 



f/ 




f 






& EASIC 



E H 



Written For TRS-80 and All Computers Using MICROSOFT basic 

FINALLY IT IS HE: RE* At last someone wrote a book on disk random 
aooess and file handling. X book written for the non-profirammer. 
Written for the businesman and professional who need to solve and 
write special programs for in house business problems. 

Written for the hobbyist who wants to go beyond the cassette recorder and into disk storage and file 

manipulation. 

This book handles a subject of reasonable complexity, so simple and down to earth, that anyone 

with some Level II experience can cope with the material. 

This book is written using a simple program as a starting point. The programs grow in ability and 
complexity as the book progresses into the various aspects of file handling and record manipula- 
tion. Extensive effort has been made to keep the material coherent and every program line is 
explained in detail. 

The programming material presented in this 150 page self-instruction tutorial will provide any non- 
programmer with the ability to write special programs for inventories, mailing list, work scheduling, 
record keeping, research project data manipulation, etc. The subjects covered in this edition are as 

follows 



(A) The writing of a Menu to summarize program functions. 

(B) The writing of a screen format to accept record data. 

(C) The creation of the basic record. 

(D) The Fielding and LSET routines for buffer preparation. 

(E) The writing of the record to disk in a Random Access mode. 

(F) The retrieval of a record from disk in a Random Access mode. 

(G) The ability to change or edit a record. 

(H) The LPRINT capability from disk using three different formats. 

(I) Deleting a record from a Random file. 

(J) Sorting the Random file. 

(K) Searching the Random file by name or other keyfield 

(L) The ability to search in a "NEXT or PRIOR" fashion. 

(M) The ability to purge a disk file from deleted records. 

(N) The ability to calculate with data from a disk file. 

(O) The provision for future expansion of the data fields. 

(P) The use of flags to prevent program crashes. 

(Q) Date setting, printer on-line, arid many other routines that 
make a program run like a commercial written program. 

D.S.C., Publishing, Div. of, 
D.S.C., INCORPORATED. 



"ȣ$&* 

8S&& 



ICQIYlPJTRQNICSi 

MATMB-AA* K*Al A*>« K.A r < t f- * 4 **/* t 

50 N. PASCACK ROAD 

SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

* ADD S3 00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

* ADD S4 00 FOR COD OR NON-UPS AREAS 

* ADD $5 00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

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^. -,^-~m-v ,i.*a«— -— — — — ^— 




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& BASIC FILE HANDLING $24.50 

Optional Program Disk MOD I or III Add $28.50 

Optional Program Disk MOD II Add $32.50 



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ft™ Pi 



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Announces • 



■:&.,,„ 




s 





(480 pages - Soft Cover) 



The BASIC Handbook has never been this complete. The Expanded 
Second Edition gives you over twice as much information as the First 
Edition, explaining nearly 500 BASIC words. The Handbook features 
special sections on Disk BASIC, TRS-80 Extended Color BASIC, Atari 
BASIC, Acorn Atom BASIC, Tektronix BASIC and "Converting Pro- 
grams From One Computer For Another." 

The computer industry has experienced tremendous change in the last 
three years. Hundreds of new computers have been introduced since 
The BASIC Handbook was released in 1978. The Second Edition meets 
the challenge head-on, documenting every significant BASIC word 
used by every BASIC-speaking computer. 

This new Edition makes program conversion easy. Its widely acclaimed 
feature, "If Your Computer Doesn't Have It" has been expanded. Each 
BASIC word is alphabetically listed, with Test Programs and Sample 
Runs, Variations in Usage combine with Alternate Spellings to totally 
cross-reference each BASIC word. 

Who needs the BASIC Handbook? 

Every user of the BASIC language needs the Handbook! Hobbyists 
converting between BASIC "dialects" need it. Students learning and 
using BASIC on any size computer need the Handbook as a supplement 
to their BASIC language text. Programmers at every level will use it con- 
stantly to find better ways to achieve the needed results. 



An Encyclopedia of the BASIC computer language. 
by Dr. David A. Lien 

What versions of BASIC does it cover? 

There are nearly a hundred versions of BASIC in use today. No wonder 
we keep seeing strange new BASIC words. Dr. Lien has selected over 50 
of the most used dialects and explained every commonly used state- 
ment, function, operator and command. 

Interlocking subroutines: Every subroutine has been constructed so the 
numbers won't overlap with others in the book. Assembleany combina- 
tion of the subroutines needed to do the job — with no line conflicts! 

Alternate programming techniques: The popular If Your Computer 
Doesn't Have It" feature has been expanded throughout the book. 

Complete Index: The increased complexity of the language mandated 
that an index be added. 

"Converting Programs From One Computer For Another" This special 
section provides valuable tips on how to translate a program with a 
"foreign" BASIC to run on your machine. 

Foreign computers: Virtually every BASIC-speaking computer in the 
world is covered. You need the new Handbook to translate BASIC 
words used by Britain's Sinclair, Sweden's ABC-80, Australia's System 
80, Japan's NEC and many others. 

Plus these Special Sections 

• Disk BASIC: A helpful supplement to your Owner's Manual and a 
good introduction to the theory of Disk BASIC 

• TRS-80 Extended Color BASIC: A comprehensive explanation of 
Radio Shack's newest BASIC. 

• Atari BASIC: You see programs written in this popular BASIC in 
nearly all the magazines. A special section explains its unique 
words and features. 

k Acorn Atom BASIC: The Atom is one of Europe's favorites, but 
its BASIC is very different. It's fully documented in this Second 
Edition. 

*• Tektronix BASIC: A graphics-oriented BASIC used extensively 
by engineers and scientists. 

Covers These Computers: 

• TRS-80 (all models) •